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Essay: Design considerations for enterprise software (using Netbeans)

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  • Design considerations for enterprise software (using Netbeans)
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Reasons for choice of language:

Organizational Policy:

“BAC IT” is an IT software development firm and its organizational policy confirms total intolerance to software piracy. Which is why the use of java language as it is free for use. It legalizes the software development process and also dramatically reduces the cost of ownership of the be spoken software that is being created.

Suitability and Features of the Tools:

For this project a popular development software Netbeans is being used. Netbeans is an open source IDE for Java coding. The Netbeans IDE supports various different types of java application, Java SE Java FX, Java ME, Web, EJB and mobile applications. Netbeans has a hugh array of tools for developing a software written in Java. Netbeans has three different working areas, workbench, workspace and the perspective which has customized views and settings. To identify and solve problems in your applications, such as deadlocks and memory leaks, NetBeans IDE provides a feature rich debugger and profiler. [..as reported by NetBeans IDE – Debugger and Profiler (2016)]

Availability of Trained Staff:

As the finished program’s layout will be customized for maximum simplicity and highest efficiency we are hoping the amount of staff training will be reduced to a minimal.

Reliability:

Java now-a-days is the foundation for every type of internet based and networked application and has achieved global standards for developing mobile applications, games, web-based contents and enterprise software. Java’s popularity and reliability has reached its highest as

• 97% of enterprise desktops run java.

• 89% of all personal computers run java.

• 3 billion Mobile devices run java.

• 125 million TV devices run java.

[….as reported by Learn about Java Technology (2016)]

Development and Maintenance cost:

As said before Netbeans and Java SDK is a free to use application development platform that does not require purchasing or maintenance cost. But there are some paid development platforms that are created for enterprise level software development with extended features and tools.

Expandability:

Being a highly popular development platform Java SDK and Editors are constantly updated for solving its security and compatibility issues. Based on this fact one can assume the java platform will be compatible even with the latest versions of operating systems.

Object Model

Inheritance:

Inheritance in object oriented programming can be defined as a fact as the behaviour and methods of a certain class having its similarity with other classes which can be called as sub classes of that class. Specifically, inheritance is when an object or class derives from or is similar to another object or class. For example, Mountain Bike, Road Bike and Tandem Bike which becomes the subclasses of the class Bicycle. Bicycle here is the superclass. In Java programming language each class is allowed to have one direct superclass and each superclass has the potential for an unlimited number of subclasses. (figure 1).

[..as reported by oracle (2016)]

Figure 1

Polymorphism:

The dictionary definition of polymorphism refers to a principal in which an organism or a species can have many different forms or stages. This principle can also be applied to object-oriented programming languages like the java language where the subclasses of a class can have the same functionality of the parent class and yet have diversities and unique behaviours.[…as reported by oracle (2016)]

Encapsulation:

Encapsulation in java is the mechanism of enclosing the variables and code together as a single unit. In encapsulation the data will be hidden from all other classes and can only be accessed through the methods of their current class. It is also known as data hiding. To encapsulate a class in java one has to declare the variable of a class as private.[..as reported by tutorialspoint (2016)]

Public and Private Classes:

Public and private are access modifiers. Writing public before a class makes that class authorised to be used by any class and is visible to any class inside and outside of the package. Declaring a class as private makes that class protected and the codes in the private class will not be visible to other code which isn’t in the same package. Simplifying it means that unless a class is declared public the class won’t be visible to other code which isn’t in the same package.[…as reported by javacoffeebreak (2016)]

Public and Private Methods:

Methods within the public class are the public methods and methods within the private class are the private methods.

Data Structures:

Public and Private instance variables:

Instance variables are variables declared in a class but outside a method. So instance variables in a public class are called public instance variables and instance variables in a private class are private instance variables. [….as reported by tutorialspoint (2016)]

Naming Conventions:

Java naming conventions are the set of rules or guidelines on how to name the identifiers such as class, package, variable, constants, methods etc. For example: (Figure 8) […as reported by javapoint (2016)]

(Figure 8)

Arrays:

Arrays are the container of data same as variables. Only difference is that, one can define the number of values/data an array can hold. An array with the same name can contain multiple values. Whereas certain variable with the declared name can hold only one value.

