I. Summary of Proposed project
Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) strategies accomplish the similar Bit Error Rate i.e., higher throughput (point-point communication) by permitting nodes to sending and receiving information combined with lower power (individually, for the same power) . Multi input multi output (MIMO) frameworks are studied very thoroughly in recent years because of their capability to significantly expand the channel limit and diminish transmission energy in wireless weakening channels. Cooperative multi input multi output(MIMO) frameworks have additionally been studied for WSN to enhance communication performance . In addition, cooperative MIMO frameworks also accomplish higher energy saving and lower delay in WSN by permitting nodes to send and receive information at the same time. In the cooperative MIMO frameworks, various single-antenna nodes work on message transmission and reception for energy-efficient communication. MIMO communication gives much higher throughput (spatial multiplexing increases) or a lot of reliable communications (diversity gain) compared to single input single output (SISO) frameworks.
The co-operative MIMO framework really spends lot of energy throughout exchanging of cooperation control messages however higher energy saving are often accomplished throughout the long-haul data transmissions by permitting various transmissions in a slot. The complexity of organizing the actions of distributed nodes limits the sensible use of cooperative MIMO in WSN.
Additionally, an inefficiently designed medium access control (MAC) protocol will enhance the energy spent in exchanging control messages, and reduce the performance gains of MIMO operation for WSN. Additional to this there is a exchange between energy savings and stability, that determines the effectiveness of the cooperative transmission strategy for WSN. Most of the works proposed are schedules transmissions only when a more number of cooperating nodes are available which improve the energy savings; it additionally will increase the chance that the queue at the sender becomes unstable. Therefore, a distributed MAC protocol that has to dynamically choose the cooperating group size based on the channel load conditions around the receiver nodes is needed for WSN.
II. Background of research
Wireless sensor network (WSN) generally consist of a more number of energy constrained sensor nodes with restricted on board battery resources which are hard to recharge or replace. Protocols for WSN are thus required to be energy efficient. Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) frameworks are studied intensively in recent years due to their potential to dramatically increase the data rate and diminish transmission energy in wireless weakened channels.
Cooperative MIMO framework are planned for WSNs to enhance communication performance in . In the cooperative MIMO systems, multiple single-antenna nodes cooperate on message transmission and reception for energy efficient communications. Where as cooperative MIMO has the ability to enhance the performance of WSN, the distributed operation of sensors could be a large obstacle to accomplish the cooperative transmissions and receptions. The energy and time spent in setting up the collaborative transmissions may reduce the performance gains of MIMO operation if the MAC protocol is inefficiently designed.
Current point to point communications use two major kinds of MAC protocols: contention based and collision free. In WSNs, the foremost common contention based MAC protocol is SMAC .The sleep state is used to reduce the energy consumption. For the collision free MACs, the LEACH design is wide used . Lower energy consumption can be further achieved by using sleep periods when the intra-cluster data transmission .it is unable to coordinate cooperative transmissions of the similar data from various nodes. Clustering architectures such as LEACH may also be extended for the cooperative MIMO operation in .
The main function of MAC protocols is to schedule transmissions from stations sharing the similar channel and avoid collisions. medium access control (MAC) protocols for WSN, because of energy constraints, also need to consider energy efficiency. Majority of the existing MAC protocols for WSN use sleep-wake cycles to diminish the energy consumption as a result of idle listening in wireless nodes may be a major source of energy wastage .
The MAC protocol’s operation is separated into rounds. A round begins with the inter-cluster duration where cluster heads trade information with alternative cluster heads or with the sink, and leaf nodes may switched off their radios. It is followed by the intra cluster period where cluster heads exchanging information with their leaf nodes.
However, using various antenna methods directly may be impractical in some networks as a result of two reasons:
(i) the tiny size of several wireless devices ( sensors) limits them to one antenna
(ii) the need to estimate the state of all channels between the transmitting point to receiving point.
