Poultry refers to all birds of economic value to man, examples include chickens, pigeon, duck, pheasant, quail, guinea fowl and recently ostrich all which belong to the zoological class aves.Atteh,(2004) stated that poultry have been on earth for over 150 million years, dating back to the original wild jungle fowl. Poultry offered a range of uses to human which include: provision of meat and egg, research and medicinal purpose, production of manual which helped to improve the soil fertility, feathers from poultry birds provide human with aesthetic value(Atteh,2004).The interest in poultry and poultry products have grown tremendously in the last 20 years as stated by (Atteh,2004). Almost every country in the world involved in poultry production. Japan domestic production of both broiler and egg production increases steadily, countries of the soviet union have always been producing poultry and eggs and are continuing to increase their output to meet the new demand .China, the Middle East and Africa are all areas where increasing demand for poultry has resulted into significant increases in the number of birds being reared for meat and eggs,( FAO, (2000).
Poultry industry in Nigeria occupies a prominent position as a major source of animal protein supply to the citizen. Over the years, the growth of poultry industry has followed a pattern closely dictated by the economic fortunes of the countries. USDA,(2013) reported that commercial poultry production in Nigeria was estimated at about USD 800 million. Poultry sector contributed about 25% of the agricultural domestic products of the Nigerian economy(FAO, 2010). USDA,(2013) currently rated Nigeria as the leading country in Africa with respect to eggs production, but fourth in broiler production, this report indicated that Nigeria still have to improve on their production with respect to broiler birds.
Poultry production is gaining popularity in the developing countries due to its role in bridging the protein malnutrition in their diets, economic empowerment of the resource poor segment of the society (Wishart,2002). Poultry production is practice in all levels ranging from subsistence to large scale commercial operations. Poultry meat and eggs are the most consumed animal protein; unrestricted by any religion or culture in Nigeria. It was recorded that the poultry industry contributed about 25% of the country’s Agricultural GDP (FAO, 2010).Nigeria presently produces above 550,000mt of poultry meat per annum and 700,000mt of eggs according to (FAO, 2010). Despite this, Nigeria is far from meeting her domestic demand when compared with developed countries that involved in poultry production. According to FAO, (2010) It was reported that poultry expansion was 3.2percent against global increase of 2.2 percent; Nigeria supply had increase beyond her domestic borders. Countries Cameroon, Togo, Benin, Benin Republic, Niger and many of her neighbouring Countries are been supplied, but despite that Nigeria supply with respect to broiler production has not been consistent compared to layers production. The poultry industry has a large capacity in Nigeria to create employment. The potential in Nigeria is great and only the farmers that are well being can actually fill the gap and harness these opportunities. Poultry offers the greatest scope for increasing the quantity and quality of animal protein. Poultry meat and eggs account for about 30% of total livestock output in Nigeria, of which eggs account for over 80 percent. Commercial poultry is well established in the country with substantial infrastructure (poultry houses, feed mills, hatcheries and processing plants) already on ground. However, most of these assets became idle for reasons associated with high cost of strategic inputs and working capital as well as competition from cheap imports. The embargo placed on the importation of poultry products in 2002 by the Federal Government is aimed at encouraging local production. The challenge therefore, is how to produce poultry products at sustainable levels in order to bridge the protein supply gap in the nearest future.
Fig 1.Domestic Production and Consumption of Chicken Meat and Eggs(Tonnes) of some African Countries
The poultry industry in Nigeria has undergone a significant transformation since the early fifties, from a backyard, peasant and primitive household-oriented husbandry of in descript breeds of semi-wild chickens, to the cash- oriented, modern and large scale poultry which dot our country-side and urban centres today. It can be said that poultry keeping has become a business in Nigeria. The estimate of livestock resources as reported by Rim (1993), indicate that there are 103 million indigenous poultry and 15 million commercial (exotic) poultry in the country. It is therefore clear that much needs to be done to accelerate the transformation to commercial poultry husbandry and sustain the interest of present and intending modern farmers in Nigeria. Animal products provide about five percent of daily energy supply in Nigeria, considerably lower than the West African average of 9.5 percent. Poultry meat and eggs together provide 0.82 percent of total daily calories consumed on average, close to the regional average. Per capita consumption of chicken meat and eggs increased 20 percent from 2000 to 2007, reaching 5.4 kilograms per capita in 2007. Domestic Production shows that Nigeria’s domestic poultry production has supplied close to 100 percent of the country’s consumption, both before and after the 2002 import ban.However,large volumes of undocumented imports entered the country prior to the ban, accounting for up to 21 percent of domestic consumption in 2002 according to the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. The import ban has reduced, but not eliminated, undocumented imports (USDA Report, 2007).Nigeria produced 1.61 kilograms per capita of chicken meat and 3.66 kilograms per capita of eggs in 2008. Per capita production rates increased only slightly from 2000 to 2008. The Place of Poultry in Nigerian Agriculture Poultry occupies a unique position in the Nigerian livestock production.
Since the 1960s, the global production of poultry meat has been growing faster than that of any other meat in both developing and developed countries. This growth pattern usually continues because of the inherent efficiency in feed conversion and the lower production costs associated with intensive production. Such production efficiency is particularly beneficial to developing countries, which tend to have lower resource limited agricultural. The significant growth in poultry (especially broiler chicken) production and consumption in the developing countries has important implications for the global trading of all meat products, as well as feeds and related inputs (Landes et al. 2004) Moreover, since feed costs make up about 70% of the total cost of intensive poultry production systems, the availability of cheap feeds is one of the most important factors for industry development.
As expected, broiler industries in major exporting countries are characterized by modern technologies and a high level of vertical integration (World Poultry, 2004). Poultry, CRC,(2003) report indicated that the disparities in resource endowment and government policy have helped in differentiating nations as self-sufficient, net exporters, or net importers of broiler meat. In 2003, the major broiler-producing countries in the world, in terms of volume, were the United States, China, Brazil, European Union (EU 152), Mexico, China, Thailand, Japan, and Canada. The world’s major exporters were the United States, Brazil, EU 15, Thailand, India, Canada, Argentina, Hong Kong, and Hungary. The major importers were: Russia, Japan, China, Saudi Arabia, EU 15, Mexico, Hong Kong, United Arab Emirates, South Korea, Canada, and Romania. The major consumers were the United States, China, Brazil, EU 15 Mexico, Japan, India, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and Canada.
1.2 Broiler Production, Imports, Export and Consumption
Fig 2. Broiler Meat Production, Selected Countries, in’000 Metric Tons
(USDA, 2013) reported that the United States is the world’s largest producer of broiler meat, followed by China, Brazil, and the EU-27.In their reports it was stated that broiler production in United States America increased from 671,000 tons to 17.0 million as a result of better prices and higher weights. In China, decrease in production was experienced which was 50,000 tons to 14.1 million due to tighter margins on higher feed costs and lower prices. There was decrease in EU production 30,000 tons to 9.6 million as decrease in France and the United Kingdom are more than that of Germany and Poland. Broiler production in Brazil was lowered, 170,000 tons to 12.8 million as a result of low forces of demand. In Thailand, production was increased 110,000 tons to 1.6 million as a result of higher forces of demands. Russian broiler production was raised 100,000 tons to 3.0 million this occurred due to the strong support given by the government and also high market demand (fuelled by a rising preference for value-added products and elevated red meat prices). Reports from USDA, (2013) indicated that broiler production estimates increases in Ukraine as a result of new production facilities was employed in their production, 83,000 tons to 903,000. Mexico, experienced increase in production 25,000 tons to 3.0 million in spite of high costs of feed and those associated with bio-security measure. Production in Argentina and Turkey remain unchanged,2.0 million and 1.7 million tons respectively.
Table 1. Leading Countries in Broiler Meat Imports, in ‘000 MT
USDA, (2014) indicated that Brazil have become the world’s top exporters of broiler meat, United States was second on the log. United States exports increased between 114,000 tons to 3.3 million this was due to high demand forces in Cuba and Mexico. It was also reported by USDA that Brazil’s exports was increased from 25,000 tons to 3.6 million due to higher demand in Middle East and East Asia. EU has the lowest export.