File Structure:

A java file contains Java Syntax, operators, expressions, statements and methods. A java file is the smallest unit of Java code that can be compiled by the Java compiler. A Java file consists of

• An optional package directive.

• Zero or more import directives.

• One or more class definitions.

These elements can be interspersed with comments but they must appear in order. In a Java file to compile correctly all statements must appear within methods, all methods must appear within a class definition. There are some other rules for a java file to run. For example

1. Java file must certain a public class in the package in order to run.

2. The name of the file and the name of the public class must be the same.

[…as reported by docstore.mik.ua (2016)]

Loops:

In programming a loop is a sequence of instruction that is continually repeated until a certain condition is reached. There are mainly three kinds of loops in Java.

• While loop.

• For loop.

• Do…While loop.

Based on execution condition there are two kinds of loop.

• Pre-condition loop/ pre-check loop: Checks the condition first then runs if the condition is met.

• Post-condition loop/ post-check loop: Checks the condition at the end of the loop after executing one time. If condition is false, the loop terminates.

Conditional Statement:

Like all other programming languages java is equipped with statements that allow us to define conditions and enables us to execute certain parts of code depending whether the condition is true or false. The two conditional statements are

• The if-else statement.

• The else-if statement.

Case Statements:

In the situation of multiple-choice selection, the case statements are used. Based on the switch expression the defined case statements are used. Based on the switch expression the defined case statement will execute.

Logical Operators:

Simply Logical operators are a way of expressing logic. Java’s logical operators are divided into two types.

• Relational operators.

• Conditional operators.

Relational Operator:

Relational operators are used to define relations among mathematical expression. These kind of statements are usually used in if statements, while loops and on occasion for for loops. (Figure2)

Figure 2

Conditional Logical Operators:

These type of logical operators are also called Boolean operators. They are like their relational logical operator counterparts. There are mainly three types of conditional logical operators. (Figure 3)

Figure 3

[…as reported by java.made.easy (2016)]

Assignment Statements:

Assignment statements uses assignment operators to assign the result of an expression to a variable. Standard and most commonly used assignment operator is “=”.

Other kinds of assignment operators are compound assignment operator. These kinds of operator performs calculations and an assignment at the same time. (Figure4).

Figure 4

Input Statements and Output Statements:

Input statements and output statements are the kind of statements that are used for giving input data to the computer for processing and displaying the output of the processed information.

Data types:

Constants:

A constant in Java is specifically an exact and unchanging value defined to a variable. A constant may represent any kind of number.

Literals:

Literals in Java represents variables that hold boolean, character, numeric or string data. Like constants literals are the source code representation of a fixed value.

Integer:

Integer data types are used for defining variable that holds integer values.

Floating Point:

Floating point data types are used for defining variables that will hold decimal numbers.

Double:

Double data types are similar to a floating point data type but can hold a larger range of values than floating point data type. Double data type occupies 64bit memory space twice as much as the floating point data type.

Byte:

Byte is an another kind of data type that holds integer values. The only difference between byte and integer data type is that byte occupies only 8-bit memory which means the range of integer values it can hold are lesser than that of an integer data type. The value range extends from -128 to 127.

Small:

A small data type holds 16bit worth of memory for the variable and holds value range from -32768 to 32767.

Long:

A long data type holds 64-bits worth of memory for the variable and it ranges from -2147483648 to 2147483647.

Date:

Like the name suggests, the date data type is used for defining variables that hold dates.

Boolean:

Boolean data types are intendant to represent truth values of logic and boolean algebra. Boolean data types have two kinds of values true and false.

[….as reported by tutorialspoint (2016)]

Choice of Data Type:

For the project we chose double as the default numeric data type as some calculation might require working with decimal numbers

Environment

Interpreted:

The interpreter also called the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) takes the Java byte code from compiler and then compile’s at run time and turns it into native machine code. For this there is a JVM written specifically for the different types of OS’s. So the JVM knows exactly how to interpret the byte code produced by the compiler and makes them work on any machine may it be on a mac or windows.

