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  • Published on: August 24, 2019
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In order of occurrence.

• NCRB – National Crime Records Bureau
• QGIS – Quantum GIS
• GIS – Geographic Information System
• GPS – Global Positioning System
• GSM – Global System for Mobile
• GIARS – GIS Integrated Accident Respone System
• HMV – Heavy Motor Vehicles
• DBMS – Database Management System
• SMS – Short Message Service
• LMV – Light Motor Vehicles

1. Title: Introduction

The frequency of traffic accidents in India is amongst the highest in the world. A NCRB report revealed that every year around 1,35,000 deaths in India occur due to road accidents. Many times deaths occur due to delay in the treatment because emergency response forces don’t reach on time due to many constraints. Reasons may be many such as delay in information delivery, heavy traffic routes, remote locations, bad weather conditions, unknown addresses, etc.

To overcome these constraints, we have come up with an idea about how to cut the death count in accidents. The idea is still in the development phase.

1.1. Problem Summary

What do you do when there is an accident emergency?

You call ‘108’. It is an Emergency Response Service which provides integrated medical, police and fire emergency services. It is currently operational in 15 states and 2 union territories. This system was introduced across India by the former union health minister Dr. Anbumani Ramadoss. And the system was designed by Satyam InfoTech.

The call takers gather useful information such as,
• The place from where the call is placed (district / taluka /city / town / exact location / landmark )
• The type of emergency.
• Number of people injured and the condition of the injured.
• The caller\’s name and contact number – for location guidance if required.
Emergency help dispatched through this process is expected to reach the site of the emergency in an average of 18 minutes.

• What if there is no one around at the time of the accident especially during night time

• What if the weather is bad and phone signal is weak

• What if the accident location is untraceable as in hilly areas

• What if there is a traffic jam on the ambulance route and it doesn\’t reach on time

1.1.1. Accident Statistics in India

Below mentioned are some accident statistics in India,
• Over 1,37,000 people were killed in road accidents in 2013 alone, that is more than the number of people killed in all our wars put together.
• There is one death every four minutes due to a road accident in India.
• One serious road accident in the country occurs every minute and 16 die on Indian roads every hour.
• 1214 road crashes happen every day in India..
• 377 people die every day, equivalent to a jumbo jet crashing every day.
• Top 5 Cities with the highest number of Road Crash Deaths (Rank –Wise):
o Delhi (City)
o Chennai
o Jaipur
o Bangalore
o Mumbai

1.2. Aims and Objectives

Following are the aims and objectives of our solution:
• To reduce the number of death counts due to accidents.
• To dilute the time required by accident response services to arrive at the accident location.
• To keep record of accidents in soft copy and update automatically.
• To implement smart accident response system.
1.3. Brief Literature Review
While attending at the issue, the first query which may come up in the readers’ mind is that how did we start this idea being in the civil engineering field? The thing is that we had prepared our project in the previous years on a software called QGIS. We came across this topic in our subject called disaster management and we found it interesting and got into it. So our topic, i.e. “Improvisation of Accident Response Services using GIS” is multidisciplinary. It involves programming of circuits and interfacing these programs with GIS which was a really great bargain for us. We had very little knowledge about programming. Then we had to perform a great deal of research and refer as many research papers as possible. We found around 9-10 research papers whose topics revolved around our topic.
The papers were mostly published in international computer science journals or electrical and electronic journals. After citing the papers we found out that most of them bear a similar purpose which is when a vehicle crash, the sensor installed in the vehicle gets activated and using a GPS module it traces the accident location and transports it to the control room on the registered number. Then the person-in-charge in the control room informs the nearest ambulance to rescue the people at the accident site. In one of the research papers there were also fire sensors mentioned to inform the fire services along with the ambulance.
And then in one of the research papers, there was this ABEONA algorithm which enables rescue services to forecast traffic congestions which is a very significant objective of our project as well. There was also a shortest path finder software program, i.e. DIJKSTRA algorithm developed specially for this purpose which is yet another important objective of our project.
At that place was this another research report that talked about coordination of traffic lights for rescue of accident hit people. However, it seemed a bit troublesome for the normal traffic that would suffer due to change in timings of signals. Hence, some other method must be considered to sweep over this issue which can be made possible by knowing the peak hours and traffic stream during these hours which requires various traffic studies to be carried.
1.4. Materials & Tools Required
• Crash Impact Sensors to be installed at various locations in cars. Sometimes they are pre installed as a safety feature to trigger the air bags during the accident.

• GPS module that would trace the location of the vehicle when it crashes

• GSM module that would be used to send the location to the control room on a registered number

• GIS software to locate the nearest ambulance and find the shortest route

• Hi – Tech Control Rooms

2. Design
The product is still in the development phase. The design is quite simple. It involves programming of GPS and GSM modules on the Arduino board along with the crash impact sensor. As soon as crash sensor senses any type of impact it will trigger the GPS module to send the location details via GSM module. Not only location details, but also driver details, vehicle details and other details such as temperature, time, height above mean sea level, and so forth will also be sent. Below given is the flow diagram of the design:

2.1. Analysis
Before we commenced forming on the product we gathered some accident statistics of Vadodara. We went to police stations and to various other government authorities and placed our request to get the data. But we were denied as we were told that the data was confidential. So we used our previous semester data that we had collected from the traffic police and had created a sample database out of that. The figures in the table are approximate.