Fig 3: Broiler Meat Exports, Selected Countries, in ‘000 Metric Tons
Argentina’s exports increases from 30,000 tons to 315,000 due to larger demand from Venezuela, China and Chile. China’s exports remain the same at 400,000 tons due to price competitive supplies from Braziland the United States in some markets, but expanding demand in other markets. In Russia export also increase from 25,000 tons to 80,000 due to preferential market access to Kazakhstan due to the Customs Union. Imports are higher by 60,000 tons to 580,000 due to high demand for low-cost sources of protein. Mexico’s exports are cut 4,000 tons to 8,000 this was due to outbreak of Avian Influenza outbreak. In Africa broiler production is not yet pronounced when compared with layers production and South Africa is leading in the log followed by Nigeria.
Table 2. Leading Countries in Broiler Meat Consumption in ‘000 MT
1.3 Artificial Insemination
Artificial Insemination involved the introduction of semen into the female oviduct by methods other than natural mating, it is one of a group of technologies ( ART) whereby offspring are generated by facilitating the meeting of gametes(spermatozoa and oozyte). Artificial insemination has gained considerable attention and has been widely applied in poultry industry. Process of artificial insemination have been reviewed by many researchers which include Sexton(1998) Lake (1995) and Donoghue (2006). Burrows and Quinn (1937), were the two major pioneers who developed the method of abdominal massage and pressure to collect semen .In their respective researches they explain the process of AI,the procedure involved collection of semen from the male birds and inseminating into the females oviducts, the major use of AI is in heavy birds whose fertility is generally low under pen mating. It also practiced when the laying birds are kept in cages. Excellent fecundity has been obtained by the use of artificial insemination in many cases than that obtained by natural mating (Wishart, 2001).
1.4 ADVANTAGES OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN BROILER PRODUCTION
It has been well established that artificial insemination in avian species has relative advantages(Fuquay and Reden, 1976),( Penfold et al,2000) and( Brillard,2003).The advantages include increased number of settable eggs , better overall fertility and hatchability thus reducing the cost of production per unit of day-old chicks(Brillard,2003). According to Petitte et al, (1996) broiler breeders housed in cages produce heavier eggs than those managed on litter floors; he also compared the production efficiency of broiler breeders artificially inseminated in cages to those naturally mated in floor pens which are higher in artificially inseminated breeder. Several factors must be synchronised for optimum success of artificial insemination, these factors include breeder stock management, sperm quality and quantity, sperm dosage, depth of insemination, frequency and timing of artificial insemination(Lake 1978; Van Krey and Siegel 1980;King et al 2002).Timing of artificial insemination in commercial poultry breeding enterprise is of great importance for optimum success of artificial insemination. Brillard and Bakst,(1990)have demonstrated that spermatozoa should be deposited 1-3 hrs prior to or just after oviposition.USDA,(2000) summarises the advantages of artificial insemination as follows
‘ It allow male birds to be used efficiently, this because the ratio of males to female birds in artificial insemination are small compared to when artificial insemination is not practiced.
‘ It removes bias with respect to preferential mating.
‘ It allow accurate recording pedigree is possible
‘ Artificial insemination has higher Fertility and hatchability, When compared with natural mating
‘ Since artificial insemination makes Use of semen, therefore the issue of selection of size of males relating to females are exempted.
‘ Since males and Females are not physically contact, it therefore helps to prevent diseases infection.
‘ The rate of genetic development can be improved by using semen of high quality.
1.5 Statement of the Problem
Despite a series of radical measures which had been adopted by the Federal Government to increase poultry production in Nigeria in last few decades however, this expectation is yet to be realised since the output of poultry products(e.g. poultry meat, egg etc)lags behind other livestock products (Afolabi,2007). Nigeria has the highest poultry farms as well as highest participation of people in poultry industry in Africa, but in spite of this, various research outcomes have shown that most of these farmers run their farms at very unsustainable profit margins due to lack of technical experience, poor production methods as well as poor management which have discouraged most farmers to quit the industry (FAO,2010).With the Federal Government policies to attain food security, many people in Nigeria embarked in poultry production ranging from backyard to commercial production.
As human population increases there is need for increase in broiler industry as well so as to meet the demand of broiler meat. Broiler meat are known to produce quality meat than the red meat, The average Nigerian diet is deficient in quantity and quality animal protein to maintain normal life, however past efforts to solve this problem have not produced desired results. The decline of commercial poultry production has also been attributed to the shortage of DOC (day-old chicks), poor quality feeds, problems of effective vertinary services and availability of drugs and vaccines, inadequate of capital and requisite technical skills in managing the birds and many other problems that affect poultry production in Nigeria. However, for broiler industry to perform optimally there is need to improve on its methods of production in order to increase meat and egg production in the country.However,some broiler farmers are now adopting AI method so as to improve their production as well as income generated from the venture. This research therefore seeks to address the following concerns:.
‘ What are the socio-economic characteristics of what are the socio-economic characteristics of broiler farmers using artificial insemination?
‘ What are the costs and returns of broiler farmers using artificial insemination?
‘ What is the technical efficiency of broiler farmers using artificial insemination?
‘ What are the determinants of inefficiency of broiler farmers using artificial insemination?
‘ What are the constraints facing broiler farmers using artificial insemination?
1.6 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine economic of broiler production using artificial insemination in Oyo State,Nigeria.
The specific objectives include to
‘ describe the socio-economic characteristics of broilers farmers using artificial insemination in the study area
‘ estimate costs and returns of broiler farmers using artificial insemination
‘ Determine the technical efficiency of broiler farmers using artificial insemination
‘ determine factors influencing technical inefficiency of broiler farmers using artificial insemination in the study area.
‘ examine the constraints facing the broiler farmers using artificial insemination in the the study area
1.7 Justification of the Study
Nigeria has the highest number of poultry farms in Africa, despite the great numbers of farms in Nigeria, a parallel record from Poultry Association of Nigeria (PAN) indicates that Nigeria produces presently above 553million tons of egg and 708million tons of broiler meat per year, despite this volume Nigeria is far from meeting her domestic demands in broiler production (FAO, 2010).
Study like the currently proposed one will assess broiler farmers using artificial insemination is timely as it will reveal the magnitude of profits that could be obtained by improving poultry production. This study will also highlight cost-effective measures to improve efficiency, the study is also important as it will provide empirical measures of profit indices of broiler farmers using artificial insemination Finally, this study will also stand to benefit the country in her drive to ensure self-sufficiency in poultry industry and also to improve on her poultry production methods. Many researches have been conducted with respect to poultry industry, but only few of them have work on artificial insemination in broiler production (Atunbi and Sonaiya, 2009). This study is therefore imperative for Nigerian poultry sector to improve on her broiler production so as to become an active player in the industry like the rest of the developed world.
1.8 Plan of the Study
This study was organized in five chapters. Chapter one focused on the introductory aspect of poultry industry with respect to broiler production, while chapter two covers the review of relevant literatures, chapter three presented the research methodology and analytical tools that were used. Chapter four explains the findings of this research, finally chapter five gives the summary of the findings, conclusion and recommendation.
2.1 Broiler Production
The world broiler industry has been a very dynamic industry because of the nature of broiler birds. Van der Sluis, (2004) stated that broiler birds has been typified with unprecedented growth, in his research he further explained the trends of growth in broiler production in the world. He depict that world produced 6.5 billion in 1961,in 1990 over 27 billion,35.3 billion in 1999 while over 60 billion in 2012.FAO, (2010) reported that broiler production in the world has been growing faster than any other meat production in the world, especially in the developed countries that are active player in broiler production. Since the 1960s, the global production of broiler meat has been on increase. This growth pattern can be expected to continue because of the inherent efficiency in feed conversion and the lower production costs associated with intensive poultry production. Such production efficiency is particularly beneficial to developing countries, which tend to have limited agricultural resources but burgeoning, and often poor, populations. Declining poultry prices and increasing incomes have been attributed to increases in per capita poultry consumption, which is sensitive to both price and income changes (Taha 2003). The significant growth in poultry (especially broiler chicken) production and consumption in the developing countries has important implications for the global trading of all meat products, as well as feeds and related inputs (Landes et al. 2004 Taha 2003).
2.2 Constraints of Broiler Production
2.2.1 Climatic Constraint
Fatokun,(1996) reported that one of the factors that inhibit broiler production development in Nigeria is the climate. Some of the broiler breeds are imported into the country from temperate region, most of these birds performed below optimal level due to differences in climatic conditions.
Climate exerts constraining influences on livestock production through its associative effects of humidity, temperature, precipitation and air movement, and its indirect influences Although, all livestock are subject to environmental stress in the tropics, poultry appear to be less susceptible than mammals. Previous comparative records between the temperate and tropical environments indicated that poultry show the most comparative performance between the two environments than any other class of livestock, yet their performance not up to standard as a result of climatic influence,(FAO,2012).
