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Essay: Essay on auto intensity street light control

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3.1 Design Architecture
3.2 Hardware Specification
3.3 Software Development
3.4 System Working Principle
4.1 LDR
4.2 Infra Red Proximity Sensor
4.3 Voltage Regulator
4.4 Comparator
4.5 Darlington array
4.6 LEDs for Street lights
4.7 Microcontroller
The idea of designing a new system for thestreetlight that do not consume huge amount of electricity and illuminate large areas with the highest intensity of light is concerning each engineer working in this field. Providing street lighting is one of the most important and expensive responsibilities of a city. Lighting can account for 10’38% of the total energy bill in typical cities worldwide. Street lighting is a particularly critical concern for public authorities in developing countries because of its strategic importance for economic and social stability. Inefficient lighting wastes significant financial resources every year, and poor lighting creates unsafe conditions. Energy efficient technologies and design mechanism can reduce cost of the street lighting drastically. Manual control is prone to errors and leads to energy wastages and manually dimming during mid night is impracticable. Also, dynamically tracking the light level is manually impracticable. The current trend is the introduction of automation and remote management solutions to control street
At the beginning, street lamps were controlled by manual control where a control switch is set in each of the street lamps. It is called first generation of the original street light. After that, another method that has been used was optical control method. This method is using high pressure sodium lamp in their system. It can be seen that this method is widely used in the country nowadays. This method operates by set up an optical control circuit, change the resistance by using of light sensitive device to control street lamps light up automatically at dusk and turn off automatically after dawn in the morning. Due to the technological development nowadays, road lighting can be categorized according to the installation area, performance and their used, for an example, lighting for traffic routes, lighting for subsidiary roads and lighting for urban center and public amenity areas. While,
the wireless sensor network (WSN) helps in improving the network sensing for street lighting.
Meanwhile, street lighting technology can be classified according to the type of lamps used such as incandescent light, mercury vapor light, metal halide light, high pressure sodium light, low pressure sodium light, fluorescent light, compact fluorescent light, induction light and LED light. Different type of light technology used in lighting design with their luminous efficiency, lamp service life.
LED is considered a promising solution to modern street lighting system due to it is behavior and advantages. A part from that, the advantages of LED are likely to replace the traditional street lamps such as the incandescent lamp, fluorescent lamp and High Pressure Sodium Lamp in future but LED technology is an extremely difficult process that requires a combination of advancedproduction lines, top quality materials and high-precision manufacturing process. Therefore, this report highlights the energy efficient of street lighting design using LED lampsthrough intelligent sensor interface for controlling andmanaging.
This project proposes energy efficient of automatic street lighting system based on low cost microcontroller. The mainobjective is to design energy efficient based controller for controlling the Light Emitting Diode (LED) based street lamp via appropriate lighting levels control. This system is consists of a microcontroller, light sensor, rain sensor, IR sensor and a set of the light emitting diode (LED) module. While, the controlling and managing of the system is based on the number of traffic and different level of street light brightness has been used for lighting up the street and proportional to the number of traffic.
The system was programmed to automatically turn off during the hours of daylight and only operate during the night and heavy raining or bad weather. As conclusion, around 77%-81% reduction in power consumption can be achieved through this proposed automatic street lighting system for energy efficiency system design.
The block diagram of street light system consists of microcontroller, LDR, and photoelectric sensor. By using the LDR we can operate the lights, i.e. when the light is available then it will be in the OFF state and when it is dark the light will be in ON state, it means LDR is inversely proportional to light. When the light fallson the LDR it sends the commands to themicrocontroller that it should be in the OFF statethen it switch OFF the light, the photoelectric sensorwill be used to turn ON or OFF the light according to the presence or absent of the object. All these commands are sent to the controller then according to that the device operates. We use a relay to act as an ON/OFF switch.
