Zhu et al. (2008) suggest that there are external and internal factors for companies that form the embracement of a sustainable SCM. External factors consist of investors and competition. The external factors focus on having stricter environmental regulations, increased community and consumer pressures and manufacturers need to effectively integrate environmental interests into their supply chain tactic (Zhu et al, 2008). However, Hervani et al (2005) discuss the importance of implementing GSCM by demonstrating the integrating approach. According to them, suppliers can be a significant source of augmented expertise for fundamental environmental improvement.
Consequently, the discussions of Zhu (2008) and Hervani (2005) are compatible with each other since they are discussing the same area where the external factors have a positive and a big impact on the company although they both assumed different factors, they both reached the same conclusion.
On the contrary, the internal factor affecting the GSCM and then the performance of organizations results from top management’s insight. The management’s opportunities lead to the reduction of emission and costs since it focuses on eliminating waste and energy.
2.4.2 GSCM practice affecting the economic performance:
Thinking green is important not only in the supply chain management as the research done by Ben-Gal et al (2007) stated. Therefore, the usefulness of supply chain management would exceed the expectancies if it applies thinking green in its concept. Green supply chain does not only affect supply chain, but it would also reflect its better outcome in all areas it works in such as; transportation, marketing, energy consumption, etc. It would reduce the transportation pollution, recycle the scrap metal and energy conservation, and decrease marketing costs by having enhanced public relations, enhanced brand image, and increased customer loyalty (Ben-Gal et al 2007). Besides, Rao and Holt (2005) have discussed the use of GSCP and concluded that GSCM in alliance with the environmental management will effect the economic status of the firms and therefore its competitors. However, another researches discuss the opposite outcome, which would result in a negative impact on the firm. According to Henri and Journeault (2010), the economic attainment of the organizations contributing in the eco-control movement as compliance with internal and external processes positing and resulting in significant limitations and boundaries to the opportunistic performance in additional to added operational costs. To illustrate their assumption, shortage of external GSCM practices might truly affect the performance by reducing the long-term sustainability of operational gains for internal productivity and profitability. Lack of management support and resources especially internally can be the cause of not having the financial benefit in this correlation.
Zhu, Sarkis, and Lai (2012) reviewed how internal economic strategy totally mediates the connection between green purchasing and economic performance. Customer collaboration mediates relationships between all the internal GSCM practices and economic performance. Investment retrieval mediates the relationship between eco-design and economic performance. Hence, manufacturing initiatives should be aware to the complication and difficulty of organizing and managing internal and external GSCM practices if they seek economic benefit from practice enforcement. In order to develop and get better outcomes of the economic performance through eco-design efforts, firms need to implement green purchasing and strong internal financial motivation strategies.
2.4.3 GSCM practice and operational performance:
Internal GSCM practices such as combined environmental management techniques and staff contribution can develop operational performance (Hanna et al, 2000). A less costly, safe, higher and more consistent quality product are the result of manufacturing a product using environmentally friendly systems. Eco-design has the possibility to expand and develop operational performance only in the circumstance of green purchasing is the habitation (Sloan, Legrand and Chen, 2013). An internal financial strategy can develop operational performance, and implementing by customer cooperation high levels of improvement can be achieved with higher satisfaction and general outcomes affecting all areas associated (Tan et al., 1999).
2.4.4 GSCM practice affecting the environmental performance:
There is a clear implication of the internal factors that actually have a significant effect on the performance of the external factors. For example, green purchasing and investment recovery are important for manufacturers to help improve their environmental performance, where both green purchasing and investment recovery are considered as an internal factor of implementing GSCM (Zhu and Sarkis, 2004). According to Zhu, Sarkis, and Lai (2012), the relationship between customer cooperation and environmental performance is mediated partly by only the internal financial policy. As a result of the findings of their article, the role of internal GSCM practices in improving environmental performance through external GSCM practices should not be abandoned.
Mishra, Kumar, and Chan (2012) looked at the relationship between the GSCM and the environmental performance from another perspective. Their research identified several solutions that should be noticed in order to overcome the recent issues related to the environment when applying the GSCM concept. The problems addressed by their research were associated with product recycling and reusability of waste products, in addition to the problems related to logistics. The research included multi-agent architecture framework. A multi-agent systems have been known as “societies of agents”, that cooperate together to organize their behaviour and frequently collaborate to accomplish shared aim (Giorgini, Müller and Odell, 2004). The framework contains a number of autonomous agents, such as the reverse logistics agent, the recycling agent and the distribution agent. The role of each agent is to be responsible for managing a specific job related to green supply chain management and constantly exchanges information with other agents to successfully organize different activities.
