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Essay: Schools and colleges as organisations

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  • Subject area(s): Education essays
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  • Published: June 11, 2021*
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  • Schools and colleges as organisations
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This report aims to understand the working structure in a learning environment. It covers the knowledge and understanding of structure in education and also it covers how schools and colleges have organized their; ethos, mission, aims, and values. It will cover what is the purpose of policies and procedures in education.

1.1: Types of early years provision

All children age three to four years are entitled 15 hours of early years education free of cost. The 2004 announcement has extended the 15 hours entitlement for the age group from three years old to two years old. The families would be entitled to two years old funding if they are in receipt of benefits such as; income support, child tax credit with low income etc.
In 2016 the government has announced an increase in funding hours for three and four years old children from 15 hours to 30 hours of free education for working parents.

Registered childminders.

Registered childminders are self-employed childcare professionals who work in their own homes caring for other people’s children.


working parents can employ Nannies to look after their children in their parental home.

Day nurseries.

Day nurseries operate all year around. They take care and educate children from three months to five years.


Pre-schools provide play and education sessions for children between two- and five-years children. Most pre-schools will be open five mornings a week, with some providing afternoon sessions as well. Some have flexibility on the sessions, while others are more organized with children attending five full mornings or five full afternoons. Pre-schools and playgroups tend to run term time only, from around 9 are to lunchtime or from lunchtime to around 3 or 4 pm, depending on the sessions they operate.

Nursery classes.

Some schools have nursery classes as part of their offer. These can be a very well introduction for children to the school and the group of children they will meet in Reception. Nursery classes accept children for the academic year before they would start school. Nursery classes operate during school hours, term time only, with a session in the morning and a session in the afternoon.

Care for disabled children

I disabled children need more specialized care to meet their needs. Many childcare providers offer care for children with special educational needs and/or disabilities (SEND), and there are some settings dedicated to the care of disabled children. they provide a solid understanding of children’s development.

All children from age of three to four are entitled to free 15 hours of early years education. In 2004 new entailment announce, 15 hours free entitlement has extended to two years old from three years. To entitle for two years funding families must be in receipt of benefits such as income support and child tax credit with low income and etc.

In 2016 the Government announces an increase in funded hours for three and four years from 15 hours extended to 30 hours of free education. To entitled for 30 hours both parents should be working. ( early years provisions)

1.2 Key stages of the statutory framework for learning in own UK Home Nation

Foundation stage.

The statutory framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage for children from birth to five set a standard for the learning, development, and care of children. All schools and Ofsted-registered early years providers must follow the EYFS, including childminders, preschools, nurseries, and school reception classes.

Key stage 1:

As provided information that, Key stage 1 start from the age of five to seven years old in a year group of 1 and 2. In key stage 1, all the subject must be thought through by education providers. Key stage 1 can be provided by the UK maintained schools, non-maintained schools, state schools, in depended schools. All the provider must make sure that sets of the framework for the national curriculum must be followed. National tests and teacher assessments in English, maths, and science required. At key stage 1, year 1, children will be learning their phonics. The check will take place by a class teacher in June when children will read 40 words out loud to a teacher. the result will indicate how the child did and the class teacher will assess whether a child needs more help with reading. If a child doesn’t, do well enough in the test they will have to do it again in year two.

