Essay: Investigating And Prosecuting Cyber Crime

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  • Investigating And Prosecuting Cyber Crime
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Brown, C. (2015). Investigating And Prosecuting Cyber Crime: Forensic Dependencies And Barriers To Justice. Nternational Journal Of Cyber Criminology, 9(1), 67-74. Doi:10.4135/9781446212127.N12
 
In this article, the author uses different cases to exemplify the barriers that are faced by law enforcement in order to bring to justice those who commit cyber crimes. As the numbers of cyber crimes go up, one would be inclined to think that the prosecutions of those “cyber-criminals” would too go up. This is just the opposite, due to prosecutions not getting off of the ground and being heard in court. The ease that cyber crime crosses boarders into different jurisdictions and even different states in one that further hinders bringing these criminals to justice.

The author uses case-by-case analysis to do research on this topic. They first use a scenario in which a person is said to have been targeted by someone overseas, then describes the way in which the person is being attacked. This implies the numbers of how many different cyber crimes are actually taken place and the people who are being targeted. The data collected in this study is not holistic because all cyber crime is not reported due to the victims not having trust in police departments and other investigators. The barriers in jurisdiction greatly impacts this trust.

This article lends itself to research as a valuable source in figuring out ways to circumvent the barriers found in this article that prevent justice from meeting those victims that have been impacted by cyber crime. This article also provides useful data in providing to police departments and other investigation agencies to keep them abreast in areas where they can improve their knowledge of how civilians are impacted by the knowledge they have about the abilities police departments have and also bridging that gap in the community.

Yip, M., Webber, C., & Shadbolt, N. (2013). Trust among cybercriminals? Carding forums, uncertainty and implications for policing. Policing and Society, 23(4), 516-539. doi:10.1080/10439463.2013.780227

In this article, the author uses empirical data and the use of data from sources such as that collected from businesses as well as that collected from cyber criminals. The focus of this article is to bring to light the challenges faced by those that are victims of cyber crime and the “relationship” that is fostered between the cyber criminal and the victim. There is also a relationship amongst cyber criminals that keeps the cycle of cyber crime continuing.

The author uses data collected from many sources as the backbone of his statements. He uses many theories in the cyber crime world as supporting factors for his argument as the cyber crime world is evolving and moving to encompass different technology and information Cyber criminals have gained the trust of other cyber criminals and have gone about exchanging different techniques that has law enforcement around the world stomped in figuring out how to stop or hamper this specific type of crime. Many of these cyber criminals have perfected the “virtual robbery” of many innocent people through big name companies.

This article lends itself to research as a valuable source in breaking the relationship amongst cyber criminals and those who seek to become one. This article is also valuable in a sense of research due to its overwhelming information on carding forums and how to protect themselves on the internet. One could deem this article useful to the everyday civilian in use for self-education purposes.

Broadhurst, R., Grabosky, P., Alazab, M., & Chon, S. (n.d.). Organizations and Cyber crime: An Analysis of the Nature of Groups engaged in Cyber Crime. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 8(1), 1-20. Retrieved March 6, 2018.

In this article, the authors take a very different route in analyzing the nature of groups involved in cyber crime. This articles purpose is to discuss and further analyze the different groups that partake in cyber crime and also those who act independently. In an effort to gain understanding of this topic, the authors break down each group and lists what each group does and also the different types of techniques they may use.

The authors first expand on the topic of organized crime in the cyber crime world. They then use this information to gain an understanding of the techniques used and why they are used by organized groups. These groups use advanced techniques as a way of getting as much information as possible as quickly as they can to stay under the radar with law enforcement. The key is to not use the same software for these crimes over 5 times. This makes it hard for law enforcement to track these criminals down and it also makes it easier for these crimanals to get away with the crimes they commit. Each group may also stick with a certain technique but may use different software to achieve this technique. In this article, the authors also speculate that cyber criminals do not use these groups for the sole purpose of exchanging techniques, but to also trade obscene materials to one another for purposes of blackmail.

This article was especially useful due to the more organized crime that is going on in the cyber crime market. It is seen in this article that cyber criminals not only use these groups for their own purposes but as a trade off to other cyber criminals as well. This makes the cyber crime world one of the most evolutionary there is.