Both researches discuss the performance of the environment in relation with the GSCM. The discussion of each research undertakes different segments where the research by Zhu, Sarkis, and Lai (2012) focuses on the internal factors implemented by GSCM affecting the environmental performance. While Mishra, Kumar, and Chan (2012) states that concentrating on the issues that resulted from applying the new concept of GSCM is the main object and finding the right solutions to it is necessary to get the best result that affects the environment’s performance.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology:
This section describes and evaluates the design method used in the research project to gather relevant information, whilst also examining the techniques used to collect primary as well as secondary data to give the project reliability and validity. Due to the nature of the area of study being investigated the main focus within this research project was that of qualitative data rather than quantitative, this is because the research is really trying to investigate and analyse specific approaches and methods that different retail companies employ. Therefore, the results of the research relate mainly, but not entirely to descriptive data.
3.1 Nature of Research Study:
The research study is using the qualitative approaches where theoretical data is included along with the statistical data. Nevertheless, research study is greatly relying on the qualitative data. The project follows a strategy of conducting a literature review to support the main theoretical concepts of the research. In order to achieve the purpose of the project, a critical analysis of a retail company assists the study.
3.2 Research Question and Objectives:
3.2.1 Research Question:
Investigate how effective are CSR practices in achieving better performance in the retail industry; a case study of Tesco plc.
3.2.2 Research Objectives:
The research study has been accompanied by following research objectives:
• To provide a contextual framework by reviewing the literature on the topic’s background.
• To investigate and identify the effectiveness of CSR in the economic, social, and environmental aspects.
• To identify Tesco’s current vision, aim, strategy, and actions.
• To analyse how effective are their CSR practices by comparing their performance throughout the years.
• To determine how CSR contribute to the company’s success.
3.3 Scope and limitation:
The scope of the research project is to investigate how CSR practices plays an important role in the success of a company by studying a company in the retail industry. The research looks at Tesco which is a huge retailer operating in the UK and internationally. To study and analyse the CSR practices and performance of a retail company to demonstrate how CSR contribute to the company’s success. The main target of the project is to investigate recent data as well as historical data to be able to determine the areas of improvements when implementing the CSR practices in the three main aspects which are social, environmental, and economic qualities. Based on the current performance of the company, the project presents the company’s willingness to continue developing their CSR practices or focus on another goals. This gives an overview of the company’s success after incorporating CSR activities.
A main challenge encountered while working on the research project is that much information could be found in each section investigated on how Tesco apply CSR practices in their operations but the difficulties of the company were hard to allocate. This could be considered as a limitation that would have been resolved if the company agreed on providing further data which was not applicable by the researcher. Besides, analysing the performance is a challenging stage since answering the research question requires descriptive qualitative data. However, examining the data in a measurable form required the evaluation of quantitative data to demonstrate the effectiveness of CSR which is the initial aim of the project.
3.4 Data Sources:
3.4.1 Primary Sources:
Primary data about Tesco is provided from the company’s official website and annual reports where they provided accurate and up-to-date data about their performance in addition to previous years reports. The gathered data indicates the current projects that Tesco is working on in the three main aspects which are social, environmental, and economical aspects. The key reason behind using this data was to provide qualitative as well as quantitative measurements of the Tesco’s actions is the different aspects and examine how it contribute toward its success in the social responsible and financial performance.
3.4.2 Secondary Sources:
Secondary data has been collected and reviewed about the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility together with CSR in Supply Chain. It has been useful for the literature review that was produced in order to have an overview of the concept of CSR and the application of CSR in supply chain management emphasizing on the green supply chain management. Secondary data allows an understanding of the effectiveness of CSR activities and how it contribute in achieving the goals of the company. This will assist in evaluating and analysing the performance of the company chosen and consequently highlighted the threats that led to the undesirable uncertainties.
