Essay: Measurement Of Temperatures in a Furnace

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CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
The Measurement of Temperatures of furnace is a very difficult task. Sensors also breaks due to the extreme high temperature of furnace and it requires daily maintenance. Scientists had designed temperature controller of furnace through Conventional PID controller. But it was proved insufficient due to its poor malleability and low control fidelity. So, to solve these problems, we are designing this project. This dissertation works for generation of flame and temperature control of furnace. We will use Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and for algorithm, we will use Ladder Logic Algorithm.

1.1 Characteristics:
• In this work, we are using 2 Burners i.e. Pilot Burner and Main Burner in which Pilot Burner will always remain on. Hence, in a closed Furnace, when we will switch on main burner, explosion will not take place.
• In this work, we are providing 2 pressure alarms for air and natural gas for safety point of view.
• This work is solitary for Automatic temperature control.
• This entire work can be used to control and withstand temperature as high as 1600 degree Celsius.

1.2 Applications:
• Glass Industries
• Ceramic Industries
• Tile industries
• Chemical Industries
• Boilers in Industries

CHAPTER-2
AIMS, OBJECTIVES & EXPECTED OUTCOME
2.1 Problem Summary

In this industrial age, Furnace, its flame generation and temperature control are major concerns to both industries and designers. Temperature control is an important issue in Industries. As in closed furnace, we cannot see the flame and measure its temperature so because of that there are many chances of explosion in furnace or degradation of furnace, due to high Temperature.
2.2 Project Aims and Objectives

The Aim of the project is to generate flame and control temperature of closed furnace through PLC. The commands will be given with the help of PLC and these commands is transmitted to the devices attached with PLC. From the commands, the solenoid valves will be opened and flame will be generated in both pilot and main burners. Flame sensor will sense whether the flame is generated or not. Thermocouple will measure temperature of furnace and temperature indicator will indicate whether the temperature is beyond or above set point temperature of furnace. The main objective of this project is to control temperature of furnace. As we are using 2 burners, in which pilot burner will always remain ON. So, whenever we will switch ON main burner, there wouldn’t be any explosion in furnace. For safety point of view, we are using 2 low pressure alarms for natural gas and air. This work is solitary for automatic flame generation of furnace and temperature control of furnace as well.

2.3 Expected Outcome:

If this system is implemented then there will be very less chances of explosion and the process will become more smooth and reliable as it will not only control the temperature of furnace. But it will also cutoff ignition transformer and close solenoid valves as per the temperature of furnace. It is mainly designed for Industrial use.

CHAPTER- 3
LITERATURE SURVEY
3.1 “Constrained Temperature Control of a Solar Furnace” [1]
Author: Manuel Beschi, Antonio Visioli
Year of publication: IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, VOL. 20, NO. 5, September 2012
Abstract:
A unique control strategy for a solar furnace is proposed in this paper with the objective of gaining a time transition between two values of the temperature of solar furnace. The work consist of implementing a feed forward control law with positive and negative velocity phases in order to obtain a time transition with no overshoot. In the case of ramp shape set point signals, the suitable feed forward control law is obtained by inverting the dynamics of the system. Simulation and results explains the qualities of the process.

Conclusion:
A control plan for a solar furnace has been proposed in this paper. A suitable feed forward action, which takes into account the process input constraints is determined to reduce the temperature transition time. The method can be extended to the case when process output constraints are also considered, namely, when a ramp set point signal is considered. Simulation and experimental results shows the technique providing the required performance.

3.2 “Modeling of the Thermal State Change of Blast Furnace Hearth with Support Vector Machines” [2]
Author: Shihua Luo, Ling Jian and Chuanhou Gao
Year of publication: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 59, No. 2, February 2012

Abstract:
If the safe operation of a blast furnace is needed then the thermal state change of a blast furnace hearth (BFH) is to be monitored and controlled strictly. For these purposes, this paper has been designed to take the tendency prediction of the thermal state of BFH as a binary classification problem and construct a ν-support vector machines (SVMs) model and a probabilistic output model based on ν-SVMs. An ordinal-validation algorithm is used to combine with the F -score method to single out inputs from all collected blast furnace variables, which are then entered into the constructed models to perform the prediction task. Its final results indicate that these two models can serve as competitive tools for the current prediction task. Its results can work as a guide to help the operators for checking the thermal state change of BFH in time and provide a signal to them to tell the direction of controlling blast furnaces earlier.