For instance, a 8×8 multi input multi output (MIMO) framework needs 8 antennas per node and real-time estimation of all 64 channels between the source and the destination. As another, cooperative MIMO frameworks have been introduced where cooperative transmission and reception in a group of nodes from antenna can be used to construct a system basically like a MIMO scheme .
In addition just requiring one antenna per node, in an 8×8 cooperative multi input multi output MIMO framework, each receiver hub require to estimate the channels in the middle of itself and the 8 transmitting nodes, thereby diminishing the amount of channel estimations per receiving node from sixty four to eight (64 to 8). Cooperative MIMO framework save considerable. Cooperative MIMO MAC protocols based on cooperative automatic repeat request (ARQ) mechanisms are proposed in [12-14]. These frameworks are based on the receiver asking a cooperating node for a re transmission if there should arise an occurrence of a mistake and use repetition based diversity rather than the space-time coding based diversity considered in this paper. Another protocol with a different type of cooperation is presented in , wherever high information rate nodes send the traffic from lower data rate nodes in order to enhance the overall network throughput. The cooperative MAC protocol introduced in  needs the knowledge of the angle of arrival of the signals transmitted by the helping nodes and has the extra disadvantage that control packets are do not seem to be transmitted reliably. A MAC protocol for transmissions using space-time codes is introduced in but permitting for only one cooperating node. The protocol introduced in  includes excess control packet transmissions to guarantee higher reliability.
Existing works have been proposed to enhance communication performance in WSN. These works didn’t consider the improvement on performance with the channel load monitoring and detection. We however, propose this MAC protocol with cooperative MIMO to increase its energy efficiency by reducing the usage of control packets, retransmission of packets. In addition, the works will focus on minimizing the use of control packets and reduce transmission in the case of the link failures to minimize energy consumption.
III. Objectives of research work
The design goals of the proposed research are:
1. To understand and review the existing Cooperative MIMO Frameworks for WSNs.
2. To design a new Framework for multi input multi output (MIMO) that minimizes the packet error probability, energy consumption and packet delays related to the proposed MAC protocol for wireless sensing element network..
3. To develop a new MAC protocol for enabling packet transmissions using cooperative MIMO.
4. To conduct the performance of the proposed convention has been developed through the simulations.
5. To develop analytical model of the proposed protocol to evaluate the packet error probability, energy consumption and packet delays
IV. Methodology or Approach
The methodology of this work is a modular breakdown:
1. To understand and review the existing Cooperative MIMO Frameworks for WSNs
The initial phase of the research focuses on literature survey on the current applications, for cooperative MIMO protocol designed for WSN. The advantages and disadvantages of each cooperative protocol are discussed.
2. Developing a new cooperative MIMO protocol for WSNs.
The literature review was followed by developing a new cooperative MIMO routing protocol for WSNs, which employs to achieve energy efficiency in the WSNs. A new cooperative protocol, which can minimize the packet error probability, Packet throughput, energy consumption and packet delays in WSNs.
3. Developing the simulation model to simulate the proposed Protocol to obtain the results for packet error probability, energy consumption and packet delays.
A Network simulator NS-2/NS-3 is used to develop and evaluates the performance of the proposed protocol for the network reliability, the energy consumption and the delay. Finally, a comparison of proposed protocol with the existing MIMO protocol is presented.
4. Developing the analysis model to analyze the performance of the proposed protocol for the packet error probability, throughput, the delay and the energy consumption.
Analysis model is developed and equations for the packet error probability, throughput, the delay and the energy consumption are derived. This model is then evaluated using mat lab to validate the proposed protocol performances.
V. Expected outcome:
The outcomes of the proposed research are:
1. A survey on the existing cooperative MIMO protocols for WSNs.
2. Developing the new cooperative MIMO in MAC protocol for WSNs..
3. Developing the Analytical model to analyze the performance of the proposed Cooperative MIMO for WSNS.
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