Data collected from articles and websites provided an indication of definite qualitative data that is appropriate to the research. The secondary data that have been collected are taken from the premium academic databases, which include Emerald Insight, Scopus and ProQuest Central. Secondary research is effective because several journals such as International Journal of Production Economics, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Journal of Economics & Management, journal of Business Ethics, etc. are available with the discussion of a variety of aspects in the topic searched. Thus, there was no limitation or scarcity to find data. Consequently, the topic can be examined well by studying the assumptions suggested in the collected publications.
Chapter 4: A Case Study: Tesco
4.1 Company Overview:
Tesco is the UK’s largest food and grocery retailer. It functions retail stores that offer a range of merchandise including food and grocery, personal, home and kitchen, fashion and accessories. The company operates in Europe and Asia. It is headquartered in the UK, and employs over 480,000 people in 11 countries. Tesco recorded £69.7bn during the financial year ended 2015 (Tesco, 2015).
Tesco discusses that CSR is a fundamental segment of the company’s overall corporate authority structure and it is entirely incorporated in the management structures and procedures. Tesco’s internal operative team of senior managers offers leadership on CSR as it produces an annual Corporate Responsibility Review which is used mainly to communicate CSR procedures and performance (Tesco, 2015).
Acknowledgment that the further discussion is presented from Tesco. This is the best that the research could get since it is the most reliable source to use for the analysis. Therefore, it is not as persuasive as it could be if the data are from an independent source. The claims that are made may not be impartial.
4.2 Social Performance:
The mission that Tesco is working to accomplish is to provide customers with better quality of life and an easier way of living. Continuous actions toward attaining the mission includes offering quality at convenient prices, places, and times (Tesco, 2015).
The strategy that Tesco is implementing have changed to be more engaged with their customers, colleagues and shareholders to be able to achieve better results in all sectors that could be improved affecting the society, business, and employees. Since the commercial income issue corresponded with the trust of customers and other participants, that created a huge challenge for Tesco to handle which have led them to change their strategy to be more cooperating with any individual related to the business. Earning the trust of customers and stakeholders is crucial to Tesco which they have planned to build and maintain by several commitments that concentrate mainly on improving health, creating new opportunities for young people, trading responsibly, supporting local communities, and the management of employees (Tesco, 2015).
4.2.1 Improving health:
The following initiatives for improving health are taken from (Tesco plc, 2016). Helping customers by making it easy and convenient to live a better healthier life is a key area of innovation for Tesco. Creating Healthy Little Differences Tracker helps Tesco to understand what their customers are purchasing and the nutritional content of their preferences and therefore leads them to the right strategy. Consequently, Tesco were able to make healthy changes in the products, achieving that by reducing the amount of salt, fat, saturated fat and sugar. An illustration to the success they have attained in this field is the reduction of salt in soft drinks which resulted in eliminating 3.6 billion calories up to date. As a result, comparing to the consumption of 2011, Tesco’s average customers in the UK are purchasing 20% less sugar in soft drinks. As well as taking off 9.6 billion calories, 302 tones of saturated fat and 15 tones of salt from their own labelled products. Based on Tesco (2015), Tesco have worked with their customers to design new range of healthier choices to be found at checkouts to replace sweets and chocolates.
Introducing the Tesco Eat Happy Project in 2014, 1 million children have been contributing which allowed Tesco to help children to know more about where the food is coming from and to obtain the skills to get more engaged in home cooking through the Let’s Cook courses and Farm to Fork Trails. This campaign will allow children to learn better habits of choosing healthier options as well as being aware of caring about the environment (Tesco, 2015).
In 2015, Tesco announced their National Charity Partnership where they have collaborated with Diabetes UK and the British Heart Foundation. Their aim in the next three years is to to raise £30 million. The collaboration with Diabetes UK allowed them to raise £18 million for this charity (Tesco, 2015).
4.2.2 Creating new opportunities:
Tesco states that it is responsible to support and give the opportunity to young people through their conversion from the learning level to employment. Specially because the unemployment of young people globally is 74 million due to the lack of information, skills and opportunities that prevent them from starting a successful job. Tesco’s approach is to assist young people learn the needed skills to start and succeed in any career of interest. Starting from knowing how to provide the best support to young people, Tesco established the Young People’s Panels in Europe and UK. This establishment helps them to provide the suitable guidance and support (Tesco plc (2016) is the source for all the information in this paragraph).