Conclusion:
This paper tells about the predictive tendency change of the thermal state of the BFH. By generating a binary classification problem, the predictive task is being addressed using ν-SVMs and a probabilistic output based on ν-SVMs, which are two kinds of classifiers.

3.3 “Temperature Control of Industrial Coke Furnace Using Novel State Space Model Predictive Control” [3]
Author: Furong Gao, Anke Xue and Ridong Zhang
Year of publication: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, September 2013
Abstract:
This paper gives an advanced model predictive control using a state space structure for temperature control of an industrial coke furnace. The advantage of this proposed system is that its implementation requires only a simple step-response process model which is used to improve and control temperature regulation. To ensure its good performance model predictions, process mismatch and the cost function incrementation are checked according to the new state space model. The proposed model predictive control is used on an industrial coke furnace, where the outlet temperature in the radiation room is controlled. Results and comparisons with traditional state space MPC are represented first. Then the new results are compared with the old results representing the capacity and strength of the proposed methodology.

Conclusion:
In this study, an MPC is invented and applied on an industrial coke furnace. This work selects a plain linear step-response process model and then constructs the controller by a state space formulation. The Closed-loop performance is examined through both the results to show its capacity and strength.

3.4 “Thermal Stable Characterization of the Au–Sn Bonding for High-Temperature Applications” [4]

Author: Rogie I. Rodriguez, Dimeji Ibitayo and Pedro O. Quintero
Year of publication: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 3, No. 4, April 2013
Abstract:
There is a need of electromechanical devices, which are capable of operating at high-temperature environments for various applications. Today’s semiconductor-based power electronics has demonstrated a potential of operating above 400 °C, however, they are still limited by packaging. Among the most promising alternatives is the Au–Sn eutectic solder, which has been widely used due to its excellent mechanical and thermal properties. However, the operating temperature of this metallurgical system is still limited to ∼250 °C owing to its melting temperature of 280 °C. Therefore, a high-temperature-resistant system is much needed, but without affecting the current processing temperature of ∼325 °C, typically exhibited in most high-temperature Pb-free solders. In this paper, we present the development and characterization of a fluxless die-attach soldering process based on golden riched solid–liquid interdiffusion (SLID). A low-melting-point material (eutectic Au–Sn) is deposited in the face of a substrate, whereas a high-melting-point material, gold in this instance, is deposited in its mating substrate. Deposition of all materials was performed using a jet vapor deposition (JVD) equipment where thicknesses are controlled to achieve specific compositions in the mixture. Sandwiched coupons are isothermally processed in a vacuum reflow furnace for different reflow times. Post processed samples confirm the inter diffusion mechanism as evidenced by the formation of sound joints that prove to be thermally stable up to ∼490 °C after the completion of the SLID process. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrate the progression of the SLID process by quantifying the remaining low-melting point constituent as a function of time and temperature, this serving as an indicator of the completion of the soldering process. Mechanical testing reveals a joint with shear strength varying from 39 to 45.5 MPa, demonstrating to be stable even after 500 h of isothermal aging. Moreover, these investigations successfully demonstrate the use of the Au–Sn SLID system and the JVD technology as potential manufacturing processes and as a lead free die-attach technology.

Conclusion:
In this paper, the progress and imitation of the process for high-temperature applications through a gold-enriched SLID process is presented. The JVD Au/Au–20 Sn samples are applied at different holding times and refill temperatures above 280 °C. The Microstructural characterization explains the generation of sound joints administered by the interdiffusion of its main constituents. Au is mixed with the Au–Sn and temperature goes above the melting point of the Au–Sn layer. Microstructural examination and compositional analysis determines the presence of Au–Sn–Ni compounds. The generation and growth of these compounds led to the full consumption of the Ni(P) diffusion barrier after a certain reflow temperature and time.