Key stage test covers English reading, English grammar, punctuation, and spelling and maths. National compulsory curriculum subjects at primary school are, English, Maths, Science, Design and Technology, History, Geography, Art and Design, Music, Physical Education (PE), including swimming, computing. At the end of Year 2, children take SATs in, Reading
English grammar, punctuation, and spelling and Maths. The test result will help the teacher how the child did or if a child needs extra help. (
Key stage two
Pupil starts key stage two at the age of eight and ending at the age of eleven. all pupils in this stage must follow a program of education in these twelve subjects, English, Mathematics, Science, Design Technology, History, Geography, Art and Design, Music, Physical Education (PE) including swimming, Computing, Ancient and Modern Foreign Languages, Religious Education. Religious Education must be provided by schools and parents can be allowed to withdraw their child from Religious Education. Other options at key stage two are some schools teach Personal, Social and Health education as well.
SATs (national tests) tests take place in May at the end of key stage two, pupils in year six set for SATs tests at age of eleven. SATs tests cover English and Mathematics. class teachers are not allowed to mark it mark externally.
As stated the result shows pupils’ skills in English reading, English grammar, punctuation and spelling, and Maths. the tests are less than four hours. Class teachers also will carry a judgment assessment for each individual pupil what they have seen in the classroom to form a teacher assessment. teacher assessment will be about judgments about a pupil’s progress and attainment. Before the end of school term all year six students will receive their SATs results with teacher assessment. the result of the test will show the strengths and weakness of a child and will help teachers to identify where the pupil may need more help and support as they move into year seven and start their secondary education. ( Curriculum)
Key stage 3
Key stage 3 curriculum aims to empower young people to achieve their potential and to make informed and responsible decisions through their lives. The curriculum objectives to develop young person as an individual, as a contributor to society and as a contributor to the economy and environment. Key stage 3 objectives learning for life and work to empower the young person personal development such as personal understanding, mutual understanding, moral character, and spiritual awareness. Area of learning Art, English, and society, Mathematics, Modern Languages, Physical Education, Science and Technology and Religious Education.
Key Stage 4 (GCSE)
During key stage 4 most pupils work towards national qualifications – usually GCSEs. The compulsory national curriculum subjects are the ‘core’ and ‘foundation’ subjects. Core subjects are English, maths, science.
Foundation subjects are:
Computing, physical education, citizenship, and Schools must also offer at least one subject from each of these areas: arts, design and technology, humanities, modern foreign languages
Key Stage 5
A LEVEL Students will normally take 4 subjects in Year 12. During the year, they will decide which subject they will not continue with into Y13 and will be able to take the AS qualification in that subject. Some students will start with 3 subjects and will be expected to continue with all three for the two years
A prior pass at GCSE grade is generally required for entrance to a subject. Students are expected to have 5 GCSEs at A* to C (9-4) which should include English Language and Mathematics. Individuals who have missed out on getting English or Mathematics at GCSE will be considered on an individual basis and required to re-take the subject during Y12 and/or Y13. ( Curriculum)
1.3 Explain post-16 options for young people and adults
Post 16 options for young people and adults
As described Post-16 options are full-time education (e.g. at a school or college), an apprenticeship or traineeship, or part-time education or training – as well as being employed, self-employed or volunteering for 20 hours or more a week. (
International Baccalaureate (IB)
programme of education for 16-19-year-old students, this is an internationally recognized course, taken by students all around the world. Until recently in the UK it was only taught in a minority of independent schools but is now on offer at some state schools.
The IB leads to a qualification called the IB Diploma, which is well respected by universities and is also an advantage for young people hoping to study overseas.
Further Education and Vocational courses Higher National Diplomas (HNDs) are a further education qualification for 14-19-year-olds in England. They aim to provide more options for practical learning, less classroom-based than A-levels, and to encourage more young people to continue studying. They are ideal for those who are aiming to work in a specific and specialist industry, such as Travel and Tourism or Finance.
National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are work-based awards in England, Wales and Northern Ireland that are achieved through assessment and training. In Scotland, they are known as Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQs).
Apprenticeships are an excellent way of gaining qualifications and workplace experience at the same time. As an employee, you can earn as you learn, and you gain practical skills from the workplace.
Apprenticeship training is offered by FE colleges and other training providers, often on a day release basis.
Apprenticeships combine practical training in a job with study. They are paid, so offer the opportunity to learn while bringing in a wage. Young people have the chance to work alongside experienced staff and gain skills unique to the workplace, as well as an increasingly well-respected qualification, over a period of one to four years.
It is possible to apply for an apprenticeship while still at school, with a view to beginning directly after.
If you are not yet experienced enough to apply for an apprenticeship, you may be eligible to apply for a traineeship, which is designed to provide you with the necessary training to progress to employment or an apprenticeship. You will earn a wage as part of your traineeship.
Schools offer a range of courses to meet needs and interests. These include A levels, other academic courses, and Vocational programmes. (
2.1 Roles and responsibilities
According to Burnham (2011), School Governors are usually a team of ten to twelve people, although there can be up to twenty who have the responsibility of running the school. They will be made up of a variety of people who will have links with schools and the local community. There should be one parent Governor and at least one staff Governor, in addition, to be the Head Teacher. A good Governing Body is important to a school’s success. Governors make key decisions, like appointing Headteacher and other members of staff, and through involvement with strategic direction. Governors’ decisions directly affect the education and well-being of children. Governor’s work can really make a difference in improving standards throughout a school.
Chantry Primary Academy Governors
Chantry Primary Academy Governors team made of eight people who are the Chair of Governors, Vice Chair to the Governors, Community Governors, Parent Governors, Staff Governors, and Foundation Governors bodies.
At Chantry Primary Academy Governors have a duty to ensure that policies are being adhered to throughout the school. Visits and observations are part of this monitoring system. These visits are also an important form of evidence in the case of an Ofsted inspection.
Three Key roles for Chantry Primary Academy Governing Body
Strategic Direction
To provide Strategic Direction Chantry Primary Academy Governors Body team will be agreeing with the aims and values of the school and making sure that the school to be stick to its policies, budgets, and plans. At Chantry Primary Academy Governors Body team provide Strategic Direction as a bellow.
Responding to Ofsted inspections
Keeping informed about the quality and standards of education in the Chantry Primary Academy including pupil achievement and progress.
Taking direct responsibility for the recruitment of staff and for some disciplinary matters while recognizing the Head teacher’s responsibility for day to day management of the Chantry Primary Academy.
Contribute to the admissions policy system.
To act as a Critical friend
At Chantry Primary School, Governors believe that regular visits to the school, both informally and formally, help to create and maintain a positive relationship with the staff team. Staff at Chantry welcome feedback and work positively with Governors to sustain these good relationships and work together. To act as Critical friend Chantry Primary School, Governor discuss observations with the teachers, Head of School and Executive. Governors will be Supporting and advising the Headteacher and agreeing with the main points about important changes.
To ensure Accountability
At Chantry Primary Academy all Governors make sure that parents are kept informed about what is happening in the school. To provide up to date information Chantry Primary Academy send newsletters every Friday and Chantry Primary website aims to keep school community and parents up to date with events and information about our school.
Chantry Primary Governors Main Responsibilities
Curriculum: Governors ensure that a strategic and systematic approach to promoting high standards of educational achievement and help to set targets for improvement. Consider formal complaints about the curriculum.
Budget: Support in determining how to spend the budget allocated to the Chantry Primary Academy. Drew up a charging policy such an at Chantry Primary Academy there are charges for the after-school club.
Staffing: Agree to all staffing procedure, including disciplinary rules, keeping to relevant parts of employment law. Appoint, suspend and dismiss staff.
Premises: Ensure Health and Safety and ensure good maintenance of all Chantry Primary property and resources.
Communication: Must Give LA and Secretary of State for Education, any information requested.
Discipline: Determine general principles and discipline policy.
Ofsted inspection: keep informed parents, LA and other about the inspection and send a summary of inspection to parents.

