The process of educational training
The process of teaching and learning that has the purpose of training the student is composed of a subject who can, wants and knows how to teach (teacher), and another who does not know, wants and knows how to learn (student). Others must take into account that the contents, that is learn, and the curricular instruments.
The teaching-learning process is related to the idea that knowledge has about how one learns and how knowledge is constructed, that is, under the concept of education, teaching, learning, that its program is designed , plan your class and establish a relationship with the student. (Ascencio, 2000)
The teacher is responsible for the training of students, he/she decides on how to develop his/her class and especially the techniques and methods they use for their development, the teacher is the one who communicates, exhibits, organizes and facilitates everything to the students, and these, in addition to communicating with the teacher, do so with each other. When something is taught to find a goal. On the other hand, the act of teaching and learning past in a framework determined by certain social, cultural, and political conditions. This process of educational training takes place inside the classrooms, which is made up of different actions; the evaluation is part of that process and is present from the moment of the planning, and organization of the subject.
The evaluation includes a continuous, systematic and flexible process that allows following the process of student development and the taking of things. Decisions necessary to adapt the teaching process to the needs and achievements detected in the students’ learning processes.
Evaluation in the teaching-learning process
Teaching is a complex activity that demands a process that consists of three stages: planning, implementation (development / execution) and evaluation, for this reason evaluation is an indispensable component of it.
“Evaluation is the process to obtain useful information, in order to formulate value judgments and at the same time serve as a guide for decision making”. (Doménech, F. 1999) The evaluation is a stage of the teaching-learning process used to detect the progress of the student, and this information should serve the teacher and the student to make decisions.
The evaluation, as an integral part of the teaching and learning process, will be used as an instrument to identify the achievements made, the mistakes made, the elements that have favored or impeded learning, to determine the necessary adjustments to the pedagogical intervention.
“Complete process consisting of pointing out the objectives of an aspect of education and estimating the degree to which these objectives have been achieved” (Rodríguez and García, 1992). The evaluation by processes will allow a regulatory action between the teaching and learning processes, so that not only the student must adapt to the educational system, but the system itself adapts to it.
The student is the protagonist of his own learning, of his own ability to imagine. Students discover truths known to the teacher, but new to them. Imagination will have no limits and we will have to find a way to communicate it to our classmates, discuss it, share it and enjoy it. The student is more creative and participative and the object of knowledge is actively constructed in the minds of the students.
The evaluation should be considered as a transformation of school culture: think of continuous academic improvement, reflection and self-evaluation. And that the evaluation serves for a greater productivity and the effectiveness of the learning.
To all type of evaluation the teacher raises criteria and indicators to evaluate, to explore the learning obtained by the students.
The emotions Emotion is a resource by which the individual seeks to express the meaning given to an accepted stimulus, which implies that the emotions refer to what they mean, and in their case include the meaning given to the totality of the relationships of human reality, to relationships with other people and with the world. Hence, it can be considered that an emotion is precisely an “awareness of the human being”, which covers its different bio-psycho-social dimensions.
That is to say, each emotion has a purpose and we perceive it in determined and specific behaviors. Emotions and feelings influence their acquisition, showing that everything we do, think, imagine or remember, is possible because the rational and emotional parts of the brain work together, showing a dependence on one another
Emotions in the teaching-learning process of English plays a fundamental role in the development of the linguistic capacities of the language from the students’ doing and feeling, since from a harmonious, affective, dynamic and creative environment they could permeate the negative emotions that inhibit the learning and give a dye to these emotions converting them into positive emotions. The ability to identify, understand and regulate emotions is fundamental on the part of teachers, because such skills influence the learning processes, evaluation, physical, mental and emotional health of students are determinants to establish positive and constructive interpersonal relationships with these, allowing an elevation in their academic performance, since, when the teacher inspires confidence and security, and instructs with mastery and confidence, it is possible that students assume a more empathetic attitude towards the or the teacher and towards the discipline that this or this one imparts
Defining what emotions are is extremely difficult and complicated, given that they are phenomena of multi-causal origin. For (Retana, 2012) they are related to sudden affective changes, with a great immensity, consistent and combined with sustainable organized changes.
