WHAT IS DIVERSITY?
During Convention on Biological Diversity, the most general accepted definition of biodiversity was ‘variability among living organisms from all sourcesand the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems’ (UNCED, 1992). The main focus of our assessment is to estimating genetic diversity ‘within species diversity’ via using different molecular markers. Biodiversity is the degree of dissimilarity between different life forms of a given ecosystem. It includes
Species diversity, the active number of species denoted in a data set.
Genetic diversity, the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of different individual
Nucleotide diversity, the measure the degree of polymorphism within a population
Phylogenetic diversity, a measure incorporates difference at phylogenetic level between species
Ecosystem diversity, is the diversity within a place at the level of different ecosystems
Crop diversity, is the study of genetic and phenotypic variance in the characteristics of different plants or crop used in agronomy
Functional diversity (ecology), a term commonly used in geography includes the elements of biodiversity that impact how ecosystems works.
WHY CONSERVE IT ?
Link between the level of genetic diversity and the perseverance of populations had been already underline by many authors (Frankel & Soul??, 1981; Gilpin & Soul??, 1986). Low variation in any genotype can leadto increased extinction risk. In short term cases we can easily observe cases of lower fitness and inbreeding depression due to genetic drift. Problem like inability to adjust to a changing atmosphere is seen in longer term (H??glund, 2009) diversity analysis cases. The loss of diversity, genes, species and ecosystems that are responsible for the basis for future variation or adaptation, will have both major economic and social values (Heywood, 1995).
, In June 1992, a biodiversity convention at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro was signed by 150 countries. The undersigned were committed to “conserve the variety of both plants and animals within their jurisdiction.”
Why it need to study and conserve biodiversity?
1) Moral reasons. A culture that encourages respect and stewardship for wildlife and landscapes is preferred Biodiversity is also considered as source of cultural identity
2) Aesthetic reasons. All natural beauty including landscapes and species that enrich the lives of humans should need to be conserved. 3) Providing important natural functions. Ecosystems serve humans either by providing different varieties of food, fruit, vegetables, responsible for clean air and water, microbes in an ecosystem used to decompose dead plant and animal remains, soil formation and a healthy atmosphere to live healthy life
4) Biodiversity is responsible for economic benefits to society via. tourism, research, recreation and education
5) Endurance of evolutionary processes.
6) Insurance. To ensure conversation of resources, to avoid future extinction of species and to benefit human for future use.Unfortunately biodiversity loss is the growing crisis, throughout the world.
The costs of not sustaining biodiversity will soon prove unbearable for both present and future generations (DEC 2004). For example, deterioration in soil structure, diminished water quality, salinity, and pest and weed invasion have cumulative impacts on agriculture through loss in yield and augmented costs.
How to conserve biodiversity?
Conservation of biodiversity necessitates retaining, upholding and restoring ecosystem functions and processes (BSC 2004).
It is achieved by thoughtful understanding of the issues disturbing biodiversity and analysing their solutions to diminish the impacts.
It is hence significant that communities should educated by what means to address biodiversity loss at a landscape scale in order to protect and improve native habitats and ecosystems.
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