Senior Management Team
At Chantry Academy, Senior Management Team works closely with the head teacher. They will usually meet once a week or on regular basis to discuss issues which have come up and to make decisions concerning the running of the Chantry Primary or around the implementation of Chantry Primary plane. They will discuss how this information will be spread to teachers and support staffs. (Chantry Primary Website/ Management team roles)
Chantry Primary Academy Senior Management Team
At Chantry Primary members of the Senior Leadership team will meet with Family Workers, Learning Mentors, Higher Level Teaching Assistants, Teaching Assistants, Behaviour Support Assistants and Administration Staff to review performance. A process will be followed:
An initial meeting will be held to discuss a self-evaluation, review current performance and to agree on role profiles. Two performance targets will be set for Support staff. Observations will be used where appropriate to the role of the team member. Mid-year review meetings will be held, followed by a final review meeting which also serves as the initial meeting for the following year. (Chantry Primary Website)
Other statutory roles
The role of SENCO, as described by Burnham (2011) is that the SENCO is responsible for managing and monitoring the provision for those with special education needs within the school these include as below,
ensuring liaison with parents and other professionals in respect of children with special educational needs
Advising and supporting other practitioners in the setting
Ensure that appropriate individual education planes are the place
ensuring that relevant background information about individual children with special needs in collected, recorded and updated.
The SENCO will also need to monitor and review the provision for pupils with special educational needs and make sure that the paperwork is in place for those who are on Early Years and School and Action Plus.
Chantry Primary Academy works with SENCO to ensure that appropriate individual education plans are placed for pupils with special educational needs. Chantry Primary respect diversity and realize that equality is not simply a matter of treating everyone the same. As Stated Batman (2018)” we believe the process of taking the necessary steps to ensure that every young person is given equality of opportunity to develop socially, learn and enjoy whole school life. This means that we do our best to make reasonable adjustments for disability, impairments or needs, recognize and celebrate cultural differences through our book-based curriculum and understand the different needs and experiences of all our pupils.
At Chantry Primary Academy SENCO team ensure that those pupils who are disabled, who have a sensory impairment or learning needs do not receive less favorable treatment and to do this the school has a duty to make reasonable adjustments.
All teachers have the responsibility for the planning and preparation of the curriculum for pupils in their class. At Chantry Primary Academy this is usually for all subjects under National Curriculum.
Main roles of Teacher
All teachers are responsible to teach pupils according to their educational need.
To assess, record and report on the development, progress, and attainment of pupils
To take responsibility for all other adults within the learning environment
To communicate and consult with the parent of pupils
To communicate and co-operate with person or bodies outside the school
To participate in a meeting arranged for the pupil’s individual needs
Usually to be responsible for managing the area of the curriculum.
Chantry Primary Academy teachers’ roles
As other schools Chantry Primary School teacher have their own responsibilities. Each year group teacher must arrange a mutually convenient weekly meeting to discuss planning. This meeting will typically include a review of the previous week’s work, sharing successes and looking at examples of children’s work. Teachers will also consider the next week’s work, to agree with learning objectives and discuss ideas for resources and teaching approaches. Teachers will then produce their own planning, tailored to their individual class.
All planning must be completed prior to the beginning of the unit of work with any amendments/modifications made in note form throughout the unit of work. An hour a week for planning meetings is included in the ‘directed time’ of all teachers and additional preparation time is regularly available, in addition to teachers’ PPA.
Weekly planning currently includes a maths plan and a cross-curricular plan which covers English (inc. phonics, spelling, handwriting, grammar teaching along with all other subjects). Weekly planning must be placed on office 365 by 5 pm on Friday evening each week for the following week – it is helpful to try to work a week ahead. Book Webs and unit plan flow maps should be completed well in advance of each unit and should also be placed on 365. All up to date planning, including weekly plans, flow maps, and book webs, must be stored in classroom Planning Files. These files must always remain in school.