“These are always presented as a response to an emergency situation or to stimuli of a surprising nature or of great intensity, they are linked to biological needs and under the control of subcortical formations” Bustamante (1968), cited by (Retana, 2012, page 2) “what makes them appear in different ways and fulfill certain functions generating different consequences.” Puente (2007) cited by (Retana, 2012, page 2).
The importance of emotions
Emotions are important in the teaching-learning process because it is necessary to keep students motivated to guarantee better quality learning. Emotions involve psychological processes such as: cognitive, physiological, motivation, expressive components, and moods. Some research has shown that emotions represent a determining factor in the acquisition of new knowledge. “Emotions are the most important aspect to facilitate learning in education: positive or pleasant emotions will allow the performance of favorable actions for learning; negative or unpleasant emotions will not allow it.” (Ibanez, 2002).
Emotions are reactions to unexpected events or impulses to act on certain action, each person experiences an emotion in a different way, depending on their experiences, their learning and the situation that is happening. Emotions are very important in the educational process, because the degree of learning that the students will have depends on the emotions and what the results are going to obtain as teachers will be.
Emotions can be positive and negative, when students present a positive state they have greater possibilities to learn, because they have an open, creative and flexible thinking that facilitates a more effective learning, these emotions generate the ideal state for the success of the educational processes , attitude, joy, feeling comfortable and confident, believing in oneself, enjoying, all these emotions contribute to the student learning in a way that does not feel stressed and that there are no obstacles to their development.
On the other hand, when the student experiences negative emotions to learn, these emotions can contribute to poor performance in the educational process, we all know that when we have problems, we are sad, overwhelmed, stressed, the performance of students decreases and their learning is affected, feeling these emotions is inevitable, for example, in an exam the students can sometimes feel nervous, worried about the failure, and present an anxious facial expression.
How do emotions influence? It is necessary to recognize what the moments are and in what activities our students experience both negative and positive emotions and to what extent it affects school performance and their learning, for example, during exams or presentations. These emotions influence to a greater or lesser extent, both negative and positive affect functions such as attention, creativity and decision making, some of these emotions affect learning because they influence communication and attention.
It is necessary to know how and what to do when we experience these emotions, especially when they are negative, it is possible to learn to recognize and control these emotions, so they deserve a space of attention in each classroom to solve situations in which the student must solve emotional problems that affect their learning.
These emotions influence: 1.-Emotions influence the availability of attention resources. 2.-The mood can influence the recovery of memory. 3.-Emotions facilitate the use of learning strategies for the preparation and organization of material and critical thinking. 4.-Emotions can influence self-regulation, monitoring, implementation of learning strategies, and evaluation of student outcomes. Some emotional reactions are innate, while others can be acquired, such as fear, most of the time they are learned when we observe the people around us, hence the importance of parents and teachers as a model to their children and students. If students learn to recognize their emotional and affective states, better skills will develop, and they will have better learning.
“Emotions predispose individuals to an organized response as a primary assessment” Bisquerra, (2001), cited (Retana, 2012, page 3) this situation must have a point where it is appeased as a result of an emotional manifestation; which means that one is able to handle certain behaviors, but one cannot manage the emotion itself, since the emotions are represented in a deliberate way, therefore a behavior is the result of actions done by a person Casassus, (2006) cited by (Retana, 2012).
Cassassus (2006) quoted by (Retana, 2012, page 3) States:
“This means that emotions are events or phenomena of a biological and cognitive nature that make sense in social terms. They can be classified as positive when they are accompanied by pleasurable feelings and mean that the situation is beneficial, as are happiness and love; negative when they are accompanied by unpleasant feelings and the situation is perceived as a threat, among which are fear, anxiety, anger, hostility, sadness, disgust, or neutral when they are not accompanied by any feeling, among hope and surprise ”
Emotions are also classified according to a reaction that gives the person as strong or moderate energy, pointing out, it is remarkable the possibility of excelling with different emotions at the same time Santrock (2002) cited by (Retana, 2012).
