Essay: Compare two materials aluminium alloy 2024 and aluminium alloy 6061 for its intended application

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  • Compare two materials aluminium alloy 2024 and aluminium alloy 6061 for its intended application
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Abstract:

 

The subject of this report is to compare two materials aluminium alloy 2024 and aluminium alloy 6061 for its intended application, a bike handle bar. This was done through the use of finite element analysis (which is used through solid works simulation), which highlights the stresses and strain that will be present when a force of 150N is applied to the part whilst also considering a factor of safety of 2. This will mainly be looking into what area the material succeeded in and justifying why one material would be better suited for the application over the other by looking into the materials properties and seeing how they differ from one another; then concluding on which material is better suited for the application, based on the content of my discussion & results, then giving my reasoning behind my justification.

 

 

 

Introduction:

 

There are many considerations that need to be accounted for when it comes to designing a part for a product. In this case material is a big factor. As the material contributes to the design of the part, in terms being able to resist stress and strain. Material is so vital for the product in being able to work with the design. As this determines the weight of the product, durability, strength and many other factors. So in this case the materials purpose will be able to handle the stresses and strain within the part, whilst a constant force of 150N is applied. With the materials being different they are obviously have different properties. So the difference in properties can affect the design of the product.

The problem to overcome in this case will be not to deform or fracture during these test and be able to carry out their role, so being able to withstand the stresses and strains within the part and not fall into a critical stage. A stage of which would lead to permanent deformation and fracture. Whilst also being a cheap and affordable material for production. With the changes in material through the tests, it showed that there was a change in weight, price, yield strength and ETC. These changes can massively affect the design and whether the product is made and produced to a good standard. These changes would also affect the user ability of the product.

 

 

 

 

 

Methodology:

 

This is a step by step guide of setting up the static study to get the correct and accurate results for applying a 150N force on both sides of the handle bars.

Step 1:

Before setting up the study two split lines have to be created. This can be done by creating a new sketch on the original front plane, then create a horizontal centre line running from one end of the handle bar (at least 10cm) and then a vertical line- this vertical line will be used to split the part. This is needed to be done otherwise the entire bar will want to be bent and not where a person’s hands will be placed.

Step 2:

Now click on the new study and select the static study. This will allow the parameters of a study to be done. For example this will allow the material to be specified, our fixed geometry to be located and for the force to be applied to the handle bars.

Step 3:

Now specify the material, this will be a choice of either the aluminium alloy 2024 or the aluminium alloy 6061. Either way on the second study, you will specify the second material.

Step 4:

The fixed geometry has to be specified in order to simulate where the handle bars meet the rest of the bike. So in this case the central cylinder has to be fixed, as well as the inner groves faces which are facing the part of which the force is being applied to.

Step 5:

The forces have to be applied on the outer face of the split part. The face has to be selected and then the selected direction button has to be selected, in this box the front plane has to be selected- this so the force can be directed down the y axis. 150N must then be applied to the direction.

Step 6:

The mesh has to be defined as well before the test can be done. The mesh must be set as a curvature-based mesh.

Step 7:

Once all of the following steps have been completed then click on the run this study button. Once it has done all of the needed calculations, the results for stress, strain and displacement will be visible.

Step 8:

The factor of safety also needs to be applied. This can be done by applying a new plot, this plot will be factor of safety. The upper and areas below the factor of safety must be set to 2. This will then make the handle bars have a factor of safety of 2.

Results:

Both specimens that have been tested during the simulations have had the same parameters. Both have had a force of 150N applied the bar. Both parts also have the same exact dimensions to be able to compare the stress and strain.

Stress:

From the results that have been found throughout the tests is that the aluminium alloy 2024 which has a yield strength of 75829100, had a reduced are of stress when compared to the aluminium alloy 6061 which had a yield strength of 55148500. From this we can see that there is less deformity in the AA 2024 and is less likely to fail in the long term. Whereas the AA 6061 could deform more and potentially fracture in the long term.

Equation for stress: stress=force/(total Area) CS area external – CS internal = total CS- CS area= πr^2

Surface area

So we can see that there is more stress in the 6061 this is due to the fact that the material has a reduced yield strength and therefore more stress is in the part then compared to the 2024. This is can be seen in reference A. as there is a larger area of stress in the highlighted area. The graphs further show this (see figures 3 & 4). As this shows the peak values of stress in the part (6061-2.730 and 2024-2.35). Then they are identical for the rest of the graph, this is to be expected as they have the same geometry but only the only difference is being the values due to the difference in material properties.

Strain:

Strain occurs when a force is applied to a part. Strain affects the part by stretching the part slightly or quite massively depending on part and force applied. This is also referred to as deformation. As the part will stretch ever so slightly.