Support Staff Roles in Chantry Primary Academy
Mentoring Staffs
Mentoring staff provide a complementary service to teachers and other staff. Work in one to one base or in small groups to address the need of pupils who require more help especially those experiencing multiple disadvantages.
Family worker staffs
Family worker staff work closely with families to help and emotional support, particularly those who are experiencing difficulties. Family worker staff deal with a range of problems such as social and personal issues particularly area such as domestic abuse, and homelessness.
Pastoral staffs
Pastoral staff provides a vital support network, supporting the progress leaders in their work. Pastoral staff in Chantry Primary Academy are always readily available to meet with pupils and parents whenever needed.
Site Team
Site Team staff such as premises manager and caretaker play an important role in Chantry Primary being responsible for the maintenance and security and cleaning of the school building.

Care club staffs
Children are cared for alongside childcare facility for staff babies and toddlers within the Care Club setting and will be offered high-quality care and activities planned and delivered by qualified staff using the Early Years Foundation Stage curriculum.
Administration staffs
Administration staff handles nearly all administration work such handling relations with parents, students, community management budgets and ensuring financial systems are followed overseeing record-keeping. provide administrative support to the teacher. Deal with all queries and complaints procedures.
ICT staffs
ICT technicians look after Chantry Primary Academy networks, install, order and maintain software and hardware and provide technical support to teachers and pupils. (Primary Academy website)
2.2 External Professional who work with Schools and Colleges
There will be a huge range of external professionals who work with schools and colleges on a regular basis.

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