2.2.2 Economic Constraint
According to Adeniyi,( 2000) the most important socio-economic constraints affecting broiler production in Nigeria include inadequate of capital, illiteracy and lack of technical experience. The amount of capital in broiler production is to some extent, a major determinant of the size of the operating units because broiler farmers with enough working capital are usually better in employing other factors of production, hence enlarging their holding than relatively poor farmers. However, most broiler farmers in Nigeria do not have adequate capital to invest in large scale production (Essang, 1996).The scarcity of farm credit has been blamed in part for the low agricultural production in the country. Even with the establishment of more agricultural and commercial banks in the country, most of the broiler farmers are still handicapped in obtaining adequate credits not only from lack of acceptable collateral and the general uncertainty and heavy risks associated with broiler production.
2.2.3 Technical Constraint
According to Olayemi, (2005), the capacity to developed technical technology consistent with environmental and economic conditions, is the single most important which explained the growth of broiler production in Nigeria. He stressed further that a continuous stream of new technical knowledge and a flow of inputs in which the new knowledge is embodied represents a necessary condition for modern broiler production .A further breakdown in his study identified other constraints that affect broiler production, these include inadequate of capital, poor management, inadequate of technical knowhow and poor diseases control
The continual challenges to the broiler breeder producer are provision of highest quality products for sale at a price competitive with other food sources. Over the past two decades the industry has become very successful by incorporating technical advances in genetic selection, nutrition and diseases control into their management scheme. Another critical factors for efficient management of reproduction of broiler birds has not been changed since the inception of the industry, recent advances in artificial insemination technique now provide alternative methods for use within the primary breeder segment of the industry.
2.3 Broiler Breeder Managements
The aim of management is to provide the conditions that ensure optimum performance of the birds(Bell and Weaver, 2001).Given reasonable conditions, broody hens are very successful at hatching their chicks, but good hatching using artificial incubation(both large and small )relies on good management with respect to temperature, humidity, ventilation, feeding and vaccination. It is necessary to ensure that appropriate brooding, growing and laying conditions are given. It is also important to ensure that recommended vaccinations are given and appropriate feeding programme are used. In developing countries like Nigeria it is often difficult to achieve optimum performance from birds owing to less than optimal housing conditions and lack of quality feed, vaccines and trained staff(Weaver, 2001).High genetic hybrid are often used in the developing countries, but are not well suited to tropical environments. Diseases transmission in poultry birds could either be horizontally from sick bird to healthy one or vertically by passing the causative pathogen from the hen to the chicks through the eggs. Horizontal spread may be by contact between birds , air, contaminated litter, feed or water in contact with sick birds(Atteh, 2004).Most of the important poultry diseases include Coccidiosis,Fowl Pox, Newcastle Diseases, Infectious Bronchitis, Infection Bursa Diseases, Fowl pox, Salmonella Infections and Marek’s Diseases etc. To avoid diseases outbreak in broiler production proper management, sanitation as well as essential vaccination schedule should be complied with (Hogue and Morris, 2006).
2.3.1 Temperature Management
Farmers need to compensate for undesirable climatic condition by manipulating control systems or modifying the house to ensure that the welfare and environmental needs of the birds are satisfied. Environmental extremes (heat and cold stress, excessive or inadequate ventilation, poor air quality) can be managed if the design of the poultry house is appropriate for conditions. Broiler birds require adequate space, sufficient feed to meet their nutritional requirements. The heat requirements of broilers change with age, and recommended ambient
temperatures may be lower than birds would prefer early in life when stocking densities are low. The risk of cold stress is low once the thermoregulatory ability is fully developed in birds. The risk of heat stress increases with age and with stocking density as heat production increases and as space between birds (and hence their ability to lose heat) decreases, (Reiter and Bessie,2000).
2.3.2 Ventilation Management
All broiler houses need some form of ventilation to ensure an adequate supply of oxygen, removing carbon dioxide, other waste gases and dust.In commercial operations, minimum ventilation is often practised in colder climates, but not generally in tropical ones(Glats, 2004).In large scale automated operations, correct air distribution can be achieved using a negative pressure ventilation system. Due to the nature of broiler birds adequate ventilation is very crucial to them, when chicks are very young or in cooler climate the air from the inlets should be directed towards the roof to mixed with the warm air there and circulate throughout the shed. With older birds and in warmer temperatures, the incoming air are directed towards the birds and helps to keep them cool (Glats, 2004).Tunnel ventilation is the most effective ventilation for large houses in hot weather, this system is popular in hot climates, exshaust fans are placed at one end of the or the middle of the shed and air is drawn through the length of the house removing heat moisture and dust.
2.3.3 Feeding Management
Wasper,(2009)emphasized on the importance of nutrients in feed given to broiler birds, he further explained in his research that due to the nature of broiler birds, the protein and energy contents should be correlated with their various life stages which include chick, grower and breeder stage. The protein level in feed is very important as this can affect the body weight and overall performance of broiler birds also the level of protein in feed should be vary according with season (Hapoa, 2003) .
Fig 4. Showing the relationship between protein content of breeder feed and chick weight
(Hapoa,2003)further depicted that protein and energy level in broiler feed should be well defined, he cited example that broiler feed with energy 2750Kcal/Kg should have protein content up to 15percents(15%).Many researchers agreed with him, it was also established that excess protein in feed can be harmful to birds as this can reduced fertility and hatchability, he also clarify that the same thing can be felt when protein level is deficient in the feed,bt he concluded that there is need for balance between the two continuum. Many researchers have talked about the optimum energy that broiler chicks required, they include (Hapao,2003), (Wasper, 2009) and (Simon,2002).Many researchers agreed that the optimum energy appropriate for broiler chicks for proper growth is between 440-480kcal/bird/day, this is equivalent to 160-175g/bird/day at 2750Kcal/kg feed.Simon,(2002)Explain that necessary attention must be given to the composition of fat especially the unsaturated fatty acid, he stated that essential fatty acid are necessary for the development of embrayo,immune system thereby affecting chicks quality .Simon,(2002) also reported that there are some macro elements which include calcium, phosphorous and sodium, these macro nutrients are very important in the formation of shell, bone there by leading to chick quality.
126.96.36.199 The Influence of Feed Allocation on Chick Quality
Bekan, (2007) reported that Underfeeding of broiler chicks can have great effects on the chicks quality especially at the early stage of their life .the hen can have an impact on chick exotic hybrid parent flocks commence production at a faster rate than in the past and consequently egg output increases over a short period of time during the early laying period. In his work he further explained that feed allocations during this period have not necessarily increased in line with this egg production trend. It was stated from the avagen guide that low feed allocation intake by young commercial breeder flocks have been shown to compromise nutrient transfer to the egg, that can result into increased in late embryonic death, poorer chick viability and uniformity (Aviagen Ltd 2002). In a study by Leeson (2004) broiler breeders were fed different levels of feed through peak production varying from 140 to 175 gms.Several researches have shown that nutrients components of the feed supply to the broiler breeder are a major determinant of chick quality and production performance when management routines are strictly followed. This places greater emphasis on the nutritionist providing the correct nutrient density diet and the flock manager to provide appropriate feed intake to the bird coming into lay and through the production period.