3.5 “Matlab-Simulink Programming for the Automated Control of a Resistive Furnace” [5]
Author: Andreea-Maria Neacă, Mitică Iustinian Neacă
Year of publication: IEEE “Applied and Theoretical Electricity (ICATE)”, 2014
Abstract:
In this work, the authors have designed a software, using Matlab, for creating a connection with the plant and the control board with a microcontroller and the computer. The objective of the entire plant is to monitor and control the temperature of the parts inside a resistive furnace. The software is based on two m-files, one is created in Simulink which represents the user interface practically whereas the second file consists of the source code which calculates the control coefficients for heating and ventilation. It solves the errors occurred and generates a matrix of the coefficients so that it could design graphics.

Conclusion:
The system used here gives a good tracing of the arbitrary temperature from the work cycle. In this many trials have been made to give optimal coefficients of the two controllers. It can be seen that differences between the two temperatures are below 175°C throughout the entire trials. These values are very good giving the literature requirements which specify the acceptance differences in heat treatment of metal.

CHAPTER-4
BLOCK DIAGRAM AND PROCESS FLOWCHART

4.1 Block Diagram of the Control Circuit:

The basic block diagram of experimental set-up may be as per drawn below:

Fig. 4.1. Block Diagram of Internal Flame System of a Closed Furnace Using PLC

4.2 PLC System Architecture:

Fig. 4.2 PLC System Architecture

This dissertation is designed to generate flame in furnace and to control its temperature as well through PLC. As shown in Fig.4.1, it consists of Thermocouple, Furnace, Temperature Controller, Pilot Burner, Main Burner, Pilot Solenoid Valve, Main Isolation Valve, Air Blower, Safety alarms, Flame sensor and an Ignition transformer. Fig.4.2 shows the Block diagram of PLC through which the whole system is being controlled. The PLC used here is IC 200UDR010-CH GE Fanuc and the software is designed in Proficy machine edition. It consists of 6 Inputs and 11 Outputs. In inputs, it consists of 2 push buttons for switching ON/OFF of pilot burner, 1 is for flame sensor, 2 are air and natural gas and 1 is for switching OFF the plant in case or emergency. In outputs, it consists 11 outputs in which 2 are for opening and closing of pilot solenoid valves, 2 are for opening and closing of main solenoid valves, 2 are low pressure alarms for air and gas, 1 is for ignition transformer, 2 are for pilot & main burners, 1 is for flame detector and 1 is for closing of all the components.

The procedure to start the system is as follows:

1. Switch on the supply of PLC and control circuit.
2. Switch on the air blower. As soon as air blower starts, Low Pressure Alarm switch for air will be normal.
3. Open isolation valve for natural gas. As soon as we open valve, Low pressure alarm switch for natural gas will be normal.
4. Press pilot on switch from PLC. It will switch on pilot burner. Along with it will also switch on ignition transformer and opens pilot solenoid valve of natural gas. The ignition transformer will remain on for 15 seconds to provide spark for combustion of air and fuel. Due to this Pilot flame will be generated and flame sensor will sense whether the flame is generated or not.
5. If pilot flame is not being sensed by flame sensor then PLC will close pilot solenoid valve.
6. Solve the problem occurred in case flame is not generated and then start the sequence again from point 4, 5 and 6.
7. After the detection of flame by sensor, Main solenoid valve will be opened through PLC. Due to this flame is generated in main burner of furnace and temperature of furnace rises.
8. Set the maximum and minimum temperature of furnace in temperature indicator.
9. If temperature of furnace crosses the maximum temperature then it will automatically close the main gas solenoid valve. Similarly if temperature of furnace goes below the minimum temperature then it will automatically open main gas solenoid valve. Hence, the temperature of furnace can be controlled automatically.
10. With the help of PLC, we can generate flame and control of temperature as well.

4.3 Process Flowchart:

CHAPTER-5
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC)

PLC is a digital computer designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. PLC was introduced in late 1960’s. First successful Programmable Logic Controllers was designed and developed by Modicon as a relay replacer for General Motors. Later, in late 1970’s, the microprocessor became reality & greatly enhanced the role of PLC permitting it to evolve form simply relay to the sophisticated system as it is today.

5.1 Main Components of a Common PLC:

Fig. 5.1 Main Components of PLC

1. Power Supply:
It provides voltage supply to run PLC components.

2. I/O Modules:
It provides signal conversion and isolation between the internal low level signals inside the PLC and the field’s high level signal.