From the graphs and the images for strain in the handle bar. We can see that there isn’t a huge difference, this which is to be expected as they are two similar materials (being aluminium alloys). However we can see that they have some slight differences, which is because of the difference in material. The strain is dependent on the stress which occurs in the material. When we use the formula strain=stress/(elastic modulus) as we found that with a change of stress and elastic modulus there will be a difference in strain. So therefore there will be a difference in strain between the two materials. This can be seen in the graphs (figure 1 and 2) as the strain in 6061 reaches a value just slightly higher than 3.00-04 and the 2024 reaching a value of 2.90-04. In this case, the results show that there is more deformation in the aluminium alloy 6061. From looking at the material properties of each material, we can see that the AA 2024 has a higher elastic modulus (7.3+10e) than the AA 6061 (6.9+10e). This can also be seen the graphs, as the material with the higher elastic modulus will have less strain the part. This can be seen in figures 1 & 2.

It is worth noting that neither material is in a critical state of which the handle bar would fail. If the handle bar was to fail we would see that the areas affected would be in the yellow or red side of the scale.

 

 

 

 

 

Discussion:

Fixed geometry and ETC:

From both results we can see that where the force is being applied there is no stress; but where the handle bar has fixed geometry this is where the stress is more visible. This is due to the part where the force is being applied is able to move and the fixed geometry does not allow movement and so is resistant to the movement and this why the stress is formed in the first place. We also see this around the curvature linking the fixed geometry to the spitted part there is a small amount of stress which is showing that this curvature is able to move along to where the force is being applied. (Reference A). This can also be seen in figures 10 and 11.

From the graphs we can see that the stress differences are not that major when compared to another. As the 6061 peaked at 2.7 + 07e whereas the 2024 peaked around 2.4 + 07e. Then both produced almost identical results when moving from the fixed geometry to the end of the handle bars. In relation to where the stresses are present. This also applies to the strain in relation to the fixed geometry. As is shows that the fixed parts are being stretched in relation to the force being applied. The only difference being the numerical values from the graphs.

Mesh:

Mesh parameters can change the results gained from the studies. The finer the mesh the more accurate the results will be as an outcome of the studies. The coarser the mesh is, the less accurate the results will be. So in this case I did not change the mesh parameters as I wanted to keep the same parameters for both equal. However the change in mesh parameters being finer, allow the results to be more true to though calculations that may be done before the studies.

Properties:

When looking into each of the materials properties we can see that the aluminium alloy 2024 achieves higher and better results of yields strength and elastic modulus than the aluminium alloy 6061. Which shows in the graphs, as they demonstrate the better material in relation to having less stress and train in the handle bar. But on further inspection into the properties of the materials, we can see that the aluminium alloy 6061 weighs less than the aluminium alloy 2024- which for this particular application is key as it needs to be lightweight as possible whilst not failing in terms of stress or strain. So although the aluminium alloy has better properties in terms of yield strength and elastic modulus, the aluminium alloy 6061 compensates for having a decrease in 6061.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1- Material Properties- taken from solid works

 

Material: Aluminium alloy 2024 Aluminium alloy 6061

Elastic modulus 7.3e + 10^10 6.9e + 10^10

Poisson ratio 0.33 0.33

Shear modulus 2.8e + 10 2.6e + 10

Mass density 800 2700

Tensile strength 186126000 125084000

Yield strength 75829100 55148500

 

Conclusion:

 

In conclusion these tests has indicated which is the best material out of the two aluminium alloys in terms of stress and strain. However the tests as well as research into the materials properties has shown some highlights of the materials, for example their ability to handle stress and strain, weight as well as how expensive each material is.

From these tests we can see that there is not a massive difference between the two, the only difference is that from images we can see that there is a larger affected area with the 6061 when compared to the 2024 as well as a slight difference in the values of values. It’s also been found that the 6061 is also lighter than the 2024, although the 6061 does not perform as well as the 2024 in terms of resisting stress and strain. However this material would be better suited for the part (Bikes handle bar) as it weighs less and, it is ideal that the product be as lightweight as possible as well as being cheaper than the than the 2024.

To sum it up I feel the aluminium alloy 6061 is the better material out of the two that was studied. This is due to the fact that the material is cheaper and lighter than the 2024, it also only fell slightly worse when resisting stress by a slight margin. But did not fail and reach a critical level which shows it is viable as an option to be used for this particular application.

 

References:

Anon., 2018. 2024-T3 Aluminum vs. 6061-T6 Aluminum :: MakeItFrom.com [online]. Makeitfrom.com. Available from: https://www.makeitfrom.com/compare/2024-T3-Aluminum/6061-T6-Aluminum/ [Accessed 24 Nov 2018].

 

Anon., 2018. CES EDUpack 2018. Windows. CES.

 

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