Furthermore, according to Tesco plc (2016), Launch Program works with Trust in the UK and Positive2Work in Ireland. It is targeting young people in areas with high levels of unemployment, hence, it intends to provide work placements and training programs to at least 500 unemployed young people in the next two years. The program offers a four-week program that enables members to gain Level 2 Food Safety & Hygiene national qualification, department-specific training, employability skills and six months of support after the program finishes. The program provides young people between 18 and 24 with the opportunity to gain experience and employability skills at Tesco that will assist them to earn a job. Besides, benefiting participants who finishes the program, an opportunity of employment will be provided for half of the participants. To-date, 269 participants who completed the program have secured a job at Tesco.
Partnering with Remploy and Shaw Trust in the UK who assist Tesco in acquiring skilled and committed individuals with disabilities to get a job at Tesco. As well as partnering with the British mobility charity, Whizz-Kidz, Tesco offers a job experience program for disabled children (Tesco, 2015).
As it is important to employ skilled and qualified people, Tesco initiated the Tesco Youth Academy throughout many of their markets in Europe and Asia. This academy gives young people the right preparation for a job and the needed skills such as communication, teamwork, motivation and resilience (Tesco, 2015).
4.2.3 Management of employees:
Since Tesco positions its employees as its most important asset, it is essential for Tesco to provide a positive working environment with all the support needed to their colleagues by creating opportunities that includes training programs and development. From a Human Resources perspective, as referred by Becker, Huselid and Ulrich (2001), employing a strategic management system that considers the importance of recruiting the right talents to the suitable positions, providing effective training programmes to the employees, and communicating well with the staff will not only benefit the employees but will also have a huge impact on the company’s efficiency which will lead to better business performance and consequently raise in profits. The motivation scheme, recognition, and the relationship between the staff and management drives the staff turnover to be low which will lead to employees’ satisfaction and better productivity (Truelove, 1995).
• Engagement and communication:
As mentioned by Tesco plc (2016), Tesco’s approach emphasizes on supporting their colleagues through many schemes. Although Tesco has been restructuring their business, this have created a difficulty to provide the stable workplace for the employees. Even though restructuring the whole business require a lot of work and more effort, this didn’t prevent Tesco from communicating with the employees, however, the employees were informed about any change or challenge that occurs within the business in addition to the training courses that helps staff to improve their skills, recognize the organization’s strategies, and expand their knowledge. According to Burnes (1996), a change in the organization is essential for its growth and without change, the business usually die. Nonetheless, the key to success is the way to manage the change and engaging the staff is a crucial point of consideration. Managing change requires focus, persistence and honesty.
• Health and Safety:
Health and Safety matters to Tesco as their strategy accounts for people safety risk management that is led by the Chief Executive and managed by professionals to ensure safety and avoid incidents. Likewise, fire safety engineering throughout Tesco is provided by experts. In 2014, the UK Tesco received a Silver award in the RoSPA International Safety Awards for Health and Safety Management. Tesco intends to implement the high standards health and safety management in all their markets in Europe and Asia (Health and Safety, 2015).
• Reward and Retirement:
Accepting the importance of motivation, Tesco rewards its staff for their outstanding performance and their effort in order to motivate them. The reward system comprises annual bonus, share incentives, and becoming a shareholder. Besides, in the UK, a retirement savings scheme that offers valuable life insurance for all employees of all ages is available. At retirement, employees will be able to choose the most suitable way to take and enjoy their savings (Tesco, 2015).
4.2.4 Trading responsibly:
The main initiative of Tesco is to buy and sell products responsibly. Since Tesco is operating in the retail industry, a huge share of their performance depend on their suppliers. Trying to perform well makes it essential to build trust between Tesco and their suppliers and to be trading responsibly with suppliers especially when it is crucial for Tesco to be a responsible business. The relationship that Tesco has been building depends on a strong, open, and honest partnership with their suppliers who have common capabilities, which are simple, rational, exposed and visible. This will enable Tesco to focus on satisfying their customer and create value to offer. According to Tesco (2015), the initiative of Tesco can be accomplished by changing the target from aiming to achieve high profit objectives across back margin to concentrating on creating value for customers. In addition to changing the trading system that used to depend on short-term sales targets and instead focus on a simpler and more long-term purchasing standards by having a strong relationship with suppliers that will lead to a better result in accomplishing what the customer wants. The last approach that Tesco will be altering is re-introducing the code of business conduct that will affect the way it deals with suppliers and will also re-train its staff to be updated by the new objectives and the way it is willing to achieve its targets. Tesco’s change in their strategy and performance depends on a range of plans on sustainable sourcing, ethical trading and prioritizing their customers (Tesco plc, 2016).