3. Processor:
It is the heart of PLC. Its main function is to monitor each component’s activities.

4. Programming Device:
In this through keyboard, program is typed and entered into the PLC. Then according to the typed program, execution is performed in it.

5.2 PLC Operation sequence:

Fig. 5.2 Operation Sequence of PLC
1) Self test:
It will test its own hardware and software for error and faults.

2) Input scan:
If any problem occurred, then PLC will copy all the inputs and transfer their value into memory.

3) Logic solve/scan:
In this with the help of inputs, the ladder logic program is executed and outputs are updated.

4) Output scan:
When ladder scan is done, the outputs will be updated using temporary values in memory.

CHAPTER- 6
LADDER LOGIC DIAGRAM AND PROGRAMMING

6.1 Introduction of Ladder Logic Programming:
The ladder logic is the programming language. The instructions are represented by graphic symbols: Contacts, Coils & Boxes. It is a graphical programming language which replicates electronic switching circuits. Every requirements must be programmed into the PLC so that it knows how to execute different events. The programmer develops the program, and connects their personal computer to the PLC through a network or cable and then downloads the program to the PLC. Ladder logic rungs consists of s IF-THEN statements. Each individual rung is executed from the left to the right. The Power Rails is indicated by a pair of vertical lines and Rungs is indicated by horizontal lines. There must be continuous path through the contacts to energize the output.

Fig. 6.1 Ladder Logic Diagram

6.2 Anatomy of Ladder Logic Programming:

As shown in the figure given below, it describes the anatomy of ladder logic programming.

Fig. 6.2 Anatomy of Ladder Logic Diagram

As we can see, The Input instructions are on the left side and Output instructions are on the right side. L1 and L2 are for AC circuits and 24V is for DC circuits. Majority of PLCs permit more than one output each rung.

6.3 Basics of ladder logic symbols:

In Ladder Logic programming, to execute a program, we need some logic symbols and this it has 4 main logic symbols, they are NO (Normally Open), NC (Normally Closed), Output and Not output. The description and symbol of each logic is given in the figure below.

Fig. 6.3 Basics of Ladder Logic Symbols

Programming in PLC is based on logical procedure. In a PLC program, “Things” i.e. inputs and rungs are either true or false. If the input conditions are true then the rung becomes TRUE and an output action occurs. If not then the rung becomes FALSE and an output action does not occurs.

CHAPTER- 7
SOFTWARE PROGRAMMING THROUGH PROFICY MACHINE EDITION

7.1 Introduction of Proficy Machine Edition:

Proficy Machine Edition, an automation software for all GE\’s PLC series, deploys HMI and provides a drag and drop editing, common user interface and a set of tools. It allows users to view, troubleshoot, modify and validate applications regardless of location. It allows users to view multiple, operating application programs at the same time from a single PC, increasing uptime through faster debugging. Through this, we can create ladder logic diagram easily and conveniently.

Machine Edition products are connected with the environment and with each other:
• They share the same project database. No time is wasted in synchronizing data points between applications.
• They share the same set of tools.
• They feature full drag-and-drop capabilities between tools and editors.
• They feature a true scalable solution.

7.2 Starting of New file in Proficy Machine Edition:
First of all, we have to first install Proficy Machine Edition 7.5 into our computers. After installing that, we want to create a logic diagram of our system. For that we have to create a new file in proficy. The steps given below will describe the procedure of creating new file in proficy:

1. Click on start button, go to All Programs, then go to Proficy, then got to Proficy Machine Edition, and then click on Proficy Machine Edition. The Environment Themes dialog box appears as shown below.

