The RIO 2012, also known United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) or Earth Summit 2012, which took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 2012 ‘ twenty years after the landmark 1992 Earth Summit in Rio. It was the third international conference on sustainable development. It also is aimed at reconciling the economic and environmental goals of the global community. At the Rio+20 Conference, world leaders, along with thousands of participants from governments, the private sector, NGOs and other groups. All of them will come together to shape how we can reduce poverty, advance social equity and ensure environmental protection on an ever more crowded planet to get to the future we want.
The objectives of RIO 2012 Conference are to secure the political commitment to sustainable development, assess the progress towards internationally agreed commitments and address new and emerging challenges. In addition, they also are focusing on two themes. The themes are about a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication and the institutional framework for sustainable development.
About seven areas are highlighted and needed pay attention by RIO+20 in their preparations. These are including disasters, oceans, water, food security and sustainable agriculture, cities, energy and jobs.
7 Critical Issues at Rio+20
The disasters are normally caused by floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, droughts, tsunamis and others can destroy impacts on people, environments and economies. However, it is remained possible of the ability of people and places to withstand these impacts and recover quickly. So that, we should be use the smart choices to recover from disasters. For instance, we should consider a planning to help them to get the food, build their homes, teach the children in school and so on.
Based on United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA), the disaster risk reduction and resilience building should be considered. In West Africa, the food security is threatened by droughts. Besides that, droughts also are caused on the livelihoods of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) because the sea level rise might take away it. In addition, no any country is immune if the environmental degradation and climate changed. It is also effect on the level of social and economic development.
To get the attention on the global sustainable development agenda, the sound disaster risk management must be recognized. This is because it is an aim to provide the overview of existing international commitments. The aim is to describe about of disaster risk reduction and facilitate constructive discussion around the issue in the course of the preparation for the UNCSD (Rio+20).
The world’s oceans is very important. It is give us the drive global systems and let us live on the Earth. This is because sea had provided our rainwater, weather, climate, drinking water, food, and even the oxygen in the air. Besides that, we also need the transportation through the sea or oceans. In shortly, we should careful to manage this global resource, which is a important feature of a sustainable future. To enable their conservation and sustainable use for present and future generations, we can protecting biodiversity and the marine environment. For example, we must agree and follow the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It was describe of advancing sustainable development and its near universal adoption by States. Then, we should urge all its parties to completely implement their obligations under the Convention.
All we know, we need water in life. We need water to drink, bath, wash and others. We also can say we need clean water for all is an essential part of the world.
But many of children are dead from diseases associated with inadequate water supply because the bad infrastructure in the poor country. Most of the poor families may face the water scarcity, poor water quality and inadequate sanitation negatively impact food security. In the some poor countries, they always afflicted by drought and they are worsening hunger and malnutrition.
According the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA), they will focus to facilitate discussion on water resources. For example, they will pay attention on management and quality in the course of the preparation for UNCSD for cited of good practices in improving access and sustainable management of scarce water resources.
4. Food security and sustainable agriculture
Eating food can give us energy, protein ad nutrient to work. Normally, we can get the nutritious food from fisheries, agriculture and forestry. At the same time, they will get the income from selling the foods.
Nowadays, we always to pollute our soils, oceans, forests and biodiversity that make them being rapidly degraded. Climate change also is a problem on the quantity of harvest. Then, food security is harmful in our daily life. We cannot get the safe and nutritious food for an healthy life.
The global food and agriculture system should be change to solve the problem of hungry. If not, today’s 9.25 million hungry is expected and may increase to 2 billion people in 2050. While, the food and agriculture sector have solutions for development but they will focus on hunger and poverty eradication.
Based on the Five Rome Principles for Sustainable Global Food Security adopted in 2009, we acknowledge that food security and nutrition has become a pressing global challenge. We further reaffirm our commitment to enhancing food security and access to adequate, safe and nutritious food for present and future generations including for children under two, and through, as appropriate, national, county and global food security and nutrition rules.
We can say cities are Centre. We can develop our ideas, productivity, commerce, culture, social development and others in cities. Cities have allowed people to progress socially and economically at their top but many challenges are faced that continues to create jobs and fortune while not damaging land and funds. These challenges are mobbing, declining infrastructure and so on but the challenges cities can be solve in ways that allow them to continue to thrive and grow, while improving resource use and reducing pollution and poverty.
We know that, cities can promote economically, socially and environmentally sustainable societies if they are planned and developed. So that, we know the need for a general approach to urban development and human settlements because it is easier to provides for reasonable housing and infrastructure. We also can commit to work towards improving the quality of human settlements such as the living conditions.
We also can promote an integrated approach to planning and building sustainable cities and urban settlements, especially the children, women and the elderly and disabled. It is also very important in protection of cities. We can through the promotion in safe and green concept in urban area, in safe and clean in drinking water and sanitation, and others. For example, we can through the 3Rs concept which is reduce, reuse and recycle. We can use waste to do the 3Rs’ products.
Nowadays, energy is essential to closely every major challenge and chance are faced in the world. We need energy to face the problem on careers, food security, climate change and so on. Sustainable energy is needed for strengthening economies, protecting ecosystems and achieving equity. Ban Ji-moon, the United Nations Secretary-General, is leading a Sustainable Energy for all creativity to ensure universal access to modern energy services and increase use of renewable sources.
We know the critical role that energy plays in the development process. We access to sustainable modern energy services contributes to poverty eradication, improves health and helps provide for basic human needs.
“Green jobs” is focusing nowadays. We need develop green jobs in the area of agriculture, industry, services and others that contribute to restoring the quality of the environment. The concept of green job is an attempt to look for synergies in simultaneously addressing employment, energy and environment issues.
Besides that, we should be provide new job opportunities to the poor in both urban and rural areas, especially small and medium-sized enterprises. We also make sure the workers have access to education, skills, health care, social security and others, especially the young people. In addition, both women and men should have equal chance to access the job opportunities.
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