[…as reported by webopedia (2016)]

Runtime environment:

The java runtime environment provides the minimum requirements for executing a Java application. The java runtime environment combines Java Virtual Machine, platform core classes and supporting libraries in order to run a program written in Java.

[…as reported by techopedia (2016)]

Java Specific Libraries:

Because Java platform is not dependant on a specific operating system, java applications cannot rely on any platform-native libraries. So java platform provides a comprehensive set of standard class libraries used by developers as tools for developing java applications. These contains functions common to modern operating systems. Some of the Java libraries are Java.lang, Java.util, Java.io, Java.net, Java.net, Java.security, Java.sql, Java.swing. etc.

[…as reported by fromdev (2016)]

Programming Syntax

Command rules:

When writing Java Programs, it is important to keep these rules in mind:

Public Static Void Main – Java program processing starts from the main () method which is a mandatory when writing any Java program.

Case Sensitivity – Java is a case sensitive language, which means a defined variable named Number and number has different meanings in Java.

Class Names – For defining a class, all class name’s first letter should be in Upper Case. If several words are used to form a name of the class, each inner word’s first letter should be in Upper Case.

Example class: MyFirstJavaClass

Method Names – All method names in java starts with a Lower Case letter. If multiple words are used to form the name of a method, then each inner word’s first letter should be in Upper Case excluding the first.

Example: public void myMethodName()

Program File Name – Name of the program file should always match the class name. When saving the file, one has to save it using the class name and add ‘.java’ extension to the end of the name. If the file name and the class name does not match, the program will not compile or run.

Example: If we assume that ‘MyFirstJavaProgram’ is the class name. Then the file should be saved as ‘MyFirstJavaProgram.java’

[…as reported by tutorials point (2016)]

Variable Declaration:

All Java components require names. Names used for classes, variables and methods are called identifiers.

When defining an identifier there are several points to follow, they are:

• All identifiers should begin with an alphabetical letter ranging from a to z, currency character “$” or an underscore “_”.

• Identifiers cannot begin with numbers or any other characters other than alphabets.

• After the first character identifiers can have any combination of any characters.

• A keyword (a reserved word for the java language) cannot be used as an identifier.

• One has to remember identifiers are case sensitive.

• Examples of legal identifiers: age, $salary, _value, __1_value

• Examples of illegal identifiers: 123abc, -salary.

[…as reported by tutorials point (2016)]

Class/Method Declaration:

The only required elements of a method declaration are the method’s return type, name, a pair of parentheses, (), and a body between braces, {}. For example, (Figure 5).

Figure-5

[…as reported by tutorials point (2016)]

Standards

Use of Comments:

Java comments are the explanations of the source code, descriptions of classes, methods, and fields. Java comments enhance its readability of the source code or the program. Java compilers intentionally excludes the comments when compiling. To define a comment one has to write two backslashes “//” before the line. For example, (Figure 6).

Figure 6

There are four different kinds of comments in java.

• Block Comments.

• Single Line Comments.

• Trailing Comments.

• End-Of-Line Comments.

Code layout and Indentation:

There are no specific rules for the structure of how a program should be written. There are many ways of doing the same program and most people will do the same task differently, some slightly more effective than others. Most of the time one code things in various ways that fit the requirements. However only with practice comes the ability to notice when one is doing things the hard way whereas there could be an easier way.

Most Java programmers standardise 3 to 4 spaces for indentation. While there is also a way, inserting tabs for indentation. But sometimes tab appears different when the code is opened in another computer. (Figure 7).

(Figure 7)

[..as reported by cwu.edu (2016)]

References

45+ Most Useful Java Libraries | FromDev . 2016. 45+ Most Useful Java Libraries | FromDev . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.fromdev.com/2014/10/most-widely-used-java-libraries.html. [Accessed 03 February 2016].