Year Deaths Injured Total
2001 142 1251 1393
2002 123 1325 1448
2003 144 1425 1569
2004 156 1241 1397
2005 162 1351 1513
2006 141 1222 1363
2007 142 1511 1653
2008 144 1432 1576
2009 171 1325 1496
2010 147 1251 1398
2011 161 1152 1313

Year Population Deaths Rate
2001 1030346 142 13.78
2002 1067619 126 11.28
2003 1102151 144 13.25
2004 1148627 156 13.58
2005 1192546 162 12.59
2006 1234462 141 11.39
2007 1232532 142 11.04
2008 1323362 144 10.78
2009 1356248 171 12.34
2010 1426548 147 10.22
2011 1493562 161 10.78

Year Vehicular Population Death Rate
2001 256634 142 5.53
2002 281763 126 4.37
2003 303805 144 4.74
2004 326486 156 4.74
2005 346585 162 4.53
2006 394258 141 3.59
2007 410251 142 3.29
2008 462186 144 3.05
2009 512469 171 3.32
2010 564785 147 2.61
2011 606248 161 2.66
Category Rate
2-wheelers 45-55
3-wheelers 20-33
Cars 10.1-18.36
Buses 3.1-8.3
Trucks 0.2-2

Location Serious Fatal Accident Total
Near Railway Station 5 5 10
Kalaghoda 6 4 10
Gaay cross road 9 17 26
Waghodia Cross Road 10 14 24
Ajwa Road Intersection 11 13 24
Tarsali Bypass 7 11 18
Mandvi Gate 16 0 16
Dumad Intersection NH8 4 10 14
Golden Intersection NH8 3 7 10
Kapurai Intersection NH8 3 7 10
Fajalpur Bridge Near NH8 3 7 10
Padamla Intersection NH8 2 6 8
Kamplapura SH 158 10 6 16

We applied this data and formed a sample database in excel sheet. We then imported this data on an open source software called QGIS 2.16 desktop version. We set up the coordinates of the name of the locations mentioned using Google maps. They can likewise be found out using a handheld GPS device that captured the coordinates of the location using one of the satellites passing above us at that fourth dimension. The data in the Table-5 are used to plot the points on the map of Vadodara using QGIS.


We then collected information of a number of police stations in the Vadodara city and using Google maps found out their coordinates. We created the database and mapped all the police stations of Vadodara.
Sr. no. Name Address Phone Number
1 Navayard Police Choki – Fatehgunj Police Station Chhani Road, Near Phulwadi Char Rasta, Chhani Jakatnaka, Vadodara, Gujarat 390002 0265 277 1500
2 Fatehgunj Police Station Ram Wadi, Vadodara, Gujarat 390024 0265 277 1500
3 Sayajigunj Police Station Aurobindo Ghosh Rd, Near Railway Station, Kadak Bazar, Sayajiganj, Vadodara, Gujarat 390005 0265 236 2400
4 Raopura Police Station Raopura Rd, Raopura, Jambubet, Vadodara, Gujarat 390001 0265 245 9991
5 City Police Station Panigate Rd, Near Almas Market, Opp.Jamnabai Hospital, Chhipwad, Vadodara, Gujarat 390006 0265 256 1310
6 Panigate Police Station 4, Panigate Rd, Syedwada, Chhipwad, Vadodara, Gujarat 390006 0265 256 2899
7 Kishanwadi Police Station New VIP Ring Rd, Kishanwadi, Vadodara, Gujarat 390019 0265 274 5223
8 Bapod Police Station Nivedanam Complex, Somatalav Char Rasta, Dabhoi Ring Road, Vadodara, Gujarat 390019 0265 215 4521
9 Wadi Tower Police Station 2, Tower Main Rd, Badri Mohalla, Moghul Wada, Vadodara, Gujarat 390017 0265 245 4596
10 Patthar Gate Police station Madan Zapa Rd, Sultanpura, Vadodara, Gujarat 390001 0265 289 2530
11 Taluka Police Station Sultanpura, Vadodara, Gujarat 390001 0265 253 0254
12 Navapura Police Station Navapura, Vadodara, Gujarat 400052 0265 251 1476
13 Makarpura Police Station Makarpura Rd, Near Baroda Dairy, Manjalpur, Vadodara, Gujarat 390009 0265 265 1915
14 Chapaner Police Station Hathikhana Main Rd, Bajwada, Mandvi, Vadodara, Gujarat 390001 0265 242 5722
15 Karelibaug Police Station Karelibagh, Vadodara, Gujarat 390018 0265 243 2424
16 Harni Police Station Harni, Vadodara, Gujarat 390022
17 Sahyog Police Chowki – Gorwa Police Station Gorwa Rd, Panchvati, Vadodara, Gujarat 390016 0265 238 7200
18 Laxmipura Police Station Laxmipura, Shubhanpura, Vadodara, Gujarat 390023 0265 287 4693
19 Gotri Police Station Gotri, Vadodara, Gujarat 390007 0265 297 4116
20 J P Road Police Station Patrakar Colony, Tandalja, Vadodara, Gujarat 390012 0265 275 7541
21 Chhani Police Station Chhani-Sokhad Road, Sokhda Rd, Chhani, Vadodara, Gujarat 391740 0265 257 2511
22 Bahucharaji Police Station Nagarwada Road, Near Ambe Mata Mandir, Nagarwada, Vadodara, Gujarat 390018 099130 92476
23 Jawahar Nagar Police Station near Ranoli bridge, Karachiya, Petro Chemical Complex INA, Gujarat 391345 0265 254 9265
24 Gorwa Police Station Gorwa Rd, Gorwa, Vadodara, Gujarat 390016 0265 228 1313
25 Ellora Police Station New IPCL Rd, Hariom Nagar, Shubhanpura, Vadodara, Gujarat 390023 0265 252 4689
26 Jetalpur Police Chowki Jetaipura, Vadodara, Gujarat 0265 228 4578
27 Lalbaug Police Chawki Navapura, Vadodara, Gujarat 390001 0265 251 8205
28 Samta Police Booth Swatantra Senani Nagar, Laxmipura, Vadodara, Gujarat 390023 0265 245 6594

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