Omrod (2005) cited by (Retana, 2012, page 3) explains:
“From the above it is understandable that there are different opinions regarding what are emotions, even some specialists in the subject use interchangeably the terms emotion and affection. In the present essay, emotions are considered to refer to temporal states that include humor and disposition.”
In order to obtain precise conclusions before established situations, sometimes with little time and particularly complex; therefore the expressions are of certain intensity and in contrast to the emotions can be maintained for a certain period. Guerrit and Zimbardo (2005) cited by (Retana, 2012).
The influence of emotions
Emotions are fundamental factors that affect the student emotional behavior that generates emotional changes either sadness or joy.
The emotional factors affect the student at the time that performs an oral test as the emotion manifests much more at the time of the oral test causing the student nerves, anxiety, despair and especially the insecurity that is caused by pressure and despair at the time they perform an oral test.
Emotional factors cause problems in students at the time of an oral test, in many cases people who are betrayed by their own emotions fear to undergo oral evaluations which is where these factors cause harm.
According to some researchers Pedagogical Studies (2002 page 5 and 9) the emotional factors are classified as favorable and unfavorable.
When the contents are interesting, they like, they have projections, and they are closer, they respond to needs, they have practical application when a good qualification is obtained product of the effort, fulfilling the goal of understanding the subject. Emotions are manifested in different ways in the interaction and when the content is understandable the emotional manifestations are given when the contents that the teacher develops are easily understood and this generates the student positive emotions such as joy, and confidence in himself.
When the subject is not understood, when the results are not what was expected, when a teacher is asked the answer, when the contents cannot be applied, when students are not satisfied with what they give, when they get good grades days.
When the teacher is ambiguous, unclear, it is noted that he did not prepare the class, when the evaluation is unfair, without clear criteria, when the teacher does not allow to comment, does not let participate, when the class is boring, repeated, only spoken by the Professor, when the teacher is upset when students ask him to explain again, he does not care about their learning, when the teacher looks like the only branch.
When the teacher is arbitrary, unfair, when the teacher imposes his opinion, he does not accept criticism or other points of view, when the teacher disqualifies, mocks, and he is disrespectful, when he is authoritarian, arrogant, inflexible, when the teacher instills fear, threatens, when he abuses of his condition, it takes advantage of his authority.
Relationship with colleagues: When peers lack respect, when they criticize and do not contribute, when they talk and do not listen, when they do not help or support others. When this type of thing is given in a classroom the student causes negative emotions such as: despair, nerves, insecurity and sometimes this causes the student, to have psychological problems, feeling insecure of what he is doing.
Unfavorable emotions are a factor of emotions that manifest themselves in the individual when presented with a negative context of feeling humiliated by unfavorable emotional factors.
The Emotions in Children and adolescents (Jadue, 2002, page 4) points out that
“Emotions have a powerful impact on our knowledge of the surrounding world and emotional expressions provide a window into the subjective experience of the individual world. Our emotions motivate our actions and affections when we interact with other people and our environment and provide meaning to our life experiences. By guiding our thoughts and actions, emotions have a regulating function that helps us acquire patterns of adaptive behavior. ”
There are many individual differences in how people express their emotions and interact with other individuals. Many are predominantly happy, and curious. Others can often be withdrawn, sad and depressed. Moreover, others may appear angry, destructive and disorganized
Anxiety as an emotional factor
Spielberger (1980) cited by (Alvarez, Parra, & Sanchez, 2011, page 3) points out that “anxiety is an unpleasant emotional reaction produced by an external stimulus, which is considered by the individual as threatening, producing physiological and behavioral changes in the human being”.
