This chapter discusses the research design and methodology employed in the study. It begins with the introduction, which is followed by the research design which includes the participant selection, measuring instruments for data collection and data analysis. The chapter concludes the statistical techniques used for the data analysis. It discusses the procedures and methods used for data collection and analysis. It includes a description of the study organization, research design and the sampling procedure. Also discussed are the description of the methods and tools used for data collection as well as the field problems encountered and ethical considerations in this study of occupational health and safety in the petroleum industry and its impact on the environment.
3.1 Research Design:
The design of the study was based on a quantitative analysis approach using a methodology to determine the Occupational health and safety in petroleum industry using Brega petroleum marketing company as a case study. The independent variables ( the use of protective equipment, employee attitude towards the use of Personal protective equipment, organizational commitment to occupational health and safety, employee involvement in policy making on occupational health and safety), were measured to determine the relationship with the dependent variable (environmental effect).
3.2 Sampling Procedure and the Sample
A simple random sampling method was used in which everyone in the company was treated equally, and an equal chance of being chosen. Each respondent that participated in the study was chosen randomly and entirely by chance. The main criterion for participation was that you be an employee in the organization. According to Lenth (2001:187), the size of a sample must be adequate enough in order to get the right results. A very small sample size is a waste of resources and the results may be useless, in the same vein, an oversized sample size will utilize more resources than are available. In view of this, and also considering the budget constraints of the study, 152 questionnaires were administered. The tested sample was made up of males and females. The author was given permission by the general manager of the company to conduct the research work, and all enquiries and questionnaire administration were channeled through the Human Resource Managers office, the secretary helped with the questionnaire distribution, and the questionnaires were handed over to the author.
3.3 Sources of Data
In thThe study uses both secondary and primary sources of data. Secondary sources are data that already exists such as reports from previous research, official statistics, mass media products, diaries, letters, government reports, web information and historical data and information. Primary data, on the other hand, is the data collected by the researchers themselves. For example, interview, observation, action research, case studies, life histories, questionnaires, ethnographic research and longitudinal studies
3.3.1 Secondary Sources
Already documented information in the form of textbooks, journals, theses and dissertations were evaluated and used for the study as literature review. Relevant information from these sources was reviewed to ensure proper understanding of the subject of investigation. This allowed for comparison of ideas and findings of earlier researchers on the topic of investigation thereby enabling analysis of relevant variables in the present study. Thus, scholarly search engines were used to surf the internet for current information. Library reading was also conducted by the researcher
3.3.2 Primary Sources (Social Survey)
The primary source of data for this research is the social survey. It is a method of collecting data using a questionnaire or interview guide where many respondents answer the same questions. A survey measures many variables and infers temporal order from questions about past behavior experiences or characteristics (Neuman, 2000). The choice of social survey was made because the researcher was interested in finding out from a cross section of employee about their past behavior with regards to occupational health and safety practices at work. This was to enable the researcher determine which characteristics predisposed people to management of safety rules at the workplace and the impact of health and safety to the environment in the oil and gas industry.
3.4 Validity and Reliability of the Data Collection Tool
The questionnaire used for this study was adapted from earlier studies. The components of Occupational health and safety were adapted from Olorunniwo et al. (2006). According to them, the approach was similar to Parasuraman et al. (1994), and developed through the use of a series focus groups comprising of Management students in a United States based University. The occupational health and safety management components were adapted from Hadjimanolis A. & Boustras G. (2013). In developing the questions, The employee attitude and organizational commitment were adapted from Parejo-Moscoso, et al. (2013), The designed questionnaire was finalized before the survey was undertaken. A number of experts, such as academic scholars in the field of occupational health and safety management has used and confirmed the validity of the questionnaire
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