2. SCOPE OF STUDY
3. METHODOLOGY OF AUTOMATIC STREET LIGHTING
3.1 Design Architecture
3.2 Hardware Specification
3.3 Software Development
3.4 System Working Principle
4. AUTOMATIC STREET LIGHT SYSTEM CIRCUIT DESIGN
4.2 Infra Red Proximity Sensor
4.3 Voltage Regulator
4.5 Darlington array
4.6 LEDs for Street lights
6. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
The idea of designing a new system for thestreetlight that do not consume huge amount of electricity and illuminate large areas with the highest intensity of light is concerning each engineer working in this field. Providing street lighting is one of the most important and expensive responsibilities of a city. Lighting can account for 10’38% of the total energy bill in typical cities worldwide. Street lighting is a particularly critical concern for public authorities in developing countries because of its strategic importance for economic and social stability. Inefficient lighting wastes significant financial resources every year, and poor lighting creates unsafe conditions. Energy efficient technologies and design mechanism can reduce cost of the street lighting drastically. Manual control is prone to errors and leads to energy wastages and manually dimming during mid night is impracticable. Also, dynamically tracking the light level is manually impracticable. The current trend is the introduction of automation and remote management solutions to control street
At the beginning, street lamps were controlled by manual control where a control switch is set in each of the street lamps. It is called first generation of the original street light. After that, another method that has been used was optical control method. This method is using high pressure sodium lamp in their system. It can be seen that this method is widely used in the country nowadays. This method operates by set up an optical control circuit, change the resistance by using of light sensitive device to control street lamps light up automatically at dusk and turn off automatically after dawn in the morning. Due to the technological development nowadays, road lighting can be categorized according to the installation area, performance and their used, for an example, lighting for traffic routes, lighting for subsidiary roads and lighting for urban center and public amenity areas. While,
the wireless sensor network (WSN) helps in improving the network sensing for street lighting.
Meanwhile, street lighting technology can be classified according to the type of lamps used such as incandescent light, mercury vapor light, metal halide light, high pressure sodium light, low pressure sodium light, fluorescent light, compact fluorescent light, induction light and LED light. Different type of light technology used in lighting design with their luminous efficiency, lamp service life.
LED is considered a promising solution to modern street lighting system due to it is behavior and advantages. A part from that, the advantages of LED are likely to replace the traditional street lamps such as the incandescent lamp, fluorescent lamp and High Pressure Sodium Lamp in future but LED technology is an extremely difficult process that requires a combination of advancedproduction lines, top quality materials and high-precision manufacturing process. Therefore, this report highlights the energy efficient of street lighting design using LED lampsthrough intelligent sensor interface for controlling andmanaging.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project proposes energy efficient of automatic street lighting system based on low cost microcontroller. The mainobjective is to design energy efficient based controller for controlling the Light Emitting Diode (LED) based street lamp via appropriate lighting levels control. This system is consists of a microcontroller, light sensor, rain sensor, IR sensor and a set of the light emitting diode (LED) module. While, the controlling and managing of the system is based on the number of traffic and different level of street light brightness has been used for lighting up the street and proportional to the number of traffic.
The system was programmed to automatically turn off during the hours of daylight and only operate during the night and heavy raining or bad weather. As conclusion, around 77%-81% reduction in power consumption can be achieved through this proposed automatic street lighting system for energy efficiency system design.
The block diagram of street light system consists of microcontroller, LDR, and photoelectric sensor. By using the LDR we can operate the lights, i.e. when the light is available then it will be in the OFF state and when it is dark the light will be in ON state, it means LDR is inversely proportional to light. When the light fallson the LDR it sends the commands to themicrocontroller that it should be in the OFF statethen it switch OFF the light, the photoelectric sensorwill be used to turn ON or OFF the light according to the presence or absent of the object. All these commands are sent to the controller then according to that the device operates. We use a relay to act as an ON/OFF switch.