Fig. 7.1 Environmental Theme Dialog Box

2. Choose the environment theme according to your choice
3. Click on OK. Then click on new project then a dialog box given below will occur:

Fig. 7.2 Dialog Box to select an empty project

4. Select on Empty Project and click on OK.
5. Your new file will be opened and from there you can start your project.

7.3 Ladder Logic Diagram of our system using Proficy Machine Edition:

Fig. 7.3 (a) Calling of Logic, Input and Output of control circuit

Fig. 7.3 (b) Inputs of the control circuit
Fig. 7.3 (c) Outputs of the control circuit

Fig. 7.3 (d) Ladder Logic Diagram of the control circuit

As shown in the Fig. 7.3 (a), (b), (c) and (d), it shows the ladder logic diagram of our system. In Fig. 7.3 (a), it shows that calling is performed between input, output and logic of the circuit. In Fig.7.3 (b), it shows the 6 inputs of the control circuit. Here each input is stored in a particular memory location. The description of each input is given below:

• I1= Input of air blower. It is a NO contact and it is stored in memory location M1

• I2= Input of main isolation valve for natural gas. It is a NO contact and it is stored in memory location M2

• I3= Input for switching on pilot burner. It is a NO contact and it is stored in memory location M3

• I4= Input for switching off pilot burner. It is a NO contact and it is stored in memory location M8

• I5= Input of flame sensor. It is a NO contact and it is stored in memory location M9.

• I6= Input for emergency plant OFF. It is a NO contact and it is stored in memory location M21.

In Fig.7.3(c), it shows the 11 outputs of the control circuit. Here each output is stored in a particular memory location. The description of each output is given below:

• Q1= Output for Ignition Transformer. It will provide spark to the combustion of fuel and air so that flame could be generated in furnace. it is stored in memory location M10

• Q2= Output for opening of pilot solenoid valve.it will be opened only if flame is generated in pilot burner. it is stored in memory location M11

• Q3= Output for closing of pilot solenoid valve.it will be closed only if flame is not generated in pilot burner. it is stored in memory location M12

• Q4= Output for opening of main solenoid valve.it will be opened only if the temperature of furnace is below set temperature. it is stored in memory location M13

• Q5= Output for closing of main solenoid valve.it will be closed only if the temperature of furnace is above set temperature. It is stored in memory location M14.

• Q6= Output for Low pressure alarm for air blower.it will be reset when we start air blower. it is stored in memory location M15.

• Q7= Output for switching on pilot burner. It is stored in memory location M16.

• Q8= Output for flame detector. It will show that flame is not generated in pilot burner. It is stored in memory location M17.

• Q9= Output for switching on main burner. It is stored in memory location M18.

• Q10= Output for Low pressure alarm for main isolation valve.it will be reset when we open isolation valve manually. It is stored in memory location M19.

• Q11= Output for switching OFF everything in plant. It is stored in memory location M21

In Fig. 7.3 (d), we have used an on delay timer as transformer will remain on for 15 seconds to provide spark to combustion of air and gas so that they could generate flame in pilot burner. In flame sensing elements, we have used an on delay stop watch timer. Through this, it will keep flame sensor on for 60 seconds. After 60 seconds, if it detects flame then M17 will get reset and it will switch on main burner. In temperature indicator, we have used 2 analog inputs i.e. maximum and minimum set temperature for furnace. The integer to real value converter will convert analog inputs into real value input and that real input will be multiplied by 0.05 to get another real value. The obtained real value will be compared using less or equal comparator. In this comparator, real value will be less than minimum set temperature and main solenoid valve will be opened. We have also used another comparator for closing of main solenoid valve. So, in this way our logic works.

CHAPTER-8
LIST OF COMPONENTS USED IN HARDWARE

8.1 GE Fanuc IC200UDR010-CH 28 Micro Versamax PLC:

Fig. 8.1 IC200UDR010-CH GE Fanuc

As shown in Fig.8.1, it is IC200UDR010-CH GE Fanuc 28 micro PLC. It consist of 16 inputs, one output and eleven 2 A relay outputs. It uses 24 V input power and provides 24 V output. A minimum 2 A current is required to start its power supply.
.