Three parts have been included under this topic for completed this study. Design architecture is the main block function for the proposed design. While, the hardware specification will detail out the components involved in this design from the sensor components until the controller selection. Software development based on the proposed design will be detail out in software part where the flow of the system operation will be detailed out elaborated.
A. Design Architecture
The system development is start with the design architecture of the proposed design. Transparent block diagram has been used to outline the proposed design as
shown in Figure. Four main components have been identified as the input to the system; clock, power, vector input and water sensor. While, two components have been declared as the output two this system; display and LED module.
presence of vehicles are the four processes managed and controller by the microcontroller based on the input from the laser sensor, dark sensor and water sensor. The status of the system operation is display on the LCD and the brightness
of the LED module is controlled by the light intensity block based on the input from microcontroller.
B. Hardware Specification
The street lamp period, water detection, light detection and in hardware specification, the components for the proposed system have been classified based on the components group; input, output and controller. Three type of the input have been used in this system; clock, power supply and sensor. The clock has been used to provide clockoscillation to the microcontroller while the power supply isused to power up the overall system. The supply is controlledby the switch for power switch on and off. Three type of sensor have been used including vector and non-vector type sensor. The function of dark or light sensor module is to detect the surrounding light level. Light Depends Resistor (LDR) has been used to detect and measured the surrounding light level. All light response or changing is measured in volt. The laser sensor is used to detect the vehicle presence for determine the density of the traffic. Every vehicle crossing the IR sensor will be counting and the decision will be making based on the number of vehicles across the sensor.
LCD and light intensity are the two outputs used in the proposed system and connected to the microcontroller. The function of LCD is to display the sensors activated. While, the LED module is represent the street light and the brightness of the LED is controlling by intensity module. Different level of the brightest have been included in the intensity module for response the condition and sensor input including the street lamp period, raining density level, surrounding light level and numbers of vehicles.
C. Software Development
In this software development, several stages have beenadded as the stage of respond for the integrated sensor. The decision for every sensor will determine the process or operation of the system. It starts with analyzing the dark sensor and followed by the rain or water sensor for measuring the raining density level. The laser beam sensor is the last precedence sensor in this system since the function is
to identify the density of the traffic or acting as a traffic counter.
The system is start by determine the level of surrounding light. Day light and night have been set as two surrounding light level. During the day light, all the lighting system is shut down or switch off. While, during the night time the system is start to operate with several other sub condition to be identified. The raining level status and number of vehicles are the two criteria required before the appropriate energy
efficient lighting level can be produced. Different level of street light brightness has been used based on the environment condition. The LCD has been used to indicate the currentoperation for every system responding.
D. System Working Principle
System working principle has been used to summarize the principle operation of proposed design. Five levels of light intensity and condition has been summarized. The light intensity is switch off or Level 1 when there is no vehicles and not rainy. Whereas, Level 2 has been set when there is rainy and no vehicles used it. Light intensity level 3 can be achieved when there is not rainy and number of vehicles less than 5. While, during the rainy and number ofvehicles less than or equal to 5 the light intensity operate at light intensity level 4. The light intensity operates at the maximum level during the rain and number of vehicles greater than 5.
#define DATA P2
#define RS P3_6
#define E P3_7
void delay(int x)
int i;
void lcd_cmd (char dat) // function to write command at lcd port
RS=0; //clear RS (ie. RS=0) to write command
E=1; // send H-L pulse at E pin
void lcd_data (char dat) // function to write data at lcd port
RS=1; // set RS=1 to write DATA
E=1; // send H-L pulse at E pin
void lcd_init() // function to initialize the LCD at power on time
lcd_cmd (0x38); // 2×16 display select
lcd_cmd (0x0c); // display on cursor off command
lcd_cmd (0x06); // automatic cursor movement to right
lcd_cmd (0x01); // lcd clear command
lcd_cmd (0x80); // first row first coloumn select command
void lcd_string(char *str) // function to display string to lcd
while(*str!=’’) // ‘’ is null char as last char of pointer is null
void main()
int a=0;
lcd_string(“LDR & RAIN BASED”);
lcd_cmd (0xC0);
{ lcd_cmd (0x80);
lcd_string(“Night Time “);
lcd_cmd (0xC0);
lcd_string(“Light on”);
lcd_cmd (0x01);
lcd_cmd (0x80);
lcd_string(“Rain “);
lcd_cmd (0x01);
lcd_cmd (0x80);
lcd_string(“Traffic alert”);
lcd_cmd (0xC0);
lcd_cmd (0x01);
lcd_cmd (0x80);
lcd_cmd (0xC0);
Automatic street light system circuit design
The system basically consists of a LDR, Infrared Proximity sensor, Power supply, voltage regulator, comparator, Darlington array, LEDs and Micro controller.