The most important aspects of broiler production are the management and feeding of the breeder flock as these can have a major impact on the reproductive performance, including the number of eggs produced, rate of fertility as well as the percentage hatchability (Adeolu,2000).Experience has taught us that the more closely we meet the actual nutrient requirements of the birds, the more they grow and the more efficiently they will utilise their feed. Thus, the saving using a three or four phase feeding system would be augmented by an improvement in efficiency. Food restriction is used routinely in the rearing of broiler breeder stock to limit body weight gain and optimise reproductive performance. Slowing early growth can improve leg bone quality during the important first 3 weeks when bones appear to be most susceptible to the initial development of lesions (Lilburn et al., 1989). This slowing of growth can be achieved by feeding starter diets of lower nutrient density (e.g. 11.5 MJ ME, 190 g CP/kg). Feeding diets of higher nutrient density during the later period of growth will allow birds to catch up lost body weight, though complete compensation is more easily achieved in birds grown to older ages. However, birds grown in this way usually show lower incidences of leg abnormality. Thus food restriction programmes allowing more growth during the restriction period (up to 75% of ad libitum growth) are less (Su et al., 1999) stated that good nutrition is important for rearing healthy broilers, decreasing the early growth of broilers by qualitative or quantitative food restriction or by providing feeding meals rather than ad libitum can lower the incidences of leg or cardiopulmonary disorders. The use of vitamin D metabolites as dietary additives may have a role in promoting better leg health. Broiler nutrition is more critical than that of other livestock species for many reasons
‘ The digestive process is rapid, consume feed is voided within 2 to 3 hours
‘ Respiration and circulation is faster
‘ Body temperature is 8-10F higher than most other livestock species
‘ They grow at a more rapid rate and mature at an earlier age than other species
‘ Ability to utilize roughage is minimal
‘ The major objective of broiler feeding is to convert low quality feedstuufs into high quality animal protein for human consumption .In this respect broiler out-performs all other livestock species with current efficiency at close to 2:1 (Atteh, 2004). The economic importance of broiler feeding becomes apparent when it is realised that 55 and 75% of the cost of production of egg and broiler meat respectively is associated with the cost of feed. Broiler are normally fed a starter diet(0-4 weeks) and finisher diet from 5-8 weeks of age. It is recommended that broiler starter be in form of mash or crumbles. The finisher diet should be fed in pellets form, research has shown that birds fed on pelleted diet are more efficient than those on a mash type diets. There is a general agreement that as the energy content of the broiler diet increases less feed is required to reach market weight, and feed conversion is improved, there is however a need to weigh the increase in cost of such feed against the increase in growth and feed conversion to make sure it is profitable. Using calorie, protein ratio is helpful in arriving at realistic nutrients intake. For broiler starters a calorie, protein ratio of 136-141 is recommended, while for broiler growers and finishers, the ratios are 154-158 and 167 -176 respectively.
188.8.131.52 Feeding program for meat chickens
NAS, (1999) gives an estimate of peak rates of feed consumption and weight gain in broiler birds. In their report they look at the correlation between feed consumption and weight gain, the table below shows the correlation between feed consumption and weight gain in broiler birds.
Table 3. Feeding programme and Weight Gain In Broiler Birds
Age (weeks) Type of feed Feed consumption (weekly per bird) Live body weight
kg lb. Kg lb.
1 Chicken starter 0.13 0.29 0.15 0.33
2 Chicken starter 0.28 0.62 0.36 0.79
3 Chicken starter 0.47 1.02 0.65 1.43
4 Chicken grower 0.67 1.48 1.03 2.26
5 Chicken grower 0.85 1.87 1.46 3.21
6 Chicken grower 1.07 2.36 1.91 4.21
7 Chicken finisher 1.18 2.60 2.36 5.20
8 Chicken finisher 1.30 2.86 2.79 6.14
9 Chicken finisher 1.41 3.11 3.20 7.03
Total 7.36 16.20
Source:NAS, 1994(National Academic of Science, USA)
2.4 Litter Management
(Bell and Weaver, 2001) defined litter as materials used as bedding in poultry houses to floor of the house absorbed faecal waste from birds and to make the floor of the house easy to manage. Litter management is very paramount in poultry production, most of the natural mating systems usually takes place under deep litter system, therefore knowledge about the management of litter is very important. An important feature of this system is the presence of litter on the floor, a good litter material should be water absorbent provided good insulation against heat stress, light in weight, dry rapidly absorbs minimum of atmospheric water and be inexpensive. In Nigeria, litter materials with some or all of the above qualities include wood shaving, maize cobs, chopped straws and groundnut hulls, litter is initially 5-7cm thick for chicks and 10-15cm thick for adult birds is designed to prevent accumulation of pathogens in the by mixing with the droppings, to perform this function well the litter should be turned regularly to mix with the droppings. The presence of the droppings in the litter provides a suitable medium for the growth of microbes, which produce the so called animal protein factor (APF) that includes vitamin B12.
A well managed litter has a crumbly consistency , a low concentration of pathogenic organisms and relatively free of ammonia(Atteh, 2004).Well managed deep litter kept in dry condition with no wet sports around water has a sterilizing effect, the level of coccidiosis and worm infestation is much lower watered kept on good deep litter than with birds(or chickens) in bare yards and bare floor shed particularly where water spillage is allowed (Daghir, 2000).The consequences of poor litter management were further discussed by (Atteh, 2004) a poorly managed litter is either too dusty or too wet, forming a ball when compressed in the palm, ammonia concentration will also be high thereby leading to tracheitis which pre ‘disposes the birds to other respiratory diseases, it has also been established that when ammonia concentration is too high this can lead to delay in sexual maturity. Wet litter favours the growth of aspergillus, coccidian and worms, while old litter can also constitute a medium for the transmission of diseases like pullorum, infectious bronchitis and Newcastle diseases. For well managed litter house, it is necessary to start with enough quantities of litter and it’s also recommended that litter be turned with a rake at least three times in a week, to prevent boredom which may lead to vice habits, some little feed can be sprinkled on the litter to encourage the birds to scratch for it and inadvently helped to mix the litter.
2.5 Lighting Management
Lighting programmes for broilers vary widely from company to company, and also depends on the strain of bird used, the housing type (naturally ventilated versus controlled environment), the geographical location and season. where light can be excluded from sheds, birds are typically reared under low intensity(5 to 10 lux)lighting, to keep them calm and to prevent feather pecking during early brooding, 25 lux is used to stimulate feeding(Lewis and Moris,2006). Although it is important to know the intensity of light that falls on each bird, it is the length of time of exposure to light per day that alters the age of the bird at the time the first egg is laid. At day lengths less than 11 hours, egg production cannot be initiated .So during rearing, where possible, maintain day lengths of about 8 hours. The minimum light intensity that is needed for egg production is 0.1-0.2 foot candle(1-2lux) and must be available for at least 12 hours of each day(Atteh, 2004).
Nicaise,(2002)emphasized on the importance of light intensity during broiler breeders life, he explain that light intensity have important role in development of the reproductive system in broiler birds .The difference in day lengths and light intensities between the rearing and the laying phases is the principle factor responsible for controlling and stimulating ovarian and testicular development(Lewis and Morris, 2006).The response to increase in day length and lighting intensity depends on the body weight profile during rearing, which in turn depend on nutritional regim.The effects of light are predominantly on the rate of sexual maturation and egg production. Except during the first days, problems may arise if broilers receive less than 2 h of darkness per day. “Modified lighting programmes” that provide shorter (12-16 hrs)photoperiods between about 4 and 14 days of age would appear to confer benefits for broiler welfare without necessarily compromising performance. Brighter lighting
(e.g more than 100 lux) is important to stimulate activity and is essential for survival in the first week of life. There are various welfare problems at light intensities below 20 lux. Equivalent light intensities in lux units are 25% lower with fluorescent than with incandescent lighting (Prayito et al, 1997).
2.6 Stocking Density
Reiter and Besssei (2003) stated that there is a clear tendency for reduced growth rate at high stocking densities in broilers. (Blokhuis Vander Haar,2009) also stated the effects of stocking density on growth rate. He emphasized on the needs of adequate ventilation for the birds,
as this can cause heat dissipation which is one of the main causes of poor growth when broiler birds are highly stocked. The effect of stocking density on feed conversion and mortality is not consistent among the experimental reports. It seems that poor feed conversion and high mortality occur only concurrently with other stressors such as heat stress. Pathologies (breast blisters, chronic dermatitis and leg disorders) are as a result of high stocking and the presence of infectious agents and hock born has been shown to be worse at 30-40 kg/m2 than at 24 kg/m2(Gordon,2000). Studies have shown that walking ability is severely affected at 45 kg/m2 and is worse at 32 kg/m2 than at 25 kg/m2. Increasing stocking density has been found to reduce behavioural activities in broilers. Studies have Shown that locomotor behaviour, preening and general activity are reduced and disturbance of resting is increased at a higher stocking density in comparisons between 25 and 30, 24 and 32, 28 and 33 and 30 and 36 kg/m2. These findings are all Indicator of poorer welfare at the higher stocking density(Bolten&Thompson,2003).