Fig. 8.2 Block Diagram of Micro Versamax PLC

Here 24 VDC supply is used to give power to input devices at 7.5 A per input. The combination should not exceed above 200 mA. The sixteen configurable inputs are used as positive or negative logic standard inputs. Inputs are used with a wide range of input devices, such as pushbuttons and limit switches

11 relay outputs can control various devices such as solenoids and indicators. The switching capacity of each output is 2 ampere. The input resistance is 2.8 k ohms. The input threshold voltage is ON: 15VDC minimum, OFF: 5VDC maximum. The input threshold current is 4.5mA maximum and 1.5mA minimum. The output current is 450mA. The output voltage drop is 0.3 VDC. The input voltage range is 0 to 30 volts DC. The OFF state leakage is 0.1mA maximum. The maximum counter frequency is 10 kHz. The count pulse width ranges from 20% to 80% work cycle at 10 kHz. The count registers is of 16 bits. The leakage current is 15 mA at 240 VAC maximum. The minimum load is 1 mA.
8.2 Pilot Burner and Flame Sensor:
Fig. 8.3 Pilot Burner with flame sensor from KromSchroder

As shown in Fig.8.2, Pilot burner from KromSchroder is used. It consist of 2 electrodes in which one is used to give spark and generate flame while the other one is used to sense the flame generated by ionization process. In short, it works as pilot burner and flame sensor as well. It has robust design for long service. It saves space due to compact design and it will safely control flame by ionization electrode. It is available in different lengths, which makes it suitable for many installation situations.

8.3 Pt-Pt Rh 13% Thermocouple:

Fig. 8.4 Pt-Pt Rh 13% Thermocouple

The Pt-Pt Rh 13% thermocouple is a precision sensor used to measure temperatures as high as 1100°C and is widely used in many industries. In comes under Type-R Thermocouples. Its AWG wire size ranges from 0.5 mm to 0.8 mm. It is enclosed in a high purity alumina protection tube.
8.4 Temperature Controller:

Fig. 8.5 Temperature Controller from Selecs Pvt. Ltd

8.5 Digital Inputs:
Fig. 8.6 Digital Inputs of the Hardware Setup

8.6 Digital Outputs:

Fig. 8.7 Digital Outputs of the Hardware Setup

8.6 Analog Input:
Fig. 8.8 Analog Inputs of the Hardware Setup

As shown in Fig.8.8, it shows the analog input of hardware setup. Here Pt-Pt Rh 13% Thermocouple will measure temperature of furnace in analog value then through PLC programming, the analog value will be converted into digital value.

8.8 Low Pressure Alarms for Air and Natural Gas:

Fig. 8.9 Low Pressure Alarms for air and natural gas

As shown in Fig.8.9, we are using Euro Gauge contact type diaphragm pressure gauge. Its nominal diameter ranges from 100 to 160 mm. Its range is 0 to 1200mmwc.

8.9 Ignition Transformer:

Fig. 8.10 Ignition Transformer

An Ignition transformer is a converter that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit through the coils. The current in the primary winding generates a magnetic flux in the core and a magnetic field is generated through the secondary winding. This magnetic field generates EMF in the secondary winding. This process is known as inductive coupling.

If a load is connected to the secondary winding, current will flow and energy will be transferred from the primary circuit to the load. In our project, ignition transformer will remain on for 15 seconds to give spark to the pilot burner with combustion of air and natural gas.

Its primary winding is connected to 230V AC and Secondary winding is generating 5 KV supply, which is used for igniting the flame by generating spark.

8.10 Solenoid Valves:

Fig. 8.11 Solenoid Valves

As shown in Fig.8.11, we are using 2 –way Solenoid valves from Avcon Control Pvt. Ltd. Here we are using 2 solenoid valves, one in pilot burner and one in main burner. It comes in size ranging from 6mm to 25mm. It has differential pressure ranging from 0 to 40 bar. It can withstand temperature of fluid up to 40 degree Celsius. Its coil voltage is 230 V, 50 kHz AC. It is the most versatile and reliable valve for millions of trouble free operations.

CHAPTER- 9
OBSERVATION AND RESULT

9.1 Observations made in Hardware Setup:

Fig. 9.1 Furnace chamber with generation of pilot burner flame

As shown in Fig.9.1, flame is generated in pilot burner. Here flame is generated by combustion of air and natural gas and spark provided by ignition transformer. Natural gas is provided by switching ON pilot burner push button and through PLC, Pilot Solenoid valve will be open. Here ignition transformer will remain on for 15 seconds.
After 15 seconds, the ignition transformer will be turned OFF. So, in this way Pilot flame is generated.

