The author uses case-by-case analysis to do research on this topic. They first use a scenario in which a person is said to have been targeted by someone overseas, then describes the way in which the person is being attacked. This implies the numbers of how many different cyber crimes are actually taken place and the people who are being targeted. The data collected in this study is not holistic because all cyber crime is not reported due to the victims not having trust in police departments and other investigators. The barriers in jurisdiction greatly impacts this trust.
This article lends itself to research as a valuable source in figuring out ways to circumvent the barriers found in this article that prevent justice from meeting those victims that have been impacted by cyber crime. This article also provides useful data in providing to police departments and other investigation agencies to keep them abreast in areas where they can improve their knowledge of how civilians are impacted by the knowledge they have about the abilities police departments have and also bridging that gap in the community.
Yip, M., Webber, C., & Shadbolt, N. (2013). Trust among cybercriminals? Carding forums, uncertainty and implications for policing. Policing and Society, 23(4), 516-539. doi:10.1080/10439463.2013.780227
In this article, the author uses empirical data and the use of data from sources such as that collected from businesses as well as that collected from cyber criminals. The focus of this article is to bring to light the challenges faced by those that are victims of cyber crime and the “relationship” that is fostered between the cyber criminal and the victim. There is also a relationship amongst cyber criminals that keeps the cycle of cyber crime continuing.
The author uses data collected from many sources as the backbone of his statements. He uses many theories in the cyber crime world as supporting factors for his argument as the cyber crime world is evolving and moving to encompass different technology and information Cyber criminals have gained the trust of other cyber criminals and have gone about exchanging different techniques that has law enforcement around the world stomped in figuring out how to stop or hamper this specific type of crime. Many of these cyber criminals have perfected the “virtual robbery” of many innocent people through big name companies.
This article lends itself to research as a valuable source in breaking the relationship amongst cyber criminals and those who seek to become one. This article is also valuable in a sense of research due to its overwhelming information on carding forums and how to protect themselves on the internet. One could deem this article useful to the everyday civilian in use for self-education purposes.
Broadhurst, R., Grabosky, P., Alazab, M., & Chon, S. (n.d.). Organizations and Cyber crime: An Analysis of the Nature of Groups engaged in Cyber Crime. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 8(1), 1-20. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
In this article, the authors take a very different route in analyzing the nature of groups involved in cyber crime. This articles purpose is to discuss and further analyze the different groups that partake in cyber crime and also those who act independently. In an effort to gain understanding of this topic, the authors break down each group and lists what each group does and also the different types of techniques they may use.
The authors first expand on the topic of organized crime in the cyber crime world. They then use this information to gain an understanding of the techniques used and why they are used by organized groups. These groups use advanced techniques as a way of getting as much information as possible as quickly as they can to stay under the radar with law enforcement. The key is to not use the same software for these crimes over 5 times. This makes it hard for law enforcement to track these criminals down and it also makes it easier for these crimanals to get away with the crimes they commit. Each group may also stick with a certain technique but may use different software to achieve this technique. In this article, the authors also speculate that cyber criminals do not use these groups for the sole purpose of exchanging techniques, but to also trade obscene materials to one another for purposes of blackmail.
This article was especially useful due to the more organized crime that is going on in the cyber crime market. It is seen in this article that cyber criminals not only use these groups for their own purposes but as a trade off to other cyber criminals as well. This makes the cyber crime world one of the most evolutionary there is.
Williams, M. L., Edwards, A., Housley, W., Burnap, P., Rana, O., Avis, N., . . . Sloan, L. (2013). Policing cyber-neighbourhoods: Tension monitoring and social media networks. Policing and Society, 23(4), 461-481. doi:10.1080/10439463.2013.780225
In this article, the authors explore different social media outlets and the ways that people interact using these sites as well. The civil and criminal aspect is also explored as those who do not wish to become involved in cyber crime, do so haphazardly. Law enforcement also have issues in separating those who do it as a way of living and those who become pulled in due to no fault of their own. The rise of social media has made it easier to communicate to just about anyone in the world. With platforms such as YouTube, Facebook, and twitter, communicating with someone you do not know is just the culture. But this also creates a risk amongst those who are gullible and allow their personal information to slip out of their hands.
Many law enforcement officers begin to use social media in community policing and also have seminars to further educate the community on the dangers of using personal information on the internet and social media sites. Many police officers have found that this use of social media is a pro and con due to the ever evolving of technology and the problem that many aspects of law enforcement just cannot keep up. They use social media as a means of intelligence, mostly staying abreast of issues that may impact the greater good and pose a threat to society.
This article failed to provide data that could be useful to the everyday person, but it did provide data that could strengthen police agencies across the world. The fact that police officers incorporate community policing into their routine is a way to bridge the gap between police and civilians.
Glimour, S. (n.d.). Investigating Serious Organized Crime and Terrorism. The European Review of Organised Crime, 144-159. doi:10.1057/9781137026798.0010
In this article, the authors strive to connect the dots between cyber crime and terrorism and the role the police play in trying to grapple a new phenomena that is constantly changing and becoming harder to police. The authors first examine the fact that cyberspace is used as a crime space more often than not. Most law enforcement agencies lack the ability to police cyber space as well as they do the normal world. This gap comes in when cyber space just doesn’t reside in one jurisdiction and has encompassed many different individuals and localities. This is further proven by the way law enforcement approaches cyber crime as a whole. The “security dilemma” is faced when law enforcement must apprehend a cyber crime, but it targets innocent people in the process.