1. LDR
A photo resistor or light-dependent resistor (LDR) or photocell is a light-controlled variable resistor. The resistance of a photo resistor decreases with increasing incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits photoconductivity. A photo resistor can be applied in light-sensitive detector circuits, and light- and dark-activated switching circuits.
A photo resistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. In the dark, a photo resistor can have a resistance as high as a few mega ohms (M??), while in the light, a photo resistor can have a resistance as low as a few hundred ohms. If incident light on a photo resistor exceeds a certain frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electrons (and their hole partners) conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance. The resistance range and sensitivity of a photo resistor can substantially differ among dissimilar devices. Moreover, unique photo resistors may react substantially differently to photons within certain wavelength bands.
A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor, for example, silicon. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence band, and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire band gap. Extrinsic devices have impurities, also called dopants, added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band; since the electrons do not have as far to jump, lower energy photons (that is, longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities), there will be extra electrons available for conduction.
Photo resistors come in many types. Inexpensive cadmium sulphide cells can be found in many consumer items such as camera light meters, street lights, clock radios, alarm devices, night lights, outdoor clocks, solar street lamps and solar road studs, etc.
They are also used in some dynamic compressors together with a small incandescent lamp or light-emitting diode to control gain reduction.
The use of CdS and CdSe[3] photo resistors is severely restricted in Europe due to the RoHS ban on cadmium.
Lead sulphide (PbS) and indium antimonide (InSb) LDRs (light-dependent resistors) are used for the mid-infrared spectral region. Ge:Cu photoconductors are among the best far-infrared detectors available, and are used for infrared astronomy and infrared spectroscopy.
2. Infra Red Proximity Sensor
A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact. A proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic field or a beam of electromagnetic radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in the field or return signal. The object being sensed is often referred to as the proximity sensor’s target. Different proximity sensor targets demand different sensors.
The maximum distance that this sensor can detect is defined “nominal range”. Some sensors have adjustments of the nominal range or means to report a graduated detection distance. Proximity sensors can have a high reliability and long functional life because of the absence of mechanical parts and lack of physical contact between sensor and the sensed object.
3. Voltage Regulator
Voltage regulator IC’s are the IC’s that are used to regulate voltage.
IC 7805 is a 5V Voltage Regulator that restricts the voltage output to 5V and draws 5V regulated power supply. It comes with provision to add heat sink. The maximum value for input to the voltage regulator is 35V. It can provide a constant steady voltage flow of 5V for higher voltage input till the threshold limit of 35V. If the voltage is near to 7.5V then it does not produce any heat and hence no need for heat sink. If the voltage input is more, then excess electricity is liberated as heat from 7805.
It regulates a steady output of 5V if the input voltage is in rage of 7.2V to 35V. Hence to avoid power loss try to maintain the input to 7.2V. In some circuitry voltage fluctuation is fatal (for e.g. Microcontroller), for such situation to ensure constant voltage IC 7805 Voltage Regulator is used. For more information on specifications of 7805 Voltage Regulator please refer the data sheet here (IC 7805 Voltage Regulator Data Sheet). IC 7805 is a series of 78XX voltage regulators. It’s a standard, from the name the last two digits 05 denotes the amount of voltage that it regulates. Hence a 7805 would regulate 5v and 7806 would regulate 6V and so on.