• Ethical trading approach:
Tesco was one of the first retailers to encourage Fairtrade following where it first started in 1994. Tesco provides a variety of Fairtrade products that includes tea, coffee, chocolate and oranges. Tesco is supporting and assisting its supplier to be working in a good working condition by including technical and ethical experts where they accomplished good results. In 2013 Tesco was the first retailer to be a direct participant of the Ethical Tea Partnership and in September 2014, it assisted to begin an innovative partnership between UNICEF, The Ethical Tea Partnership and other companies to support stop child exploitation in Assam’s tea-producing neighbourhoods. Moreover, in Ecuador aiming to benefit labours, Tesco have participated by $1million in 2014 for social projects (Tesco, 2015).
Tesco have clarified that their customers are their priority. Due to that reason, it is vital to provide them with what they need either the products of their choice or being honest by providing the right and clear information about the products they offer. Following this strategy, Tesco respects that some of their customers do not prefer any product with Genetic Modification since it is a technology used to crop plants with specific descriptions. Tesco do not allow the use of GM materials in their own branded products. Any non-Tesco branded goods which contain GM element are clearly identified in accordance with EU law so customers can base their choices upon clear information. All Tesco’s own-brand organic products are fed on non-GM feed. However, Tesco allows their suppliers to use GM feed in producing the non-organic meat, eggs and milk (Tesco, 2015).
Working closely with suppliers to have better control over the safety and quality of the products is Tesco’s initiative. This close relationship will allow an agile response to changing technology and have better control in mitigating risks. In favour of assuring the fulfilment of standards, Tesco perform a detailed site assessment which includes a complete chemical and microbiological, nutritional and shelf life trials, undertake factory production trials, authenticity testing, contaminants testing, and quality testing on a regular basis. Moreover, Tesco also preserve the safety and quality of the products throughout the distribution process and until it is purchased by customers. An induction and an ongoing training program is provided for the staff as part of the safety management system to confirm the understanding of the importance of food safety and hygiene. Tesco also considers the importance of managing the cleanliness of the stores and equipment (Tesco, 2014).
Apart from caring about the safety and quality of the products provided to customers, animal welfare is one of Tesco’s important approaches. In achieving its goals in this field, Tesco have formed animal welfare policy that includes animal testing, farmed animals used in food or non-food products and the sale of pets, other live animals, and pet accessories. Furthermore, Tesco does not perform any experiments on animals for any pharmaceutical, cosmetic or household products. Yet, for food safety reasons, animal testing is necessary by law which leads to obeying the law but only under regulations. Tesco’s methodology is advised by Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) which requires freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom from pain, injury, or disease, freedom to express normal behaviour, and freedom from fear and distress for farmed animals and pets (Tesco, 2015).
In the last 12 months, in the UK, 695 audits have been carried out on farms, 160 on slaughter houses and 97 on hatcheries. Audits are to verify the effective function of their codes of practice. Farms with high risks get an audit every three months where farms with low risk get an audit every eighteen months. As a global corporation running in several markets, Tesco is dedicated to appraising its procedures and performance, contributing to improving industry values and assisting its farming and supply chain partners to constantly develop animal welfare results (Tesco, 2015).
• Sustainable sourcing and simplifying supply chains:
Tesco’s supply chain is huge, requiring management skills and good relationship with suppliers to eliminate any negative impact of production and overall success of corporation. Tesco is aiming to simplify its supply chain by making better connections with its suppliers who consist of farmers, growers, and fishermen. The new strategy of Tesco targets the satisfaction of customers at first that also includes their trust and loyalty. Due to that reason, Tesco aims to offer excellent quality meat at a reasonable value. In order to accomplish this objective, Tesco have created a new supplier list that contracted 100% UK and Irish farmers to supply beef, chicken, eggs, and milk for all their fresh products. One of the significant changes Tesco is incorporating is creating a bond with suppliers and specially farmers. Being the pioneer retailer in taking this decision, Tesco offers two year direct contracts to the farmers where farmers are responding in a positive manner toward this decision aiming to ensure sustainable production and an environmentally friendly practices (Tesco, 2014).