2.7 Housing Management
Housing in modern poultry is an important input accounting for a major component of the initial capital investment, in modern poultry enterprise the structure are constructed and designed in consideration of bird welfare and efficiency of production (Weaver and Bhagwat, 1996). Broiler housing in rural areas is at a rudimentary stage and field surveys have shown cases where no housing or shelter is provided (Huchzermeyer, 1990), (Atunbi and Sonaiya, 2006).Researches on the economic efficiency of housing of broiler birds in rural areas in Africa are few however, it was reported that where housing is provided to village broiler chickens the houses are made with locally available material such as wood, mud bricks, sugarcane stems, bamboo and cereals stovers (Atunbi and Sonaiya, 2006).
Tauson,(2005)listed four systems of housing generally found to follow among the broiler keepers. The type of housing adapted depends to a large extend on the amount of ground and the capital available
A. Free Range or Extensive System
B. Intensive System
C. Semi-Intensive System
2.7.1 Free Range System or Extensive System
This method is the oldest of all and has been used for centuries by general farmers where there is no shortage of land. This system allows adequate space for the birds on land where they can find an appreciable amount of food in the form of herbage, seeds and insect provided they are protected from predatory animals and infectious diseases including parasitic infestation. Atteh, (2004) explains this housing system as a complete freedom of movement and exposure of the birds to sunshine and pasture while shelters are provided for sleeping at night. In this system birds are given a few grains in the morning and they are allowed to scavenge for supplement freely. When provided shelters are made from various materials from local trees or shrubs, birds in the household flock are typically housed over night in the shelter and are let out in the morning to forage during the day (happars et al, 2009).
Fig 5: Free Range Housing System
2.7.2 Intensive System
In this system the birds are confined to the house entirely with no access to outside the confinement and it is usually adopted where land is limited and expensive. This has only been made possible by admitting the direct rays of the sun on the floor of the house so that par to the windows are removable, or either fold or slide down like window of railways train to permit the birds to have access to ultraviolet rays. Under the intensive system Battery cage and Deep Litter methods are most common.
184.108.40.206 Battery Cages System
This is the most intensive system of poultry production and is useful to those with only small quantity of floor space at their disposal .Nowadays in large cities hardly a poultry lover can spare open lands for rearing birds, for all such people this system allow farmers to keep birds where land is scarced.
Battery cages is the most popular housing system for laying hens used in North America, the cage is made up of small wire unit with access to feeder and water .In this system litter drops through the onto belt or into a pit for disposal ,this system also provided a numbers of advantages for birds which include proper hygiene, less exposure to disease and parasites because of the removal of feces,good air quality and presence of clean eggs(Appleby 1998, Ducan 2000).There are disadvantages as well in this system, space is very limited in battery cages and birds do not have the space to perform important behaviour like nesting, poor bone strength due to cage fatigue is also one of the demerit of cage system(Baxter, 1994).
In the battery system each hen is confined to a cage just large enough to permit very limited movement and allow her to stand to stand and sit comfortably, the usual floor space is 14x16inches and the height is usually 17inches, the floor is of standard strong galvanized wire set at a slope from back to the front,so that the eggs can roll out easily, underneath is a tray for dropping. Both food and water receptacle are positioned outside the cage, many small cages can be joined together if necessary it may be multistoried , the whole structure should be of metal so that no parasites will be harboured and through disinfection can be carried out as often as required . Provided the batteries of cages are set up in the place which is well ventilated and lighted, not to hot and that the food provided for the birds meets all nutritional needs, this system has proved to be highly successful in the tropical countries. The feeding of birds in cages has to be carefully considered as the birds are entirely dependents on the mash for maintenance and production .To supply vitamins A and D , cod liver oil, yeast, dried milk powder are useful / and fish or other animal protein , and balanced minerals and some form of grit must be made available
220.127.116.11 Deep Litter System
According to Atteh, (2004) deep litter system consists of a fixed house usually windowless in the temperate regions and open sided in the tropical areas. An important feature of this system is the presence of litter on the floor, a good litter material should be water absorbent, provided good insulation against heat stress must also be light in weight, dry rapidly absorbs minimum of atmospheric water and be inexpensive. In Nigeria, litter materials with some or all of the above qualities include wood shaving, maize cobs, chopped straws and groundnut hulls. Litter must be initially 5-7cm thick for chicks and 10-15cm thick for adult birds, this is necessary because it prevent accumulation of pathogens when mixed with the droppings, to perform this function well the litter should be turned regularly to mix with the droppings. The presence of the droppings in the litter provides a suitable medium for the growth of microbes, which produce the so called animal protein factor (APF) that includes vitamin B12.
A well managed litter has a crumbly consistency, a low concentration of pathogenic organisms and relatively free of ammonia (Atteh, 2004).Well managed deep litter kept in dry condition prevent infections from coccidiosis and warm infestation. The consequences of poor litter management were further discussed by (Atteh, 2004), a poorly managed litter is either too dusty or too wet, forming a ball when compressed in the palm, ammonia concentration will also be high thereby leading to tracheitis which pre ‘disposes the birds to other respiratory diseases, it has also been established that when ammonia concentration is too high this can lead to delay in sexual maturity. Wet litter favours the growth of aspergillus, coccidian and worms, while old litter can also constitute a medium for the transmission of diseases like pullorum, infectious bronchitis and Newcastle diseases. For well managed litter house, it is necessary to start with enough quantities of litter and it’s also recommended that litter be turned with a rake at least three times in a week. To prevent boredom which may lead to vice habits, some little feed can be sprinkled on the litter to encourage the birds to scratch for it and inadvently helped to mix the litter.
2.8 Semi-Intensive System
Birds reared under this system of production have limited freedom, the system is characterized by the presence of fixed unit which acts as shelter, and a number of fenced runs attached to the fixed unit, the fixed unit could be a real poultry house. Birds stay in the house and have freedom of moving into the runs to scavenge for insect and pasture during the day and move back to the fixed unit during inclement weather and for roosting in the evening, the birds could be given reduced quantity of feed and allowed to augment this with insects and pasture (Atteh, 2004).Petitte, (1990) explains semi-intensive system, as the system that combines the advantages and disadvantages of both the intensive and extensive system of management. For commercial broiler production, the system is obsolete because the stocking density depends on the quality of pasture available in the runs.
Semi-Intensive system, a space of 20-30 square yards is to be allowed per each bird of outside run
2.9 Artificial Insemination
Artificial Insemination involved the introduction of semen into the female oviduct by methods other than natural mating, it is one of a group of technologies ( ART) whereby offspring are generated by facilitating the meeting of gametes(spermatozoa and oozytes).Artificial insemination has gained considerable attention and has been widely applied in poultry industry. Process of artificial insemination have been reviewed by many researchers which include Sexton(1998), Lake (1995) and Donoghue (2006). Burrows and Quinn (1937), were the two major pioneers who developed the method of abdominal massage and pressure to collect semen .In their respective researches they explain the process of AI,the procedure involved collection of semen from the male birds and inseminating into the females oviducts, the major use of AI is in heavy birds whose fertility is generally low under pen mating. It also practiced when the layers are kept in a cages. Excellent fecundity has been obtained by the use of artificial insemination in many cases than that obtained by natural mating (Wishart, 2001).
2.9.1 Process of artificial insemination in broiler production
Brillard, 2003 explain the following as an important process in artificial Insemination,these Includes
‘ Preparation of Males
‘ Preparation of Equipments
‘ Collection (Milking) of semen from Males
‘ Evaluation of Semen
‘ Dilution of Semen and
‘ Deposition of Semen in the female Vagina
18.104.22.168 Preparation of Males
Males used for A.I. should be healthy and free from any physical abnormality or disability, they should also be supplied with high quality feed balanced diet in their feed placed on balanced breeder ration a month before actual collection will take place(Brillard, 2003).It was also established by Walser, (2002) that the male birds can be housed in individual cages, but they need to have enough space in order to be able to move, 45 cm wide, 60 cm deep and 60 cm high were recommended as the appropriate cage size.It was also established from their various reports that the feed and water containers should be hung outside the cage.Brillard in his report further explained that male birds during collection of semen should be handled gently.Ducan, (1996) also posited that during the collection of semen, it is essential that visitors should not be allowed into pen houses as this can caused the birds to be frightened, and also this can caused the semen to be seized. It is a good practice to know that the males are housed in close- proximity to the hens so that the time between collection and insemination is kept to a minimum as this will prevent the semen to be cold, this is paramount because when semen get too cold this can reduce fertility. It was revealed by Morgan, (2005) that the flocks should be fumigated promptly as reduce the incidence of external parasite particularly lice. He also reported that for easy semen collection, the feathers around the male organ should be clipped. In his research he also laid emphasis on the importance of grading the male birds before insemination commenced in a particular flock as this will allow continuous usage of semen before such flock became spent.