The schematic given below shows how to use a 7805 IC, there are 3 pins in IC 7805, pin 1 takes the input voltage and pin 3 produces the output voltage. The GND of both input and out are given to pin 2.
Voltage Regulator is one of the most important and commonly used electrical components. Voltage Regulators are responsible for maintaining a steady voltage across an Electronic system. Voltage fluctuations may result in undesirable effect on an electronic system, so to maintaining a steady constant voltage is necessary according to the voltage requirement of a system.
Let us assume a condition when a simple light emitting diode can take a max of 3V to the max, what happens if the voltage input exceeds 3V ?, of course the diode will burn out. This is also common with all electronic components like, led’s, capacitors, diodes etc. The slightest increase in voltage may result in the failure of entire system by damaging the other components too. For avoiding Damage in such situations voltage regulator are used for regulated power supply.
4. Comparator
LM339 is a comparator IC with four inbuilt comparators. A comparator is a simple circuit that moves signals between the analog and digital worlds. It compares two input voltage levels and gives digital output to indicate the larger one. The two input pins are termed as inverting (V-) and non-inverting (V+). The output pin goes high when voltage at V+ is greater than that at V-, and vice versa. In common applications, one of the pins is provided with a reference voltage and the other one receives analog input from a sensor or any external device. If inverting pin (V-) is set as reference, then V+ must exceed this reference to result in high output. For inverted logic, the reference is set at V+ pin.
Pin Description:
1. Output of 2nd comparator-Output 2
2. Output of 1st comparator-Output 1
3. Supply voltage; 5V (+36 or ??18V)-Vcc
4. Inverting input of 1st comparator-Input 1-
5. Non-inverting input of 1st comparator-Input 1+
6. Inverting input of 1st comparator-Input 2-
7. Non-inverting input of 2nd comparator-Input 2+
8. Inverting input of 3rd comparator-Input 3-
9. Non-inverting input of 3rd comparator-Input 3+
10. Inverting input of 4th comparator-Input 4-
11. Non-inverting input of 4th comparator-Input 4+
12. Ground (0V)-Ground
13. Output of 4th comparator-Output 4
14. Output of 3rd comparator-Output 3
5. Darlington Array
ULN2803APG(Manufactured by Toshiba Malaysia)
The ULN2803APG / AFWG Series are high’voltage,high’current Darlington drivers comprised of eight NPNdarlington pairs.
All units feature integral clamp diodes for switching inductiveloads.
Applications include relay, hammer, lamp and display (LED)drivers.
‘ Output current (single output)
500 mA (max)
‘ High sustaining voltage output
50 V (min)
‘ Output clamp diodes
‘ Inputs compatible with various types of logic.
‘ Package Type’APG : DIP’18pin
‘ Package Type’AFWG : SOL’18pin
6. LEDs for Street lights
The LED street light is an integrated light-emitting diode (LED) light fixture that is used for street lighting.An LED street light is an integrated light that uses light emitting diodes (LED) as its light source. These are considered integrated lights because, in most cases, the luminaire and the fixture are not separate parts (except LEDGine-based luminaires). New in manufacturing, the LED light cluster is sealed on a panel and then assembled to the LED panel with a heat sink to become an integrated lighting fixture.
Different designs have been created that incorporate various types of LEDs into a light fixture. The current trend is to use high power 1 watt LEDs. However, some companies use low power LEDs in their products, including several low power LEDs packed together to perform the same purpose as a single high power LED. The shape of the LED street light depends on several factors, including LED configuration, the heat sink used with the LEDs and aesthetic design preference.
Heat sinks for LED street lights are similar in design to heat sinks used to cool other electronics such as computers. Heat sinks tend to have as many grooves as possible to facilitate the flow of hot air away from the LEDs. The area of heat exchange directly affects the lifespan of the LED Street light.