Williams, M. L., Edwards, A., Housley, W., Burnap, P., Rana, O., Avis, N., . . . Sloan, L. (2013). Policing cyber-neighbourhoods: Tension monitoring and social media networks. Policing and Society, 23(4), 461-481. doi:10.1080/10439463.2013.780225

In this article, the authors explore different social media outlets and the ways that people interact using these sites as well. The civil and criminal aspect is also explored as those who do not wish to become involved in cyber crime, do so haphazardly. Law enforcement also have issues in separating those who do it as a way of living and those who become pulled in due to no fault of their own. The rise of social media has made it easier to communicate to just about anyone in the world. With platforms such as YouTube, Facebook, and twitter, communicating with someone you do not know is just the culture. But this also creates a risk amongst those who are gullible and allow their personal information to slip out of their hands.

Many law enforcement officers begin to use social media in community policing and also have seminars to further educate the community on the dangers of using personal information on the internet and social media sites. Many police officers have found that this use of social media is a pro and con due to the ever evolving of technology and the problem that many aspects of law enforcement just cannot keep up. They use social media as a means of intelligence, mostly staying abreast of issues that may impact the greater good and pose a threat to society.

This article failed to provide data that could be useful to the everyday person, but it did provide data that could strengthen police agencies across the world. The fact that police officers incorporate community policing into their routine is a way to bridge the gap between police and civilians.

Glimour, S. (n.d.). Investigating Serious Organized Crime and Terrorism. The European Review of Organised Crime, 144-159. doi:10.1057/9781137026798.0010

In this article, the authors strive to connect the dots between cyber crime and terrorism and the role the police play in trying to grapple a new phenomena that is constantly changing and becoming harder to police. The authors first examine the fact that cyberspace is used as a crime space more often than not. Most law enforcement agencies lack the ability to police cyber space as well as they do the normal world. This gap comes in when cyber space just doesn’t reside in one jurisdiction and has encompassed many different individuals and localities. This is further proven by the way law enforcement approaches cyber crime as a whole. The “security dilemma” is faced when law enforcement must apprehend a cyber crime, but it targets innocent people in the process.

Cyber terrorism is one that has sparked a flame in law enforcements mind to come up with new ideas to challenge these cyber criminals and the threats they may pose. According to this article, thousands are spent on threats that are made to the US alone. This is due to research and man power it takes to deem a threat non-credible. Financing, training, propaganda, and planning are all needed to track down a threat in order to question its liability. Law enforcement realize that they must break the layers of cyber crime in order to begin to put an end to a phenomena that is taking the world by storm.

This article was very useful in terms of making the public aware of a new type of cyber crime that has the power to take over government agency websites as well as any independent computer. Cyber terrorism is rising and law enforcement agencies are working diligently to remain above these changing times to better serve the community both virtually and in reality.

McGuire, M., & Dowling, S. (2013). Cyber crime: A review of the evidence. Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism Investigators Handbook, 1-34. Retrieved March 6, 2018.

In this article, the authors first examine what “cyber-dependent” crimes are and what they seek to encompass. They also examine the ever changing tools that cyber criminals use in the commission of their crimes. They use case-by-case scenarios to determine if it is an act of terrorism or not.

Digital ward violations are offenses that must be submitted utilizing a PC, PC systems or other type of data interchanges innovation. These demonstrations incorporate the spread of infections or other malware, hacking and disseminated disavowal of administration assaults. Meanings of these are sketched out underneath. They are exercises basically coordinated against PCs or system assets, in spite of the fact that there might be an assortment of optional results from the assaults. For instance, information

assembled by hacking into an email record may in this manner be utilized to submit a cheat.

This article was very useful in the aid against cyber terrorism and helping the general public in recognizing these errors and what they can do to prevent casualties along these lines need been particularly focused for it to be recorded as a wrongdoing. Another component to this is move made by the casualty. In the event that the casualty reports that they purposely made a positive move that prompted receipt of the infection, for instance, tapped on a connection in an email that drove them to a web page that downloaded malware onto their PC, at that point a wrongdoing would likewise be recorded as they were additionally a ‘particular planned casualty’.

Tehrani, P. M., Manap, N. A., & Taji, H. (2013). Cyber terrorism challenges: The need for a global response to a multi-jurisdictional crime. Computer Law & Security Review, 29(3), 207-215. doi:10.1016/j.clsr.2013.03.011

With the boundless worries about digital fear based oppression and the successive utilization of the expression “digital psychological oppression” right now, the authors seek to develop numerous worldwide associations have tried endeavors to battle this danger. Since digital psychological warfare is a universal wrongdoing, nearby controls alone are not ready to safeguard against such assaults; they require a transnational reaction. Hence, an assaulted nation will summon worldwide law to look for equity for any harm caused, through the activity of all inclusive ward.