Where guaranteeing the honesty and high performance of suppliers, Tesco strengthen the healthy relationship with their supplier by having longer term contracts. The partnership with Hilton is a clear illustration to the strong relationship which has been reinforced to a five-year contract allowing better decisions to take place because of the higher trust shared. Better and more effective decisions can be formed of new investments internationally which provides fresh products of Pork, Beef, and Lamb and consequently resulting in better performance (Tesco, 2014).
On the other hand, Tesco supplies the corned beef from Brazil. However, supplying from Brazil does not prevent Tesco from implementing their responsible actions. Therefore, Tesco considers social, economic, and environmental aspects when sourcing from Brazil. To guarantee that farms are not causing any further deforestation, using slave labour or encroaching on indigenous lands or conservation areas, in 2009 The Brazilian Cattle Agreement was created. This Agreement indicated a modification in monitoring the supply chains in the main beef companies in Brazil. In addition, external audits describing stages of geo-mapping of farms are issued yearly, which leads to having more assurance and clearness in Tesco’s supply chains (Tesco, 2014).
Tesco is considered as the largest fishmonger in the UK with over 600 counters. It is essential to Tesco to provide their fishmongers with a training program to develop their expertise of fish types that suits their standards and quality they would offer to their customers. Sourcing from responsible managed fishers is a key element in Tesco’s approach. Therefore, Tesco is applying a Responsible Seafood Sourcing Policy in corporation with their suppliers and the environmental charity the Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP), in order to evaluate the risk of wild fisheries and consequently create proposals on the applicable ways of improvement or ways to mitigate any possible risk. Additionally, Tesco contributes in the Global Good Agricultural Practice technical committee for aquaculture to identify global aquaculture values and try to develop it within the industry. As Tesco is concerned about protecting the marine environment, it supports the initiatives and activities that Marine Protection Areas are doing to benefit conservation efforts (Tesco, 2015).
• IT security and Data collection:
As Tesco expands its strategies to provide the most fascinating multichannel deal for customers, managing technology and data safety threats become more essential. The importance of this area increases since Tesco’s responsibility involves respecting the sensitivity and protecting their customers and colleague’s information, which is related to building the trust and loyalty between them. Tesco associates with law enforcement agencies and other business to detect possible threats to their records through illegal access (Tesco, 2014).
As it is important to provide a unique service to the customers to make their shopping easier, Tesco’s Clubcard continues to provide their loyal customers with the best offers, best prices and best deals. However, to guarantee to customers that all their personalized information is being protected, Tesco have created the Clubcard Customer Charter to explain how their personalized data that is recorded in their Clubcard is being used and safe with accordance to its privacy. Also, Tesco have worked with Get Safe Online who provides consumers with instructions to keep themselves secure against fraud, identity theft, viruses and other unsafe harms faced online (Tesco, 2014).
Working towards creating a business that is honest and protected from any misconduct, Tesco is encouraging its colleagues and suppliers to report any wrongdoing using a free professional, confidential and secure service. Providing a Protector Line which is a confidential telephone and email service that allows Tesco’s colleagues and suppliers to report their worries at primary levels to avoid any future risks (Tesco, 2014).
4.2.5 Supporting local communities
Being a responsible corporation, Tesco believes that it should contribute to the community it is part of. Due to that reason, it have been able to raise £18.6 million in partnership with Diabetes UK by the support of their customers and colleagues. In 2014, Tesco started a partnership with Diabetes UK and the British Heart Foundation aiming to raise £30 million to encourage healthy living (Tesco plc, 2016).
In 2007 Tesco first initiated its partnership with Red Cross which raised £4.7 million. This partnership allowed them to make corporate donations, in-store emergency bucket collections and colleague fundraising. Over the years, Tesco succeeded by the cooperation of their customers and colleagues to donate over £10 million to the Red Cross. The donation has supported emergencies in the UK aside with world widely. Their support has helped in the 2009 flooding in Cockermouth, the 2010 Southeast Asia Flooding Appeal, the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan Appeal, the 2014 Ebola Outbreak Appeal, and the 2015 Tunisian attack (Tesco plc, 2016).
Besides, Tesco started to charge their customers for carrier bags not to increase their profits but to fund projects that will make permanent enhancements to green spaces in UK communities (Tesco plc, 2016).
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