The lifespan of an LED street light is determined by its light output compared to its original design specification. Once its brightness decreases by 30 percent, an LED street light is considered to be at the end of its life.
Most LED street lights have a lens on the LED panel, which is designed to cast its light in a rectangular pattern, an advantage compared to traditional street lights, which typically have a reflector on the back side of a high-pressure sodium lamp. In this case, much of the luminance of the light is lost and produces light pollution in the air and surrounding environment. Such street lights can also cause glare for drivers and pedestrians.
The primary appeal of LED street lighting is energy efficiency compared to conventional street lighting fixture technologies such as high pressuresodium and metal halide. Research continues to improve the efficiency of newer models. One such advance can be found in a street light product created by Lighting Science Group Corporation. One model of LED street lights produced by this group is up to 60 percent more efficient than previous models, lasting for 12 years.
An LED street light based on a 901 milli watt output LED can normally produce the same amount of luminance as a traditional light, but requires only half of the power consumption. LED lighting does not typically fail, but instead decreases in output until it needs to be replaced.
As the LED lighting fixtures normally produce less lumen/Watt illumination it is very crucial to have a well distributed illumination pattern in order to do the same job as higher lumen/Watt conventional fixtures. So a good design of LED street lights is to point different LEDs in one fixture to different target points.
Advantages of LED Street Lights
‘ Low energy consumption: The much lower energy usage of LED lighting can dramatically reduce operating costs.
‘ Long and predictable lifetime: The lifetime of LED street lights is usually 10 to 15 years, three times the life of current technologies adopted. The much less frequent need to service or replace LEDs means lower maintenance cost.
‘ More accurate color rendering: The color rendering index is the ability of a light source to correctly reproduce the colors of the objects in comparison to an ideal light source. Improved color rendering makes it easier for drivers to recognize potential road hazards.
‘ Quick turn on and off: Unlike fluorescent lamps, which take time to heat up once switched on, LEDs come on with full brightness instantly. Unlike mercury vapor, metal halide and sodium vapor lamps (commonly used in street lighting), LEDs do not have a problem restarting immediately (hot ignition) following a brief power failure or inadvertent turn off.
‘ RoHS compliance: LEDs don’t contain mercury or lead, and don’t release poisonous gases if damaged.
‘ Less attractive to nocturnal insects: Nocturnal insects are attracted to ultraviolet, blue and green light emitted by conventional light sources.
‘ Fewer electrical losses: All other types of lighting (except incandescent) require ballasts, additional electronic and/or electromagnetic components, in which some power is consumed.
‘ Optically efficient lighting equipment: Other types of street lights use a reflector to capture the light emitted upwards from the lamp. Even under the best of conditions, the reflector absorbs some of the light. Also for fluorescent lamps and other lamps with phosphor coated bulbs, the bulb itself absorbs some of the light directed back down by the reflector. The glass cover, called a refractor, helps project the light down on the street in a desired pattern but some light is wasted by being directed up to the sky (light pollution). LED lamp assemblies (panels) do not require reflectors and can be designed to provide the desired coverage without a refractor.
‘ Reduced glare: Directing the light downward onto the roadway reduces the amount of light that is directed into driver’s eyes.
‘ Higher light output even at low temperatures: While fluorescent lights are comparably energy efficient, on average they tend to have lesser light output at winter temperatures.
Light Technology Comparison Based on Luminous Efficiency, Lamp Service life and their consideration.
7. Microcontroller
A microcontroller is a computer control system on a single chip. It has many electronic circuits built into it, which can decode written instructions and convert them to electrical signals. The microcontroller will then step through these instructions and execute them one by one. As an example of this a microcontroller we can use it to controller the lighting of a street by using the exact procedures. Microcontrollers are now changing electronic designs. Instead of hard wiring a number of logic gates together to perform some function we now use instructions to wire the gates electronically. The list of these instructions given to the microcontroller is called a program.