Assignment Statements in Java – For Dummies . 2016. Assignment Statements in Java – For Dummies . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/assignment-statements-in-java.html. [Accessed 31 January 2016].

Assignment, Arithmetic, and Unary Operators (The Java™ Tutorials > Learning the Java Language > Language Basics) . 2016. Assignment, Arithmetic, and Unary Operators (The Java™ Tutorials > Learning the Java Language > Language Basics) . [ONLINE] Available at:https://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/java/nutsandbolts/op1.html. [Accessed 31 January 2016].

Java File Structure (Java in a Nutshell). 2016. Java File Structure (Java in a Nutshell). [ONLINE] Available at: http://docstore.mik.ua/orelly/java-ent/jnut/ch02_12.htm. [Accessed 31 January 2016].

. 2016. . [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.inf.unibz.it/~calvanese/teaching/04-05-ip/lecture-notes/uni05.pdf. [Accessed 31 January 2016].

Java Naming Conventions – Javatpoint. 2016. Java Naming Conventions – Javatpoint. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.javatpoint.com/java-naming-conventions. [Accessed 31 January 2016].

Java – Variable Types. 2016. Java – Variable Types. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.tutorialspoint.com/java/java_variable_types.htm. [Accessed 31 January 2016].

Java – Encapsulation. 2016. Java – Encapsulation. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.tutorialspoint.com/java/java_encapsulation.htm. [Accessed 03 February 2016].

Java – Basic Datatypes. 2016. Java – Basic Datatypes. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.tutorialspoint.com/java/java_basic_datatypes.htm. [Accessed 03 February 2016].

Java – Basic Syntax. 2016. Java – Basic Syntax. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.tutorialspoint.com/java/java_basic_syntax.htm. [Accessed 03 February 2016].

Java Style Guide: Indentation. 2016. Java Style Guide: Indentation. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.cwu.edu/~gellenbe/javastyle/indentation.html. [Accessed 03 February 2016].#

Learn about Java Technology. 2016. Learn about Java Technology. [ONLINE] Available at:https://www.java.com/en/about/. [Accessed 03 February 2016].

Logical Operators. 2016. Logical Operators. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.java-made-easy.com/logical-operators.html. [Accessed 31 January 2016].

NetBeans IDE – Debugger and Profiler. 2016. NetBeans IDE – Debugger and Profiler. [ONLINE] Available at: https://netbeans.org/features/java/debugger.html. [Accessed 03 February 2016].

Oracle | Integrated Cloud Applications and Platform Services. 2016. Oracle | Integrated Cloud Applications and Platform Services. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.oracle.com. [Accessed 31 January 2016].

Polymorphism (The Java™ Tutorials > Learning the Java Language > Interfaces and Inheritance) . 2016. Polymorphism (The Java™ Tutorials > Learning the Java Language > Interfaces and Inheritance) . [ONLINE] Available at:https://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/java/IandI/polymorphism.html. [Accessed 31 January 2016].

Q&A : What is the difference between public, private, and protected variables?. 2016. Q&A : What is the difference between public, private, and protected variables?. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.javacoffeebreak.com/faq/faq0002.html. [Accessed 03 February 2016].

What Is Inheritance? (The Java™ Tutorials > Learning the Java Language > Object-Oriented Programming Concepts) . 2016. What Is Inheritance? (The Java™ Tutorials > Learning the Java Language > Object-Oriented Programming Concepts) . [ONLINE] Available at:http://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/java/concepts/inheritance.html. [Accessed 03 February 2016]

What is Java Virtual Machine (JVM)? Webopedia. 2016. What is Java Virtual Machine (JVM)? Webopedia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/J/JVM.html. [Accessed 03 February 2016].

What is the Java Runtime Environment (JRE)? – Definition from Techopedia. 2016. What is the Java Runtime Environment (JRE)? – Definition from Techopedia. [ONLINE] Available at:https://www.techopedia.com/definition/5442/java-runtime-environment-jre. [Accessed 03 February 2016].

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