Without the guide of universal associations, it is hard to forestall digital fear based oppression. In the meantime, universal associations figure out which state court, or worldwide court, has the expert to settle a debate. The goal of this article is to break down and survey the viability and adequacy of the current worldwide reactions to digital fear based oppression through the activity of international ward.

This article is very useful to those who would like to continue their research on this topic because this article touches upon the idea of digital psychological oppression as a transnational wrongdoing and a global risk; subsequently, national controls alone can’t forestall it. The requirement for a universal association to keep and guard countries from digital psychological oppression assaults is squeezing. This article finds that, as digital fear mongering is a transnational wrongdoing, it ought to be subjected to an all inclusive ward through multinational participation, and this would be the most appropriate technique to counter future transnational violations, for example, digital psychological warfare.

Cade, N. (2012). An Adaptive Approach for an Evolving Crime: E Case for an International Cyber Court and Penal Code. Brooklyn Journal of International Law, 37(9), 1140-1175. Retrieved March 6, 2018.

Mechanical advancement in the course of the last 50 years has given progressive favorable circumstances to humankind. However for all its splendid advance, innovation’s steady condition of improvement has additionally developed an advancing criminal field equipped for dispensing uncommon harm, cybercrime. To date, authoritative endeavors to battle the various types of cybercrime, from confined wickedness making to profoundly dangerous demonstrations of cyber-terrorism, have been to a great extent wasteful and routinely outpaced by powerful criminal tactics and the transformations of the internet itself.

For whatever length of time that the worldwide group keeps on making inadequate move to address the dangers postured by cybercriminals, the danger of a calamitous cyber-attack with the possibility to kill tremendous amounts of private records, disassemble corporate exercises, and suspend whole governments will relentlessly increase.

Cybercriminals have been viewed as a genuine risk to governments and state security since the beginning of the advanced age, costing the worldwide group billions of dollars each year. Today, cybercriminals are assuming a more noticeable part in geopolitical undertakings than any other time in recent memory as they progressively guide their concentration to nontraditional focuses in new and novel ways. This article lends itself to more research that would be helpful to anyone wishing to expand their knowledge of this topic as well as other areas in the cyber security area.

Marcum, C. D. (2011). Doing Time for Cyber crime: An Examination of the Correlates of Sentence Length in the United States. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 5(2), 825-835. Retrieved March 6, 2018.

The motivation behind the present examination is to give a comprehension of the correspondents of the length of a sentence for a digital wrongdoing. Utilizing information from the Internet Crime Complaint Center, this investigation uncovered a few exceptional outcomes. The outcomes demonstrate that three measures increment the sentence length (i.e., a conviction of data fraud, extortion, and demolition of property).

According to the authors, these outcomes are absent in the experimental writing. We talk about the ramifications of these outcomes but numerous occasions of digital wrongdoing are never answered to law implementation, such offenses still constitute an imperative and huge segment of criminal court cases. No less than 66% of all prosecutors workplaces contested some type of digital wrongdoing case in 2005. The most as often as possible arraigned offenses incorporate Master card misrepresentation (80%), recognize burglary (69%) and transmission of kid explicit entertainment (67%). Of course, prosecutors’ workplaces in huge urban purviews (with populaces of 1 million +) are the well on the way to report indicting all types of digital wrongdoing.

Moreover, in the vicinity of 2006 and 2010, a normal of 193 government cases for digital violations was arraigned by the U.S.. In outline, we can declare that a developing rash of digital violations on the state and government level have pushed for the need of enactment to address rebuffing these guilty parties. This article lends itself to further research that should be done to strengthen the sentencing for cyber criminals.

Guitton, C. (2012). Criminals and Cyber Attacks: The Missing Link between Attribution and Deterrence. Open Access, 6(2), 1030-1043. Retrieved March 6, 2018.

This article returns to the claim that the state limit of attribution fills in as a hindrance for culprits to dispatch digital assaults. Propelled by other observational proof for different sorts of violations that don’t bolster the claim, this exploration planned two quantitative investigations to test it. The primary examination took a gander at fullscale level factors at the unit of the state and found that attribution can go about as an impediment.

In any case, a moment try taking a gander at singular cases recognized three kinds of populace and distinguished just a single populace for which the attribution-discouragement nexus is substantial. Grounded in charge hypothesis, the claim is substantial for people with adequate information about the attribution procedure, who act soundly, and who are worried about the financial cost of the discipline. Improving attribution instruments is probably not going to bring about any difference in practices for hoodlums who act without information or just with a restricted view of the attribution systems, or for people who don’t fear disciplines as society adulates their mechanical abilities notwithstanding their against social and exploitative practices.