Pin out Description
Pins 1-8: Port 1 Each of these pins can be configured as an input or an output.
Pin 9: RS A logic one on this pin disables the microcontroller and clears the contents of most registers. In other words, the positive voltage on this pin resets the microcontroller. By applying logic zero to this pin, the program starts execution from the beginning.
Pins10-17: Port 3 Similar to port 1, each of these pins can serve as general input or output. Besides, all of them have alternative functions:
Pin 10: RXD Serial asynchronous communication input or Serial synchronous communication output.
Pin 11: TXD Serial asynchronous communication output or Serial synchronous communication clock output.
Pin 12: INT0 Interrupt 0 input.
Pin 13: INT1 Interrupt 1 input.
Pin 14: T0 Counter 0 clock input.
Pin 15: T1 Counter 1 clock input.
Pin 16: WR Write to external (additional) RAM.
Pin 17: RD Read from external RAM.
Pin 18, 19: X2, X1 Internal oscillator input and output. A quartz crystal which specifies operating frequency is usually connected to these pins. Instead of it, miniature ceramics resonators can also be used for frequency stability. Later versions of microcontrollers operate at a frequency of 0 Hz up to over 50 Hz.
Pin 20: GND Ground.
Pin 21-28: Port 2 If there is no intention to use external memory then these port pins are configured as general inputs/outputs. In case external memory is used, the higher address byte, i.e. addresses A8-A15 will appear on this port. Even though memory with capacity of 64Kb is not used, which means that not all eight port bits are used for its addressing, the rest of them are not available as inputs/outputs.
Pin 29: PSEN if external ROM is used for storing program then a logic zero (0) appears on it every time the microcontroller reads a byte from memory.
Pin 30: ALE Prior to reading from external memory, the microcontroller puts the lower address byte (A0-A7) on P0 and activates the ALE output. After receiving signal from the ALE pin, the external register (usually 74HCT373 or 74HCT375 add-on chip) memorizes the state of P0 and uses it as a memory chip address. Immediately after that, the ALU pin is returned its previous logic state and P0 is now used as a Data Bus. As seen, port data multiplexing is performed by means of only one additional (and cheap) integrated circuit. In other words, this port is used for both data and address transmission.
Pin 31: EA By applying logic zero to this pin, P2 and P3 are used for data and address transmission with no regard to whether there is internal memory or not. It means that even there is a program written to the microcontroller, it will not be executed. Instead, the program written to external ROM will be executed. By applying logic one to the EA pin, the microcontroller will use both memories, first internal then external (if exists).
Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to P2, if external memory is not used, these pins can be used as general inputs/outputs. Otherwise, P0 is configured as address output (A0-A7) when the ALE pin is driven high (1) or as data output (Data Bus) when the ALE pin is driven low (0).
Pin 40: VCC +5V power supply.
LED streetlights are the wave of the future, but in addition to being the environmentally friendly choice, doing away with high-pressure sodium streetlight has one other significant (at least to photographers and filmmakers) side effect: it completely changes the look of night.
Five level of power consumption for different type of road has been recorded and outlined . The result is based on the different type of condition detected by the integrated sensor including dark sensor, water sensor and laser sensor. During the Level 1, the recorded power consumption is 0.00W at 0V. The maximum power consumption recorded at 0.075W for Level 5. While, the
remaining recorded power consumption for Level 2, 0.015W; Level 3, 0.045W; and Level 4, 0.060W. This output has been deduced by implementing automatic control of street lights on the basis of five different conditions.
The result and discussion has been divided into three main section; power consumption on different road type, power consumption for different condition type and power consumption for different type of lamps.
A. Power Consumption on Different Road Type
Three type of road at different installation area has been used to measure the power consumption of High Pressure Sodium Lamp for duration of 1 hour and 12 hours showed in the table. The most power consuming recorded at Highways with 8400W and follow by Traffic Routes at 5520W. While, the Urban City power consumption is the lowest and recorded at 4775.5W. The type of road has a great influence over power consumption where the power consumption increased proportional to the number of lane.