Papalia (1994) cited by (Alvarez, Parra, & Sanchez, 2011, page 3) defines anxiety as “a state characterized by the presence of feelings of apprehension, uncertainty and tension that arise as a result of the subject anticipating a threat, real or imagined. ”
Navas (1989) cited by (Alvarez, Parra, & Sanchez, 2011, page 3) defines anxiety as” an emotional state; therefore, there is a mixture of feelings, behaviors and reactions or physiological sensations. ”
Sarason (1996) cited by (Alvarez, Parra, & Sanchez, 2011) consider that having anxiety is a way of expressing fear and confusion, something meaningless and detestable. Endler and Parker, (1992) cited by (Alvarez, Parra, & Sanchez, 2011) signal that it is an emotional reaction certainly complex, product of the intervention between personal situations, and specific moments.
Characteristics of anxiety As indicated by Hernández, Pozo and Polo (1994) cited by (Alvarez, Parra, & Sanchez, 2011) any environmental modification, whatever the transformation from one point to another, are specific behaviors of a lifestyle; also in many situations, these are associated with stress, but also can lead to negative ideas about people, influencing their personal health and in general.
Lang (1968) cited in Oblitas (2004) cited by (Alvarez, Parra, & Sanchez, 2011) emotional action that causes anxiety, can be regulated at a level three times higher: subjective cognitive, which includes experience and the fsctor physiological, pointing to body changes, referencing clearly observable situations.
When at the end of the 80s, Howard Gardner published Frames of Mind in 1983 and later Multiple Intelligences, Theory in Practice (1995), proposing the existence of different intelligences, including among these the intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences, opened a fundamental space in the reconceptualization of education, and although this was not his intention, this led to having to reconsider the role that emotions play in it.
It was Daniel Goleman (1996), who faced the stagnant educational system inherited from the illustration and determined by behaviorism, popularized through his book, Emotional Intelligence (IE), the bold and innovative ideas that Peter Salovey and John Mayer had proposed since 1990, which came to cover the empty spaces left by constructivism and constructionism as cognitive proposals opposed to behaviorism. Dueñas (2002) cited by (Retana, 2012), argue that EI was nothing more than a skill that has and improves that person to corroborate their feelings as their emotions as any other which gives the ability to use or not all what may be relative to control their action and thought.
This proposal came to question the educational models that until the end of the XX century insisted on the construction of an education that privileged the intellectual and academic aspects, considering that the emotional and social aspects corresponded to the private plane of the individuals.
Later, Salovey and Mayer in 1997 Dueñas, (2002) cited by (Retana, 2012) readapted their previous concept to choose that EI is in charge of the faculties to decide with determination, to be able to count or to create feelings when these are available with the thought, which allows to know how to monitor emotions, which encourages knowing how to understand and regulate emotions, which represents autonomous growth. In this way an arduous struggle began to combat the “anti-emotional” character of the school model that prevailed until before the 21st century, in which emotions were formally suppressed in order to facilitate control of time, mind, body and, above all, the emotions of learners, arguing that between reason and emotion there was a universe of distance constituting them in opposites within human existence.
From this, the anti-emotional school defined a substantive difference between rational and emotional thinking, typifying the former as “objective” and assigning the latter a “subjective” character. This was due to the fact that rational thought has been linked historically with logic and particularly mathematics, by virtue of the inheritance of that of Greek culture in the Western world, which privileged those ways of thinking where Aristotelian logic was defined as correct reasoning.
Sartre (1987), cited by (Retana, 2012, page 4) points out that:
“Contrary to this it has been considered that emotional thinking and the consequent emotional behavior, leads to disorderly behavior; however this is a gross error, since it has been shown that such behavior consists of an organized system, which tends to a goal, so that each emotion consciously assumed, is an articulated response that people have before certain stimuli ”
Sartre (1987), cited by (Retana, 2012, page 4) stares that
“The statement that emotions are linked to subjective factors reflects that it has not been taken into account that these include an evaluation of the implications that the situation or event has for the organism that allows it to make an assessment of the situation in which they enter. At stake the individual differences, which may be subject to a controlled or voluntary processing of the information.”
This borders to act responsibly initiating a review cause- effect, contradicting between the past and the future, the opening of achievements, the need to respond to a situation that is being taken into account. Jiménez & Mallo (1989), cited by (Retana, 2012) intervening in all these aspects memory, motivation and reasoning, which reveals that decision-making is more affected by emotional than rational.