Fig. 9.2 Furnace chamber with generation of main burner flame

As shown in Fig.9.2, it shows the flame generation in Main Burner. Natural gas is provided by switching ON main burner push button and through PLC, Main Solenoid valve will be open. When valve gets opened, natural gas will be supplied and with the combustion of air and gas, flame will be generated. Now the temperature of furnace will start rising and will be controlled through PLC. The thermocouple will measure temperature of furnace and it will pass on the information to temperature indicator. Then temperature indicator will pass on the analog value to PLC and through this main solenoid valve will be opened or closed according to temperature of furnace set in PLC.

Fig. 9.3 Front View of the Furnace chamber

9.2 Result :
Fig. 9.4 Simulation Result of the Ladder Logic Program in Proficy

Table 1: Observation Table:
PARAMETERS CONNECTION
MADE IN FIELD CONNECTION
MADE IN PLC FAULT DISAPPEAR ACTION
NATURAL GAS PLA √ √ √ –
AIR PLA √ √ √ –
PILOT BURNER ON √ √ PSV OPENS &
IGNITION TRANSFORMER OPENS PILOT BURNER’S FLAME IS ON
MAIN BURNER ON √ √ MSV OPENS MAIN BURNER’S FLAME IS ON
TEMPERATURE
OF FURNACE √ √ RISING SET
CROSSING SET MSV OPENS
MSV CLOSE
PILOT BURNER OFF √ √ PSV & MSV ARE CLOSED EVERYTHING IS OFF

Table 2: Performance Table:
TEMPERATURE
OF FURNACE SET 500
DEGREE CELSIUS SET 800
DEGREE
CELSIUS SET 1000
DEGREE
CELSIUS SET 1100
DEGREE
CELSIUS
200 MSV OPENS MSV OPNES MSV OPENS MSV OPENS
300 MSV OPENS MSV OPNES MSV OPENS MSV OPENS
400 MSV OPENS MSV OPNES MSV OPENS MSV OPENS
500 MSV CLOSE MSV OPENS MSV OPNES MSV OPENS
600 MSV CLOSE MSV OPENS MSV OPNES MSV OPENS
700 MSV CLOSE MSV OPENS MSV OPNES MSV OPENS
800 MSV CLOSE MSV CLOSE MSV OPNES MSV OPENS
900 MSV CLOSE MSV CLOSE MSV OPNES MSV OPENS
1000 MSV CLOSE MSV CLOSE MSV CLOSE MSV OPENS
1100 MSV CLOSE MSV CLOSE MSV CLOSE MSV CLOSE

CHAPTER- 10
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

10.1 Conclusion:

While referring to previous papers, it was evident that the measurement and control of temperature of furnace was difficult and tiresome. Conventional PID controllers were not efficient in controlling the temperature. Image processing was also used as one of the methods, but it ultimately proved to be complex in process and time consuming. The industrialists were in the search of a convenient, fast and smooth process of controlling temperature. This project fulfills their needs as it will make the process smooth and reliable. Here flame is generated in pilot burner by providing spark by ignition transformer to combustion of fuel and air. 2 low pressure alarms are used for safety point of view. This system will measure temperature of furnace by using Pt-Pt Rh 13% Thermocouple and then through PLC, main solenoid valves will be opened or closed according to the temperature of furnace. The hardware portion is completed and its setup is in Potassium plant. Installation of PLC is done and testing and measurement is also completed.

10.2 Future Work:
While performing the experiment, the main aim was to test the furnace up to 1600 degree Celsius. But I have to perform up to 1100 degree Celsius. So, it can be tested up to 1600 degree Celsius. Also, while performing this work, I thought that instead of using PLC, we can also control temperature of furnace by using wireless routers or Wireless Fidelity i.e. Wi-Fi so that it could become more reliable and convenient for industrialist.