B. Simulation of Power Consumption on Different Condition
Three different type of road using five different conditions as stated in Table 3 has been simulated from 7.00pm to 7.00am. This simulation is very important to identify the performance of the system running in different type of condition and environment circumstance. All three type of road recorded at 0.00W power consumption for every hour from 7.00pm to 7.00am during condition 1. The environment circumstance and numbers of traffic is influence this scenario since the condition 1 is setat no vehicles and not rainy.
The figure represents power consumption for each hour at urban city, traffic routes and highways according to the road type based on condition 1.
The system operated at condition 2 during the rainy condition and no vehicles used the road. Simulation result for this condition is shown in Figure 5. The pattern of recorded value is start to decrease from 7.00pm to 7.00am which the maximum value recoded at 7.00pm and the minimum value recorded at 7.00am. At 7.00pm the power consumption recoded at 297.0W, Highways; 265.5 Traffic Routes; and 247.5, Urban City. While, at 7.00am the power consumption recorded at 39.2W, Highways; 9.9W, Traffic Routes; and 5.9W, Urban City. The power consumption is increase due to the rainy condition.
The figure represents power consumption for each hour at urban city, traffic routes and highways according to the road type based on condition 2.
During the numbers of vehicles less than 5 for every hour and not rainy; the system operates at condition 3. The laser sensor has been used to count the numbers of vehicles using the road in this condition. The recorded power consumption is slightly lower than condition 2 but maintaining the same pattern since the number of environment circumstance does not required bright light and just enough to overcome the accident and crime. At 7.00pm the power consumption is recorded at 99.0W, Highways; 88.5W, Traffic Routes; and 82.5W, Urban City. While, the recorded data start to decrease and at 7.00am the power consumption is recorded at 13.1W, Highways; 4.8W, Traffic Routes; and 1.9W, Urban City.
Condition 4 is operated during the rainy and numbers of vehicles less than or equal to 5. The power consumption is slightly higher than condition 2 due to the presence numbers of vehicles using the road. At 7.00pm the power consumption recorded at 396.0W, Highways; 354.0W, Traffic Route; and 330.0W, Urban City. The power consumption start to decrease and the minimum power consumption recorded at 7.00 am with 15.6W, Highways; 13.2W, Traffic Route; and 7.2W, Urban City.
The figure represents power consumption for each hour at urban city, traffic routes and highways according to the road type based on condition 4.
The optimum power consumption is obtained at condition 5 when the numbers of vehicles greater than 5 and during rainy weather. The complete simulation for condition 5 form 7.00pm to 7.00am is shown in Figure 7. The maximum power consumption was recorded at 7.00pm with 495.0W, Highways; 442.5W, Traffic Route; and 412.5W, Urban City. The minimum power consumption was recorded at 7.00am with 65.3W, Highways; 16.5W, Traffic Route; and 9.8W, Urban City.
The figure represents power consumption for each hour at urban city, traffic routes and highways according to the road type based on condition 5.
C. Comparative of Power Consumption for Different Type of Lamp
The power consumption performance evaluation for High Pressure Sodium and LED Lamp is shown in Table 6. The evaluation was conducted on three different type of road in three different installation areas. LED lamp required less power consumption as compare to Pressure Lamp for all three type of road and Urban City is giving the minimum power consumption at 971.56W.
The different of power consumption using high pressure sodium lamp and LED lamp.
In this paper, the automatic street lighting system was presented. As a conclusion, around 77% – 81% of power consumption can be reduced by using this system towards providing a solution for energy saving. Furthermore, the minimal components including the low cost controller and LED module produce the better saving in term of cost. On top of that, the lifetime, better illumination and low power consumption of LED are the other criteria for reducing the operational and maintenance cost after installation compare to high pressure sodium lamp and others. Hence, it helps in further improves the energy efficiency and quality of lighting level.
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