In today’s world, characterized by the mastery of Communication and Information Technologies (ICT), where the possibilities of communication between people have grown rapidly, irremediably affecting all the orders and levels of people’s lives, including cognitive and emotional aspects have also grown behaviors that border on the pathological, such as anxiety, depression, discipline, violence, eating disorders, etc.
These are represented as incentives for an emotional illiteracy Dueñas (2002) cited by (Retana, 2012) and show that such illiteracy has very negative risks in the global population. Goleman (1996), cited by (Retana, 2012).
Cognition, emotion and learning during the last thirty years has had many specialists in pedagogy, considered that education consisted in a cognitive process based on the processing of information, where mental activity, as an expression of learning is given thanks to the existence of previous knowledge, the level, quantity and quality of the accumulation of these, which articulated in a creative way are generators of productive thinking. Education cannot be reduced only to the academic, nor to the collection and management of information, cognitive development or social relations, implying that these are abstract, but must encompass everything related to human existence. Dueñas (2002), cited by (Retana, 2012).
No one doubts that learning is a deliberate act, so it is neither unconscious nor arbitrary, but occurs as the individual develops and manifests itself as the ability to execute a conduct that previously was not possessed. However, this does not say how it is that the subject reaches such behavior or capacity and much less what motivates it within reach.
As early as 1960, Bruner considered that learning involves three processes, which he considers to be almost simultaneous: acquisition that implies new information or a refinement of already existing information, the transformation involved in manipulating knowledge to adjust it to new tasks and evaluation to check if the way in which we manipulate the information is appropriate. To achieve this, the educational process must take into account the predisposition of the individual towards learning. Bruner (1960), cited by (Retana, 2012)
Bisquerra, (2005) cited by (Retana, 2012) states
“What in one way or another implies the emotional character with which learning is assumed in itself. Acquisition, transformation and evaluation, imply an accumulation of experiences that are interpreted and understood, which are inseparably linked to what people are and feel”
The role of the teacher in emotional education
If it is considered that school learning is a constructive social activity carried out by the student, particularly together with their peers and the teacher, in order to achieve knowledge and assimilation of an object of knowledge, determined by the school contents through a permanent interaction with the same, in such a way that it can discover its different characteristics, until it is able to give them the meaning that is attributed to them culturally, thereby promoting an adaptive change.
According to (Therer, 1998), cited by (Retana, 2012, page 8) points out
“It is clear that the role of the teacher is key, especially if through learning is to promote cognitive skills and emotional skills, which allow autonomous and permanent learning that can be used in situations and more general and significant problems and not only in the school environment “.
But this is only possible if it is taken into account that the intervention of the teacher is an irreplaceable help in the process of construction of knowledge on the part of the student, in such a way that without the help of this it is very probable that the students do not reach certain educational objectives, therefore the teacher does not teach in an abstract way, leaving behind the own emotions that he / she may have, rather ignoring if it is in a concrete way or not, sharing shares them in each situation that develops in class, being like this before the same event and in a same moment; The conclusion of the professor will depend on the state of interest that he has managed to develop.
Casassus (2006), cited by (Retana, 2012) in such a way that the perception that this one constructs of the student, will be linked to the cognitive and emotional information that the student has.
Emotions and learning styles
Therer (1998), cited by (Retana, 2012, page 9) stares
“When it is known as students learn is that the effort of teaching could have some positive effect, this learning does not only depend on the cognitive abilities of the students, but of their emotional dispositions, given that the teacher is more than a mere transmitter of information, is a creator of learning spaces and is responsible for managing the conditions that make it possible to organize learning situations which depend on at least four factors linked to students: a) their motivation (where the emotional aspects are inserted), b) their cognitive abilities, c) their learning styles, and d) the curricular objectives to be achieved. ”
Thomson & Mazcasine (2000), cited by (Retana, 2012, page 9) points out that
“Knowing the emotional states of the students, as well as their learning styles, can help the teacher to organize more effectively and efficiently the learning-teaching process to be implemented, and makes it possible to serve the students in a more personal way, guiding them in the context of learning; Only then is it that the teacher can really contribute to make their students become the builders of their own learning”
This allows us to consider the levels of success and failure on the part of the students, in the learning of any discipline, could be associated, among other aspects to the agreement or discrepancy between the styles of learning and teaching which are given between the students . the teachers, as well as in the understanding of the emotions and feelings of both and how they directly affect the cognitive process; and not exclusively to the usual weaknesses that are pointed in unique directions, as they are among others.