22.214.171.124 Preparation of Equipments
Artificial insemination equipments are simple. Figure below shows tools most often used when inseminating a small number of birds. More complicated equipments are used when production is on large commercial scale, these include injection guns, collection aspirators and temperature-controlled semen containers, syringe, trolley, bucket etc.
Fig 6.Showing some of the artificial insemination equipments
Many researchers have talked about the equipments required for A.I.,they include ( Brillard, 2003) ,(Duncan, 1996), (petite et al, 2000),in their various researches they have the same conclusion which indicated that before artificial insemination can commenced there are some materials that are needed which include:syringe,connecting tube,forcept and funnel, trolley, injection guns, aspirator etc.In their various researches it was further pointed out that the vaccination team have to include the semen collector, which will include the semen collector and the funnel holder, the inserminator,the person changing the tips and finally the person opening the vent so that the inseminator can inject the semen into the vent.
126.96.36.199 Collection of Semen from Males
The technique of artificial insemination begins with the collection of the semen. It was established from Indian Poultry Association(IPA) that, the volume of semen in the male broiler birds can be increase, if they are given feed that supply them with all needed nutrients, it was also gathered from their reports that garlic and sperm fort can be used to enhance the volume of semen. Burton,( 2006)shows the importance of feed restriction from broiler male birds, in his research he made it clear that the birds should be restricted from feed for twelve hours prio to collection of semen in order to have clean semen or avoid the semen been contaminated. Brillard, (2003) posited that the cock should be held with the left hand and allowing the head protrude under the arm. The cock is then massaged with right hand to stimulate ejaculation. The fingers of the right hand are spread at the start of the stroke but brought together at the end of the stroke so as to converge on the vent. The stroking of males continues until the thumb and index finger converged at the vent. Such a stimulus causes the trained male to avert or protrude the vent region. When this stroking occurs, a quick motion of strokes will cause semen to be ejaculated from the male. Pressure is applied in the thumb and index finger both inward and downward at point just a little above the vent.
Fig 7: Collection of semen from the male broiler bird
188.8.131.52 Precautions while Collecting the Semen
‘ The males’ birds should be separated from females at least one week before an attempt is made to collect the semen to prevent reduction in the volume of the semen.
‘ The feathers around vent should be clipped as this will facilitate easy collection of semen.
‘ Collection of semen should be done minimum of three times in a week.
‘ Contaminated semen during course of collection should not be used.
184.108.40.206 Evaluation of Semen
Mistle, (2003) reported that domestic birds ejaculate is characteristically highly concentrated and low volume. The volume of semen obtained while artificial collection is quite varies, the sperm cells mixed with secretary fluid from the engorged phallic apparatus and some time mixed with wastes from digestive & urinary tracts. The contributions of these factors have been reported to be minute in the overall composition of the semen.
The fertilizing ability of semen depends on its quality. Semen can be evaluated based on its volume, motility of the sperm, pH, sperm concentration, relative percentages of live to dead sperm. (Boshouwers&Nicaise,2010).Good quality chicken semen is pearly white and opaque.It was also revealed by (Moris,2006) that the semen volume ejaculated is about 0.5 -0.75 ml, with sperm concentration of about 4 billion per millilitre.
220.127.116.11 Dilution of Semen
The spermatozoa begin to lose their potency after its collection, fertility is drastically reduced when semen are kept in a longer period of time without inseminated (IPA, 2001).In their report it was further revealed that semen should be used within 30-45 minutes of its collection, to avoid fertility been reduced.
Successful short-term preservation of unfrozen avian semen requires the collection of clean, quality samples which must be handled with care after its collection. With most diluents, avian sperm survive best when kept in cool condition (5-15??C). Levels of fertility obtained with frozen chicken semen are high enough to allow conservation of selected germplasm by poultry breeding organizations but too low to allow wide spread commercial use.
(IPA,2001) it was also reported from their research that concentrated semen can be diluted so that large number of birds can be inseminated. However, the semen can be used directly without diluted, it was further explained that A.I. should be done as early as possible after dilution because fertilization reduces on storage. The diluents should be added at a ratio of 1: 2 ‘ 4.
18.104.22.168 Insemination of the Semen
The recommended dose for undiluted, good quality semen to be used is 0.05 ml but for diluted semen dose varies from 0.03 to 0.06 ml/every 3 ‘ 4 days to maintain good fertility(Brillard, 2003).IPA report, (2001)explained the importance of timing in artificial insemination, in their report it was stated that the best time to carried out artificial insemination in broiler production is between 2,clock pm to 4,clock pm,it was further revealed that timing in artificial insemination is an important factor that affects fertility. Report from McDaniel and Sexton,(2002) suggested that reduced in fertility are usually experienced in hens inseminated in the morning.
These authors also conclude that this effect of timing in artificial insemination is relative to time of oviposition .An egg in the upper oviduct at time of insemination seems to dramatically reduce fertility. Late afternoon or early evening inseminations therefore seem ideal. However such timing does not always correspond to the most efficient work load at the farm, and handling breeders during the time of early shell calcification (late afternoon) can lead to more body checked eggs which themselves rarely hatch due to reduced porosity of the shell. The process of artificial insemination requires two people. One man with his left hand holding the lower thighs of the hen and with the right hand applies pressure on the abdomen below the cloaca to avert the vagina. As the vagina is opened the second man gently inserted the syringe into the depth of 3cm into the oviduct and the semen released. Soon after the insemination, optimum number of spermatozoa enters the primary storage glands (sperm storage glands) at utero ‘ vaginal juncture. Sperm are rarely found in the infundibulum storage site unless semen is introduced into the oviduct in such a way that it by passes the utero ‘ vaginal glands, finally fertilization of egg takes place in infundibulum. In most time, c after a single mating or insemination, eggs will remain fertilised for up to 3 to 4 weeks, but the fertility will be reduced as time advances. When preparing to inseminate the female, the oviduct must be exposed. In inseminate the female; one person holds the bird in both legs in a horizontal position with its head toward him and under his right arm. The second person inserts the index finger of his left hand into the vent and, the opening of the oviduct is located. The syringe is inserted into the vent and into the oviduct and finally the semen are released.
Adezen,(2004)posited that the female birds for insemination should be inseminated with 0.05ml doses of semen which should be three to four times in a week to be at safer side. In his research he further explained that the birds should not be stressed before insemination commenced and also when no any obstructions are in the uterus, in other to have good result. Fertile eggs can be produced by artificial insemination and if its properly done, the level of fertility can be as high or higher than those obtained with natural mating. The person collecting the semen hold the bird at thigh which is then stimulated by stroking gently the back from the middle towards the tail fether, while at the same time stroking the abdomen towards the vent with the other hand. After doing this severally, the pubic bones are massaged lightly by the index finger and the thumb,this causes the male broiler bird to produce semen through ejaculation along the base of the phallus, which the second person now collected through a suitable funnel.
Fig 8:Artificial Insemination of Broiler Birds
3.1 The Study Area
The study was carried out in Oyo State. Oyo State was created in 1976 from the formal western state .it’s capital was situated in Ibadan. Oyo State comprises of 33 Local Government Area .Oyo State covers approximately an area of 28,454 square ,it is bounded in the south by Ogun State , in north by Kwara State in the west it is partly bounded Ogun State and partly by the republic of Benin , while in the east by Osun State .It has a population of 5,591,589(census report,2006) with a population density of 211 people /sq km.The main cities and towns include Ibadan (metropolis),Eruwa, Igbo-ora, Igboho, Ilora, Iseyin ,Keshi,Ogbomoso,Okeho, Oyo and Saki. Christianity and Islam are the main religions in Oyo State although a certain amount of traditional religion is also practised .The main ethnic group in Oyo State is the Yoruba people and Yoruba is the only indigenous language spoken in the state. The state has two distinct climate seasons; the climate is equatorial, notably with dry and wet relatively accompanied with high humidity. The dry season commenced from November to March while the wet season started from April and ends in October. Average d temperature ranges between 25??c(77.0 ??F) and 35??c(95.0 ??F), almost throughout the year. This climatic condition as well as fertile soil makes it favourable for livestock and crop production (OYO, MANR), Oyo State Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources.