CHAPTER- 11
WORKPLAN
11.1 Dissertation Part-1
Activity August-2016 September-2016 October-2016 November-2016 December-2016
Monitoring of work √ √


Counselling √ √ √ √ √
Literature collection √ √


Literature review √ √ √ √ √
Reporting √ √


Writing Dissertation
Part-I
Report √ √


Activity January-2017 February-2017 March-2017 April-2017 May-2017
Monitoring of work √ √


Counselling √ √ √ √ √
Literature collection √ √


Literature review √ √ √ √ √
Reporting √ √


Writing Dissertation
Part-II
Report √



11.2 Dissertation Part-2

REFRENCES
PAPERS:
[1] Manuel Beschi, Antonio Visioli “Constrained Temperature Control of a Solar Furnace”, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, VOL. 20, NO. 5, September 2012.
[2] Shihua Luo, Ling Jian & Chuanhou Gao “Modeling of the Thermal State Change of Blast Furnace Hearth With Support Vector Machines” IEEE Transactions On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 59, No. 2, February 2012.
[3] Furong Gao, Ridong Zhang and Anke Xue, “Temperature Control of Industrial Coke Furnace Using Novel State Space Model Predictive Control” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, September 2013.
[4] Rogie I. Rodriguez, Dimeji Ibitayo, and Pedro O. Quintero “Thermal Stable Characterization of the Au–Sn Bonding for High-Temperature Applications” IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 3, No. 4, April 2013.
[5] Andreea-Maria Neacă, Mitică Iustinian Neacă “Matlab-Simulink Programming for the Automated Control of a Resistive Furnace”, IEEE “Applied and Theoretical Electricity (ICATE),” 2014 International Conference.
[6] Cui Guimei, Zhang Fangjie, Zhang Yong, Jiang Jiaqi, “Implementation of Improved Predictive Control in Furnace Temperature Control System based on Wincc”, IEEE “Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)”, 2012.
[7] Huahai Qiu,Fuhuan Chen,Yawei Gao, “Based on the CCD of the boiler flame detection” IEEE” Digital Manufacturing and Automation (ICDMA)”, 2012 Third International Conference.
[8] Sanket S. Mane, Ramesh Patil,” Temperature Measurement Based on Image Processing & Neural Network”, IEEE “Electrical, Electronics, Signals, Communication and Optimization (EESCO)”, 2015 International Conference.
[9] XU Wenmin, YUAN Zhugang “Application of Fuzzy-PID in Control of FC Furnace Gypsum Calcination Temperature” IEEE “Control Automation Robotics & Vision (ICARCV)”, 2012 12th International Conference.
[10] Arief Syaichu-Rohman, Pranoto H. Rusmin « Modeling and Control of Temperature Dynamics In Induction Furnace System “2015 5th IEEE International Conference on System Engineering and Technology (ICSET)”, Pages: 6 – 11, DOI: 10.1109/ICSEngT.2015.7412436.
[11] Ling Shen; Jianjun He; Chunhua Yang; Weihua Gui; Honglei Xu « Temperature Uniformity Control of Large-Scale Vertical Quench Furnaces for Aluminum Alloy Thermal Treatment” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology 2016, Pages: 24 – 39, DOI: 10.1109/TCST.2015.2417495
[12] LIU Jingyan, GUO Shunjing, “Resistance Furnace Temperature Control System based on PIC Single Chip” IEEE 2015 8th International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Design.
[13] Ana Maria Lovin, Stefan Silion, Ana Maria Nicuta,”A Complex Method for Controlling Temperature on Harsh Environment” IEEE 2012 International Conference and Exposition on Electrical and Power Engineering (EPE 2012).

[14] Duo Sun, Gang Lu*, Yong Yan, “An Embedded Imaging and Signal Processing System for Flame Stability Monitoring and Characterisation” IEEE 2010.

[15] Hao Zhou, Yong Yan, Shi Liu, Duo Sun, Gang Lu,”Quantitative Assessment of Flame Stability through Image Processing and Spectral Analysis” IEEE 2015 Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement.

BOOKS:
[1] “Industrial Furnace” By W.Trinks
[2] “Flash smelting: Analysis, Control and Optimization” By W. G. Davenport, E. H. Partelpoeg

WEBSITES:
[1] www.google.com
[2] www.wikipedia.com
[3] www.eurotherm.com/furnace-temperature-control-and-programming
[4] www.avconcontrol.com
[5] www.docuthek.kromschroeder.com/documents/download.php?lang=fr&doc=3452

THESIS:
[1] “Furnace temperature control and simulation” By Tong Mingyu, Dijan Xu, Jinliang Shi in July 2014
[2] “System of annealing Furnace Temperature control based on neural network” By Wang Xin, H. Pan in October 2014

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