Campos (2010), cited by (Retana, 2012, page 9) stares
“Students with low levels of knowledge, absence of significant previous knowledge, or professors unable to achieve effective communication, so that it can be said that an emotionally intelligent educator and a favorable classroom climate are essential factors for the Learning ”
The anxiety before the exams
The anxiety should not be related only to the attitude and academic performance, but also to a healthy lifestyle which means that it will have a quite impressive balance and divide health with study, in this sense, the works are well known. They show the incidence of academic stress on health problems; for example, Kiecolt-Glaser et- al. (1986) cited by (Alvarez, Parra, & Sanchez, 2011, page 4) report the suppression of T- cells and the activity of Natural Killers (NK) cells during exam periods (situations perceived as highly stressful) in medical students.
These changes are indicators of a depression of the immune system and; therefore, of a greater vulnerability of the organism to diseases. Another subsequent work Glaser et- al. ( 1993) cited by (Alvarez, Parra, & Sanchez, 2011) states that the changes manifested in the immune responses related to the academic load, means that there is evidence of low activity of T lymphocytes.
It should also be noted that not all college students suffer from stress. The response to stress depends on the personal disposition to face the demands of the situation, as well as the situation to which we refer. That is, how an individual responds to stressful events depends both on the personal disposition of that individual and on the situation in which said events occur.
Test anxiety is a series of negative emotional reactions that some students feel before exams. The fear of exams is not an irrational fear, not in vain the performance in them determines much of the academic future of the person. (Granada, 2001).
Generally evaluations specifically in education for students are synonymous with fear and anxiety about what may happen during and after these; therefore, we cannot expect positive reactions from our mind and as consequences the emotional reactions we obtain in certain moments of evaluations they make us lose the confidence and logical reasoning that we can have in natural situations.
We can also deduce that panic exists because after actions as evaluations we obtain a result, which leads us to a final destination or a final goal that is to approve our education process, consequently our mind is more focused on the negative that we can pass, and in this way giving way to factors that are not encouraging to our mind that lead us to have bad results. In most cases there is a real or perceived agent that activates anxiety. This may simply be a previous experience of blocking an exam, or having been unable to remember known answers. (Granada, 2001).
Anxiety can also be generated through experiences that have left us with more negative marks in our previous educational processes, and in many situations the chances of being blocked without any response are very common, since the nervous system works in a accelerated when previous knowledge is dispersed in the least expected moment and as a result we are practically left without information in our brain and that makes us enter into negative mental situations, such as the despair of not being able to remember anything, when minutes before we had the knowledge of information. If the preparation for the test has been correct, the anxiety may be due to negative thoughts or concerns. (Granada, 2001). Most times we think that a good preparation is enough to eliminate anxiety before exams, but as the previous information says, it is possible that bad thoughts expose what has been learned to be forgotten, that is why the importance of mental self-control should be have at the time of taking any evaluation. It is also possible that it is due to a lack of preparation for the exam, which is a good reason to be worried (Granada, 2001). The most obvious reason to feel some fear when receiving evaluations is the lack of preparation since it is a warning that our brain has already stored and that is aware that the options we have of success will be minimal, and in this way we risk being affected in our results.
2.3 Definitions of Terms
Oral tests and exams
In this type of evaluation instruments, it is necessary to establish a conceptual distinction. (Americas 2015 page 1) “oral tests are different from oral examinations.” The first ones have a connotation associated with the process evaluations (formative); therefore, they are frequently applied to corroborate the acquisition levels of knowledge, skills or attitudes during the teaching-learning process.