The main examination affirmed that attribution assumes a part in discouragement, contrary to the outcomes from the second trial. What can clarify this error? The primary test bolsters that there is a third population of culprits who rupture data frameworks. This population is described by adequate information about attribution, and want to maintain a strategic distance from any types of discipline for degenerate act. They are in that capacity a sub-classification of population in which the factor attribution and sureness of discipline is a method of reasoning for discouraging them from submitting.

Stewart, D. M., & Fritsch, E. J. (2011). School and Law Enforcement Efforts to Combat Cyberbullying. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 55(2), 79-87. doi:10.1080/1045988x.2011.539440

As new correspondence advances keep on being developed, new methods for misusing such advances for nefarious purposes will without a doubt create too. It is the responsibility of applicable social control frameworks, at that point, to keep pace with those that utilization electronic mediums, especially PCs, the internet, and PDAs, to deceive others by effectively averting or reacting to such in-positions.

As examined by the authors, one sort of exploitation utilizing the previously mentioned means can happen through what has been named cyber-bullying. Because of the fact that cyber-bullying has been characterized in an assortment of ways, most definitions share substantive shared traits. At the point when grown-ups are engaged in such conduct, if sufficiently outrageous, it is for the most part alluded to as provocation. This shouldn’t imply that, however, that no one but grown-ups can participate in badgering. Adolescents, if mature enough, can for sure be considered criminally in charge of violating statutes precluding such direct; nonetheless, it ought to be noticed that, in spite of the fact that cyber-bullying can be not kidding, involving dangers and conceivably finishing up with genuine physical damage or even demise, it isn’t generally equivalent to activities lawfully restricted in corrective codes.

Law authorization has a part in fighting cyber-bullying too. They should be furnished with legitimate lawful rules by lawmakers, however. As exhibited here, legislators need to guarantee that the criminal statutes they draft to promotion dress electronic wrongdoing are sufficiently particular that they can pass established assemble. Nationals should be given the chance to comprehend what is prohibited by law also.

Dupont, B. (2016). Bots, cops, and corporations: On the limits of enforcement and the promise of polycentric regulation as a way to control large-scale cybercrime. Crime, Law and Social Change, 67(1), 97-116. doi:10.1007/s10611-016-9649-z

Botnets at present represent the most genuine danger to the computerized biological system, giving a framework that empowers bank misrepresentation, appropriated foreswearing of administration attacks, and click extortion. Amid the previous couple of years, three primary methodologies have been utilized to battle botnets. To begin with, police associations have occasionally captured noticeable programmers and tricksters, trusting such prominent tasks would have an impediment impact.

Second, Microsoft has played out various takedowns, utilizing an inventive mix of lawful and specialized implies that endeavor to disturb botnet tasks and lessen their productivity. Third, a few nations – Japan, South Korea, Australia, the Netherlands, and Germany – energize hurt lessening systems that depend on open private organizations including network access suppliers, against infection organizations, and administrative specialists. This article portrays these three methodologies (weakening, disturbance, and damage diminishment), the difficulties they confront, and their separate viability in shielding the computerized biological community from expansive scale online mischief.

This outline of three hostile to botnet methodologies (criminal requirement, private disturbance, and polycentric hurt lessening) and the fragmentary confirmation accessible about their particular adequacy proposes that one-sided approaches regardless of whether they begin from police associations or transnational partnerships are of restricted use against worldwide dangers, for example, botnets, which debilitate the uprightness of the advanced biological system. In spite of the fact that assessments of the benefits of control over open or private debilitation have not yet been done.

Marcum, C. D., Higgins, G. E., & Tewksbury, R. (2012). Incarceration or community placement: Examining the sentences of cybercriminals. Criminal Justice Studies, 25(1), 33-40. doi:10.1080/1478601x.2012.657902

Wrongdoing can affect people and groups in various, quite often negative ways. For a few sorts of criminal offenses, the mischief that outcomes are self-evident, as people are harmed, executed, property is lost or annihilated or people’s wellbeing and money related prosperity might be harmfully affected. For different kinds of offenses, the subsequent harm might be more subtle. Such is the situation with one of the more up to date assortments of wrongdoings getting to be regular in our general public: cybercrime.

With the damages coming about because of cybercrimes (not really evident nor consistent), there may well be extra disarray in regards to what ought to be viewed as fitting reactions to such offenses. Accessible lawful reactions to cybercrimes are the same than those accessible for different sorts of lawful offense offenses, and are most ordinarily recognized those that incorporate a time of imprisonment (normally in jail) and those that depend entirely on group redresses.