3.2 Sources of Data and Sampling Procedure
The data for this study was collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 60 registered broiler farmers using artificial insemination in their various farms were randomly selected due to their active participation with respect to artificial insemination in broiler production. The data that was used for this study was collected through interview schedule and a well structured questionnaire, information sought out for include socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, input and output data, production efficiency and the constraints facing them. The secondary source of data was obtained from project coordinating unit(PCU),CBN annual report, Federal Office of Statistics(FOS),Federal Department of Agriculture(FDA), PAN(poultry Association of Nigeria) ,Internet and journals.
3.3 Data Analysis
The target population for this study were registered poultry farmers as contained in the information from poultry association of Nigeria (PAN), Oyo State chapter. A single stage sampling technique was used in selecting the respondents; this involved a random selection of 60 broiler farmers using artificial insemination in Oyo State based on the information received from Poultry Association of Nigeria(PAN).
3.4 Analytical Techniques
‘ The data collected were subjected to frequency and percentage analysis so that the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers were clearly presented.
‘ To estimate costs and returns of broiler farmers using artificial insemination, gross margin analysis was used. Some profitability ratio were also used. This includes determination of gross margin of the farmers, return to farm management and labour, operating ratio, gross ratio and return on capital invested by the farmers. Gross margin is the difference between the gross value of farm output (Gross Farm Income, GFI) and Economic Analysis of broiler farmers using artificial insemination in Oyo State.
The Total Variable Cost (TVC). It is a useful planning tool in situations where fixed capital is just a negligible portion of the farming enterprises.
GM = GFI ‘ TVC
Where GM = Gross Margin, GFI = Gross Farm Income (gross value of output), TVC = Total Variable Cost.
Return to farm management and labour = Gross Margin ‘ Imputed costs
Gross Ratio is a profitability ratio that measures the overall success of the farm. The lower the ratio, the higher the the return per naira.
GR = TFE/GI
Where GR = Gross Ratio, TFE = Total Farm Expenses and GI = Gross Income
Operating Ratio is directly is directly related to the farm variable input usage. The lower the ratio, the higher the profitability of the farm business.
OR = TOC/GI
Where OR = Operating Ratio, TOC = Total Operating Cost and GI = Gross Income
Return on capital invested is defined as gross margin divided by total variable cost
RI = GM/TVC
Where RI = Return on Capital Invested, GM = Gross Margin and TVC = Total Variable Cost
‘ To know wether the broiler farmers using artificial insemination are technically efficient, the cob-douglas function was used to estimate the technical efficiency in the stochastic production frontier.
The explicit form of the model will be written thus:
Yi = f(Xi, ‘) + (Vi ‘ Ui)
Where: Yi was the output of the ith farm
Xi was a k x l was a vector of input quantities of the ith farm
‘ denotes the vector of unknown parameters to be estimated
Vi Was the random variables which are assumed to be normally distributed N(0,’v2). It is assumed to account for measurement error and other factors not under the control of the farmers.
A Cobb-Douglas production model of the frontier that was used for this study was presented as follows:
lnY = ‘o + ‘1lnX1 + ‘2lnX2 + ‘3lnX3 + ‘4lnX4 + ‘5lnX5 + ‘6lnX6 + Vi ‘ Ui
where ln=natural logarithm
i=it h sample of poultry farmer
Y=The Total Value of output
X4= No of egg set
The inefficiency part of the model was represented by Ui which is defined as follows:
Ui = Technical inefficiency
Ui = d0 + d1z1+ d2z2 + d3z3 + d4z4 + ‘. + dnzn’
z1 = Age (years)
z2 = Education
z3 = Business commitment
z4 = Extension visit(Yes=1,No=0)
z5 = Poultry experience
z6 = Membership of association (Yes = 1, No = 0)
d0, d1, d2,’, = Parameters to be estimated.
Since the dependent variable of the inefficiency model represents the mode of inefficiency, a positive sign of an estimated parameter indicated that the associated variable has a negative effect on efficiency but positive effect on inefficiency and vice versa (Yao and Liu, 1998; Rahji, 2005).
‘ The stochastic frontier model was used to analyse the determinants of inefficiency among the farmers.
‘ In order to examine the constraints affecting broiler farmers using artificial insemination,likert analysis was used ,Where the frequency of six major problems affecting the poultry farmers were placed on three points likert scale where 1 indicated not severe,2 severe and 3 strongly severe.
RESULTS AND DICUSSION
4.1 Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Respondents
This section examines the socio-economic profile of farmers using artificial insemination in the study area.The socio-economic features considered are age, gender,marital status, business commitment,educaional status, source of capital, stock size and poultry experience. The analysis of these socio-economic features were presented below.
Table 4: Shows the Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Respondents ( N=60)
Male 48 80.0
Female 12 20.0
Single 8 13.3
Married 52 86.7
No Formal Education 1 1.7
Adult Education 2 3.3
Primary Education 7 11.7
Secondary Education 31 51.7
Post Secondary Education 19 31.7
30-39 3 5
40-49 20 33.2
50-59 32 53.5
‘ 60 5 8.3
Source of Capital
Savings 1 1.7
Banks 45 75
Cooperatives 13 21.7
Friends and Relatives 1 1.7
1-3 8 13.3
4-5 25 41.7
No visit 28 46.7
Once 29 48.3
Twice 3 5.0
Part time 15 25
Full time 45 75
Table 4 shows that 80% of the farmers were males while 20% of them were females. This might result from the fact that poultry production is very strenuous. This may explain why many women are not involved in artificial insemination in broiler production in the study area.
About 86.7% of the respondents were married, indicating their chances of getting family labour for use on the farm. None of the respondents was neither divorced nor windowed, while 13.3 percent were single
The educational status of the respondents indicates that both secondary and tertiary education have the highest percentages of respondents which were 51.7and 31.7 respectively, while respondents with adult education and those without formal education have the lowest percentages 3.3 and 1.7 respectively. The reasons why secondary and tertiary education have the highest numbers of respondents might not be too farfetched due to the fact that artificial insemination is a modern technique in poultry production especially. It application requires sound education and knowledge which may not be available to less educated individuals.
Age is an index of the number of years the farmers have lived. Table 4 shows that the highest number of respondents fell within the age range 50-59(53.5%), while the lowest number of the respondents fell within the age range 30-39(5%).The highest percentage of farmers(53.5%)were found in the age bracket 50-59. This agrees with the fact that artificial insemination requires huge amount of capital for it proper application and most of the youths lack the requisite capital to adopt artificial insemination in poultry production.
Farming experience is a prerequisite for skill acquisition. Table 4 shows that 41.7% of the farmers have 5 years of experience in poultry production, while 33.3 percent of them have 7 years experience,13.3 percent of the respondents have the lowest years of experience that ranges between 1-3 years. Meanwhile, the mean farming experience of the farmers was 5.2 years.
The majority of the farmers (75%) engaged in poultry involving artificial insemination on full-time basis .Those who engage in practice on part-time basis were 25%.Investigations during survey revealed that the part-time farmers were mainly professionals such as teachers, lawyers, bankers and politician.
Extension services provide vital information to farmers with respect to their production. Extension agents serve as an intermediary between the farmers and the quarantine agents. Table 4 reveals that 48.3% of the farmers had extension visit once per production cycle. Only 5%of the farmers were visited twice. While 46.7% of the farmers had no access to extension services.
Table:5 Shows the land characteristics
20-34 8 13.3
35-49 14 23.3
50-64 15 25
65-79 8 13.3
80-94 8 13.3
95-109 6 10
110-124 1 1.8
Inheritance 24 40
Purchased 36 60
4.2 Land Characteristics
Distribution of the farmers by farm size, shows that most of the farmers had large expanse of land for their operations. The mean farm size was 60.9 hectres.Table 5 shows that 38.4% of the farmers have farm size greater than the average.
Table 5 shows that 60% of the farmers acquired their land used through purchased, while the remaining 40% acquired their land through inheritance. This must have been due to the fact that large expanse of land will be needed because artificial insemination in poultry production is usually operated in a large scale
Table 5: Shows the labour use by the Farmers
Hired 45 75
Family 5 8.3
Family and Hired 10 16.7
4.3 Labour Usage By The Farmers
Labour is a human effort employed in a production.Of all the factors of production, labour is very important and is supplied by both men and women.Table 5, shows that hired labour is the major source of labour used by the farmers as this accounts for 75%. Since artificial insemination in poultry production usually operated on large scale, labour that will be required will be higher. It was also revealed from table 5 that family labour had the lowest percentage (8.3%)
Table 6: Shows Capital Usage by the Farmers
Source of Capital Frequency Percentage
Savings 1 1.7
Banks 45 75
Cooperatives 13 21.7
Friends and Family 1 1.7
4.4 Capital Resource By The Farmers
Access to credit is an important instrument that enables farmers generally to have commands over the use of working capital. It was indicated from the result of the research conducted that 75% of the farmers sourced their capital from banks.It was also revealed from table 6 that greater proportion of the farmers sourced capital through cooperative.Just about 3.4% of the farmers acquired their capital through personal savings,friends and family.These results suggest that poultry production involving artificial insemination is capital intensive venture whose fund may not be met by a mere individual efforts.