METHODOLOGY OF AUTOMATIC STREET LIGHTING
Three parts have been included under this topic for completed this study. Design architecture is the main block function for the proposed design. While, the hardware specification will detail out the components involved in this design from the sensor components until the controller selection. Software development based on the proposed design will be detail out in software part where the flow of the system operation will be detailed out elaborated.
A. Design Architecture
The system development is start with the design architecture of the proposed design. Transparent block diagram has been used to outline the proposed design as
shown in Figure. Four main components have been identified as the input to the system; clock, power, vector input and water sensor. While, two components have been declared as the output two this system; display and LED module.
presence of vehicles are the four processes managed and controller by the microcontroller based on the input from the laser sensor, dark sensor and water sensor. The status of the system operation is display on the LCD and the brightness
of the LED module is controlled by the light intensity block based on the input from microcontroller.
B. Hardware Specification
The street lamp period, water detection, light detection and in hardware specification, the components for the proposed system have been classified based on the components group; input, output and controller. Three type of the input have been used in this system; clock, power supply and sensor. The clock has been used to provide clockoscillation to the microcontroller while the power supply isused to power up the overall system. The supply is controlledby the switch for power switch on and off. Three type of sensor have been used including vector and non-vector type sensor. The function of dark or light sensor module is to detect the surrounding light level. Light Depends Resistor (LDR) has been used to detect and measured the surrounding light level. All light response or changing is measured in volt. The laser sensor is used to detect the vehicle presence for determine the density of the traffic. Every vehicle crossing the IR sensor will be counting and the decision will be making based on the number of vehicles across the sensor.
LCD and light intensity are the two outputs used in the proposed system and connected to the microcontroller. The function of LCD is to display the sensors activated. While, the LED module is represent the street light and the brightness of the LED is controlling by intensity module. Different level of the brightest have been included in the intensity module for response the condition and sensor input including the street lamp period, raining density level, surrounding light level and numbers of vehicles.
C. Software Development
In this software development, several stages have beenadded as the stage of respond for the integrated sensor. The decision for every sensor will determine the process or operation of the system. It starts with analyzing the dark sensor and followed by the rain or water sensor for measuring the raining density level. The laser beam sensor is the last precedence sensor in this system since the function is
to identify the density of the traffic or acting as a traffic counter.
The system is start by determine the level of surrounding light. Day light and night have been set as two surrounding light level. During the day light, all the lighting system is shut down or switch off. While, during the night time the system is start to operate with several other sub condition to be identified. The raining level status and number of vehicles are the two criteria required before the appropriate energy
efficient lighting level can be produced. Different level of street light brightness has been used based on the environment condition. The LCD has been used to indicate the currentoperation for every system responding.
D. System Working Principle
System working principle has been used to summarize the principle operation of proposed design. Five levels of light intensity and condition has been summarized. The light intensity is switch off or Level 1 when there is no vehicles and not rainy. Whereas, Level 2 has been set when there is rainy and no vehicles used it. Light intensity level 3 can be achieved when there is not rainy and number of vehicles less than 5. While, during the rainy and number ofvehicles less than or equal to 5 the light intensity operate at light intensity level 4. The light intensity operates at the maximum level during the rain and number of vehicles greater than 5.
#define DATA P2
#define RS P3_6
#define E P3_7
void delay(int x)
void lcd_cmd (char dat) // function to write command at lcd port
RS=0; //clear RS (ie. RS=0) to write command
E=1; // send H-L pulse at E pin
void lcd_data (char dat) // function to write data at lcd port
RS=1; // set RS=1 to write DATA
E=1; // send H-L pulse at E pin
void lcd_init() // function to initialize the LCD at power on time
lcd_cmd (0x38); // 2×16 display select
lcd_cmd (0x0c); // display on cursor off command
lcd_cmd (0x06); // automatic cursor movement to right
lcd_cmd (0x01); // lcd clear command
lcd_cmd (0x80); // first row first coloumn select command
void lcd_string(char *str) // function to display string to lcd
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