In spite of the fact that our understandings of the structures, results, culprits, and casualties of cybercrimes are quickly developing, there remains a genuine deficiency in information about the kind of the condemning given to cybercrime guilty parties. Besides, there is an absence of clarification accessible about whether there are both other legitimate and extralegal variables that may fundamentally influence the sort of sentence got by cybercrime guilty parties. Tending to this hole is the motivation behind the present examination, we look to distinguish the prescient elements of condemning in an example of cybercrime guilty parties.

Benzmiller, H. (2013). THE CYBER-SAMARITANS: EXPLORING CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR THE “INNOCENT” BYSTANDERS OF CYBERBULLYING. Northwestern University Law Review, 107(2), 927-962. Retrieved March 6, 2018.

Lately, the media has reliably recorded the stories of youngsters who submitted suicide or generally endured extreme physical and mental damage following times of vitriolic cyber-bullying. While lawmakers and researchers have proposed a few answers for battle cyber-bullying, none have drawn on crafted by social clinicians to address the part that witnesses play in heightening tormenting. This Note suggests that the observers of cyber-bullying be held subject under a “Terrible Samaritan” law for neglecting to report the most extreme types of tormenting where the witness sensibly trusts the casualty will endure physical mischief.

Drawing on the legitimizations for great Samaritan laws in both common and precedent-based law purviews, the Note proposes that an all around announced obligation to report cyber-bullying would undermine youngsters’ general hesitance to report such mishandle and give the way to grown-ups to mediate to help casualties. Cyber-bullying hurts endless youngsters, both physically and inwardly; a total reaction to the issue must consider mindful the domineering jerk, as well as the onlookers who, through their quiet, add to the harasser’s energy and the casualty’s detachment.

Tormenting, and all the more as of late cyberbullying, plagues youngsters at school and home and makes an antagonistic and undermining condition. Tormenting happens inside a mind boggling bunch dynamic where onlookers to the harassing, through their quiet, add to the energy of the domineering jerk and the exploitation of the objective. Awful Samaritan laws, are however generally opposed in precedent-based law wards.

Watney, M. (2012). The Way Forward in Addressing Cybercrime Regulation on a Global Level. Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transaction, 1(3), 61-67. doi:10.20533/jitst.2046.3723.2012.0009

The multiplication of cybercrime requires all web associated states to be engaged with cybercrime direction, not just on a national and additionally transnational level yet in addition on a worldwide level. In spite of the fact that it has been expressed that the web fundamentally and the internet when all is said in done are by its extremely nature ungovernable, most country states have executed national and in a few occurrences transnational laws to manage the web and the internet for law implementation and national security purposes.

The viability of such direction in cross-outskirt wrongdoing commission has realized numerous unsolved issues in which require a civil argument in transit forward in tending to cybercrime control on a worldwide level. As delineated in the talk, the internet might just end up ungovernable if a “super-control” country state or a bunch of country states take a one-sided choice with respect to which lead constitutes reasonable online direct and in this way attempt to superimpose these laws on other country states.

It is recommended that under the sponsorship of the United Nations and inside a worldwide law setting the accompanying issues ought to be tended to: conceptualizing the expression “cybercrime” in building up for instance whether it incorporates a digital assault, figuring out which online lead is reasonable to guarantee peace and security and starting arrangements towards a cybercrime settlement. Tending to the last issues will constitute a beginning stage in the route forward in guaranteeing cybercrime direction on a worldwide level.

Conclusion

Individuals need to feel safe. In the event that somebody possesses a valuable question it is put away in a safe covered up in their home. To additionally secure a house the front entryways have handle locks and dead-jolts. To protect individual things like wallet ties are utilized to leave hoodlums speechless. On account of autos where they can’t generally be watched, auto alerts were made to shield from hoodlums. These frameworks are set up to guard individuals and their belonging. There is a region in individuals’ lives that isn’t vigorously investigated for shortcomings, in any case. PCs offer crooks an extensive variety of wrongdoings with littler hazard and no physical damage. These wrongdoings directly affect society due to the final products. Programmers can cause organizations thousands or a great many dollars, and also focusing on distinct individuals. On an alternate level, stalkers can leave long haul impacts on their objectives and escape with it easily. Moreover, data fraud is causing individuals a large number of dollars and there are not very many approaches to track individuals down. These violations should be possible by any individual in any area. Digital violations adversely influence society because of hacking, stalking, and data fraud. Crooks create alongside innovation. Once the Internet turned out, individuals discovered approaches to misuse it. Law enforcement has the job of protecting

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