Table 7:Stock Size of The Farmers
Stock Size(No of Birds) Frequency Percentages
Less than 25000 3 5
25000-45000 8 13.3
450001-65000 27 44.9
650001-85000 15 25.1
850001-105000 6 10
1050001-125000 1 1.7
4.5 Farm Size of The Farmers
Table 7 shows that about 95% of the farmers had a stock size of at least 25000 birds.The mean stock size of the farmers was about 60,000 .This shows that poultry production involving artificial insemination is practised mainly on large scale.It was also revealed from table 7 that, 31.8% of the farmers have stock size greater than the average.
Table 8: Shows Profitability Analysis of the respondents
A.Gross Value of output 421,215,250
Cost of Stock 14,400,000
Cost of Feed 46,032,383
Cost of Vaccines and Drugs 8,623,256
Cost of Hatching 4,062,476
Cost of Labour 6,0998,25
Cost of Litter 17497
Cost of Charcoal 46407
Total Variable Cost 79,281,844
Depreciation on equipment 9,328,166
Imputed cost on Rent 3,632530
Total Fixed Cost 12,960,696
D. Total production Cost 92,242,540
E. Gross Margin= A-B 341,933,406
Net farm Income 332,605,240
F. Returns to farm management and labour=E-C
Gross Ratio=B+C/A 0.22
Operating Ratio=B/A 0.20
Return on Capital Invested=E/B 4.3
4.6 Analysis of Costs and Returns Among the Farmers
Given the gross margin of N34,933,406 the returns to farm management and labour by the farmers is N325,340,180 . The operating ratio for the respondents was 20% implying that 20% of gross income was used for operating expenses. The return on capital invested of 4.3 obtained implies that for every N1 invested, N4.3 was earned as returns from broiler production. Thus, the results from Tables 9 shows that poultry production by the broiler farmers using artificial insemination was a profitable venture
Table 9:Shows Distribution of Respondents by Technical Efficiency Estimates.
Level Efficiency(%) percentage Percentage Minimum Maximum
1-20 1 1.7 18.50 20.0
21-40 3 5.0 24.00 29.08
41-60 2 3.3 55.35 57.03
61-80 18 30.0 66.94 80.47
81-100 36 60.0 82.62 99.40
Total 60 100 18.50 99.40
Table 9 shows that technical efficiency level of the farmers in the study area.The technical efficiency of the farmers ranges from 18.5% to 99.40%.The mean technical efficiency was 80.70%The mean value indicates that if efficiency of inputs usage is increased by 19.30%(100-80.70),the farmers will be operating on the production frontier.This indicates that opportunies still exists for the farmers to increase their productivity and income through increased efficiency in the use of existing farm technology.
4.7 Determinants of Technical Inefficiency
The result of the maximum likelihood estimates of the production frontier function used for this study is presented in the table 10. The table shows that gamma has a coefficient that is significant. This implies that there is the presence of technical inefficiency in poultry production among the respondents. With an estimated gamma value of 0.807, this study shows that about 81% of the variation in the output of the respondents from the frontier is due to their technical inefficiency. The inefficiency model shows that it was only the coefficients of extension service that was positively related and significant. The coefficient of education however, is significant but negatively related to inefficiency. the coefficients for feed, stock size and vaccine are positive and statistically significant. These shows that increase in the use of the inputs will increase output of production activities of the poultry farmers.
The inefficiency model shows that it was only the coefficients of extension service that was positively related and significant. The coefficient of education however, is significant but negatively related to inefficiency.
Usage of extension services is positively related to technical inefficiency. One might expect this variable to be negatively related to technical inefficiency.The positive relationship however may be due to lack of trust among the farmers on the potency of the information received from extension, this is in line with Rapheal(2008). Level of education is negatively related to technical inefficiency.This implies that there is increase in level of technical efficiency as level of education increases.This my result from the fact that educated farmers are more innovative and can easily adopt best practices that would better their output more than less educated ones.
Table 10:Shows Stochastic Production Frontier of the Farmers.
Coefficients SE t-value
Constant 6.532 1.050 6.218
Land 0.016 0.062 0.188
Feed 0.681*** 0.093 7.315
Vaccine 0.009*** 0.025 3.475
No of egg set 0.148 0.127 1.165
Labour 0.006 0.079 -0.825
Stock Size 0.032* 0.026 1.675
Constant -1.137 1.017 -1.118
Age 0.161 0.289 0.558
Education -0.486** 0.231 -2.100
Business Commitment -0.165 0.344 -0.478
Extension Visit 0.929** 0.445 2.086
Poultry Experience -0.292 0.635 -0.460
Membership Association 0.451 0.491 0.918
Sigma Squared 0.297*** 0.059 5.05
Gamma 0.807*** 0.004 8.032
*Significant at 10% level of probability,
** Significant at 5% level of probability,
*** Significant at 1% level of probability
Source: Data Analysis 2014.
Table 11: shows the constraints facing the poultry farmers using artificial insemination in the study area.
Strongly Severed Severed Not severed Weighted Score Mean Ranking
Inadequate Capital 5
(18.3) 114 1.90 2nd
Poor market for output 5
(41.7) 70 1.20 6th
Diseases Infection 18
(36.7) 116 1.93 1st
Inadequate labour 10
(58.3) 95 1.60 5th
Transportation problem 12
(35) 111 1.85 3rd
Technical problem 13
(46.6) 105 1.75 4th
*Values in bracket represent the percentage of each of the problems
*Not Severed =1
4.8 Analysis of Constraints Affecting Broiler Farmers Using Artificial Insemination
Table 11 shows that the major constraint affecting the farmers using AI in broiler production in the study area was diseases infection. Other problems faced by the farmers include: Inadequate capital, inadequate transportation, technical problem, inadequate labour, poor market for output.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Data were collected from 60 respondents through questionnaire using a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques. Descriptive tools cost and return analysis, likert analysis and stochastic model were used for the analysis. Majority of the respondents were males(80%), married(86.7),majority of them were educated .Most of them had no access to extension services(46.7),majority of the farmers, financed their operation through banks(75%).The gross margin, return to management and labour, gross ratio, operating ratio and return to capital invested by the farmers were N338,300,876,N325,340,180, 0.23,0.20 and N4.3 respectively. This study also analysed the technical efficiency of the farmers using artificial of the farmers using artificial insemination in broiler production. Random sampling technique was used in selecting 60 respondents distributed across all the farms in Oyo State. Stochastic frontier was employed in the study. The study shows that efficiency differentials exist among the broiler poultry farmers. Furthermore, feed, vaccine and stock size are the major factor that affects output of the broiler farmers using artificial insemination. The technical efficiency of the broiler ranges from 18.5% to 99.40% with mean of 81%.The study also shows that level of education, extension visit are the significant factors that account for the observed variation in efficiency among the respondents, This study recommends the need for farm expansion, increased access to feed, vaccine as well as effective education for the farmers.
Based on the findings of this research, it can be concluded that artificial insemination is a profitable venture in poultry production among the broiler farmers.
In order to improve on the efficiency of farmers using artificial insemination of broiler production in Oyo State. the following recommendations are suggested:
1. The respondents should be assisted to have better access to the necessary inputs of production such as feed, vaccine and number of DOC, as these inputs increases, the output also increases.
2. Education should be encouraged among the poultry farmers using artificial insemination in the study area, as this has positive effect on their efficiency.
3. The extension services in the state should be overhauled. This is with the aim of enlisting the confidence of the participants on the usefulness of extension information.
4. Finally, the government has a role to play in reducing the marketing problem confronting the farmers, by ensuring that the marketing system is improved upon.
5. Since artificial insemination is capital intensive but profitable venture, therefore the government should come in by allowing the farmers to have access to loan with low interest rate
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