They allow the teacher to make informed decisions about the educational intervention that is taking place in the classroom. Usually, this type of tests are not related to the evaluative stage of certifying and promoting a student’s course, level or academic degree.
The exams, on the other hand, serve to certify, at the end of an educational process (quarter, semester and year), the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. In this way, they allow students to be promoted to a next level, which is why exams are associated with the closing of a process. In this logic, for the student, it is a formal and solemn instance where the achievement of learning is demonstrated in a scenario specially prepared for it. In general terms, according to (Americas, 2015, page 4)
“The oral tests and exams comply with the following structure: in a first part, the evaluating teacher explains the guidelines that the student must take into account when answering, as well as defines the central theme of the exam and the different aspects that should be address, then in a second part, develops the body of the exam, which is constituted by questions that the teacher develops and by the student’s answers. Finally, in a third part, we conclude with the observations that the teacher makes and a dialogue is opened with the student to discuss some points about the presentation”
Some difficulties that this evaluative technique presents are: the problems for its Standardization, the strong incidence of chance, the lack of records or evidence, and the lack of objectivity of teachers when evaluating. This usually generates mistrust regarding their reliability and objectivity in the ratings.
Content . The learning that is evaluated by oral means is classified in four categories: 1. Knowledge and understanding 2. Problem solving ability. 3. Interpersonal skills: they are communication and interview skills. 4. Intrapersonal qualities: personality, ability to alert, reactions to stress, appearance, confidence and self-awareness. Interaction . In the oral evaluation there is a high level of interaction between the examiner and the student, so that the evaluation takes the form of dialogue or conversation. This generates a difficult dynamic to foresee and before which the student must demonstrate a high capacity for adaptation.
Authenticity . The oral evaluation is contextualized in real situations, far from the generic and decontextualized of a written exam. Structure An open structure is provided in front of the closed structure of a written examination; however, the oral examination allows to present questions that are induced by the previous answers, acquiring the examination the character of a free dialogue.
Evaluators . In the oral tests, the exam evaluator is passed written, because when done in a public way it allows the presence of others evaluators and the students’ own classmates can also be add as evaluators.
-Determine the specific disciplinary theme that you expect to evaluate in your group of students, and the associated learning outcomes. -Consider, in an ideal scenario, the participation of another evaluating pair (another teacher) that can also qualify the student’s performance, this action allows objectifying the process. -Associated with this task, formulate a response model with respect to the type of performance that we will consider optimal. In this way, we determine the depth and amplitude of the expected response. – To indicate to the students the order or the turns of surrender of the test or oral exam to give them the space for timely preparation and decrease the levels of anxiety that this type of evaluations can generate.
Advantages of the oral evaluation – They serve to evaluate the quality of learning of taxonomically complex levels, including also the domain of specific language of the subject. – They are useful to appreciate the acquired conditions for oral communication. – The oral exams allow us to extend, argue and contribute our own reflections that can make the teacher understand how much we have worked on his subject and to what extent we have internalized the knowledge he has transmitted to us. It is an opportunity to show off, raise debate and highlight. Disadvantages of oral evaluations
-Sometimes the educator is impressed; by the way the student expresses himself and forgets that his purpose was known if he mastered the subject, that is, they are little objective evidence.
– They demand a lot of time to do this, it gets worse when you have a large number of students.
– From the student’s point of view, he/ she has little time to organize his/her responses. – The oral exams terrify the timid and those who have a hard time speaking in public. Oratory is something that is not usually practiced in the classroom and, unfortunately, we depend more on the self-confidence of each one than on a learned and refined technique, so to face an oral test will depend on the management we can make of our nerves. The fact of being alone before the teacher or in front of our classmates can suppose a high level of stress and nerves.
– Another big drawback of oral exams is the time we have to organize our ideas: we need to have a trained mental speed to answer the questions, or think quickly about what we are going to talk about.
– It should not be memorized like a tape recorder, but we are going to have to know what we are talking about, understand it and explain it correctly and with an adequate use of language. If we are able to explain the agenda with our own words, we will score more.
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