Cyber terrorism is one that has sparked a flame in law enforcements mind to come up with new ideas to challenge these cyber criminals and the threats they may pose. According to this article, thousands are spent on threats that are made to the US alone. This is due to research and man power it takes to deem a threat non-credible. Financing, training, propaganda, and planning are all needed to track down a threat in order to question its liability. Law enforcement realize that they must break the layers of cyber crime in order to begin to put an end to a phenomena that is taking the world by storm.
This article was very useful in terms of making the public aware of a new type of cyber crime that has the power to take over government agency websites as well as any independent computer. Cyber terrorism is rising and law enforcement agencies are working diligently to remain above these changing times to better serve the community both virtually and in reality.
McGuire, M., & Dowling, S. (2013). Cyber crime: A review of the evidence. Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism Investigators Handbook, 1-34. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
In this article, the authors first examine what “cyber-dependent” crimes are and what they seek to encompass. They also examine the ever changing tools that cyber criminals use in the commission of their crimes. They use case-by-case scenarios to determine if it is an act of terrorism or not.
Digital ward violations are offenses that must be submitted utilizing a PC, PC systems or other type of data interchanges innovation. These demonstrations incorporate the spread of infections or other malware, hacking and disseminated disavowal of administration assaults. Meanings of these are sketched out underneath. They are exercises basically coordinated against PCs or system assets, in spite of the fact that there might be an assortment of optional results from the assaults. For instance, information
assembled by hacking into an email record may in this manner be utilized to submit a cheat.
This article was very useful in the aid against cyber terrorism and helping the general public in recognizing these errors and what they can do to prevent casualties along these lines need been particularly focused for it to be recorded as a wrongdoing. Another component to this is move made by the casualty. In the event that the casualty reports that they purposely made a positive move that prompted receipt of the infection, for instance, tapped on a connection in an email that drove them to a web page that downloaded malware onto their PC, at that point a wrongdoing would likewise be recorded as they were additionally a ‘particular planned casualty’.
Tehrani, P. M., Manap, N. A., & Taji, H. (2013). Cyber terrorism challenges: The need for a global response to a multi-jurisdictional crime. Computer Law & Security Review, 29(3), 207-215. doi:10.1016/j.clsr.2013.03.011
With the boundless worries about digital fear based oppression and the successive utilization of the expression “digital psychological oppression” right now, the authors seek to develop numerous worldwide associations have tried endeavors to battle this danger. Since digital psychological warfare is a universal wrongdoing, nearby controls alone are not ready to safeguard against such assaults; they require a transnational reaction. Hence, an assaulted nation will summon worldwide law to look for equity for any harm caused, through the activity of all inclusive ward.
Without the guide of universal associations, it is hard to forestall digital fear based oppression. In the meantime, universal associations figure out which state court, or worldwide court, has the expert to settle a debate. The goal of this article is to break down and survey the viability and adequacy of the current worldwide reactions to digital fear based oppression through the activity of international ward.
This article is very useful to those who would like to continue their research on this topic because this article touches upon the idea of digital psychological oppression as a transnational wrongdoing and a global risk; subsequently, national controls alone can’t forestall it. The requirement for a universal association to keep and guard countries from digital psychological oppression assaults is squeezing. This article finds that, as digital fear mongering is a transnational wrongdoing, it ought to be subjected to an all inclusive ward through multinational participation, and this would be the most appropriate technique to counter future transnational violations, for example, digital psychological warfare.
Cade, N. (2012). An Adaptive Approach for an Evolving Crime: E Case for an International Cyber Court and Penal Code. Brooklyn Journal of International Law, 37(9), 1140-1175. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
Mechanical advancement in the course of the last 50 years has given progressive favorable circumstances to humankind. However for all its splendid advance, innovation’s steady condition of improvement has additionally developed an advancing criminal field equipped for dispensing uncommon harm, cybercrime. To date, authoritative endeavors to battle the various types of cybercrime, from confined wickedness making to profoundly dangerous demonstrations of cyber-terrorism, have been to a great extent wasteful and routinely outpaced by powerful criminal tactics and the transformations of the internet itself.
For whatever length of time that the worldwide group keeps on making inadequate move to address the dangers postured by cybercriminals, the danger of a calamitous cyber-attack with the possibility to kill tremendous amounts of private records, disassemble corporate exercises, and suspend whole governments will relentlessly increase.
Cybercriminals have been viewed as a genuine risk to governments and state security since the beginning of the advanced age, costing the worldwide group billions of dollars each year. Today, cybercriminals are assuming a more noticeable part in geopolitical undertakings than any other time in recent memory as they progressively guide their concentration to nontraditional focuses in new and novel ways. This article lends itself to more research that would be helpful to anyone wishing to expand their knowledge of this topic as well as other areas in the cyber security area.
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