The Grapes is long-lived, perennial plant, it can exist spot for the number of 30 years on average. Grapes are produced at the end of life-cycle. The vine is a woody plant with an herbaceous element, its perennial structure like (stock, scion, and roots) store starch, carbohydrate, & other supplies. So the energy that produces the plant that they reserve the winter and guarantee that there will be growth in spring, produce new fresh leaves to take over the role of energy. To growth vine all the raw-material and grapes production from surrounding natural environment. Its root system takes all mineral & water from soil and converts them into various growths. Wine growers speak of vines ‘crying’ or ‘blending’, this signal the start of the growth cycle. If the number of lines per acre is kept (1200 to 1600 per acre or 3000 to 4000 hector). Then, for example, the rows can be planted further apart, increasing the amount of sunlight that reaches the ground. Its means more densely the vines are planted, the more work is required to tend them, and thus higher the production cost will be. The onset of veraison (the period when the grapes start to change colour) signal the end of the vine’s vegetative growth when sugar start to accumulate in the fruits. The end of vegetative growth is a natural process accelerated this by the lack of water. Hence, heavy rain can disrupt the ripening process. High atmospheric also brings with risk of disease form molds and fungi. If the size of the crops in a newly planted vineyard is too high, the quality of the grapes will be lower, the process of storing reserves of nutrient in the roots and woody part of the vine suffers, and the long term negative consequence for the plant
The best plan to grow grapes
To start vineyard in selecting the average length of the ripening seasons, the normal annual weather condition the soil type and chemistry, fertility and drainage the topography sun exposure, and likely pest problems should be check before the wine is planted. Various soils have different benefits such as fertility, acidity or alkalinity heat retention & reflection etc. clay, limestone, gravel, sand, rock slate four other types of soil can support the grape vine. But it is important for vines to get water the vines grow better if the water table tests within reach to the roots. The sum of information it depends upon the decision of vine variety, vine density, row direction and spacing frost, protection method, vine training system irrigation as well as fertilization and pest control management these in turn will affect in crop load, canopy management harvesting, and pruning. Vinifera grapes are very juicy have uniformly tender pulp easy to removed seeds and firmly adhered skins they are high in acidity and lower in sugar more than 90% of world grapes include those for raisins table use and wine are from this single spices. In the sub Geneva Euvits , native American vine species including Labrusca (northern fox grape ) Aestivalis (summer grape) ripana (riverbank grape) rupestris (hillside grape) all have slow growing vines and slender stalks requiring trellising for support comparing with Vitis vinifera , this spices are tolerant of cold temperature only vitis Labrusca variety concord is important. American native grape vine subgenera muscadinia with only two spices rotundifolia most prevalent throughout and munsoniana confined to Florida these are known as slip skin varieties (professional friends of wine, 2000)
The quality of soil
The soil nature depends on geological parent material has been altered and shaped by the physical, chemical, and biological process. In general, the soil which are suitable for viticulture is those that are not particular fertile and deep. The vines are planted on soil weather form rock of various geological periods, from Palaeozoic through to the Quaternary. In France for example there are some vines grown in granite in Beaujolais, chalky marl in Chablis, Tertiary chalk cliffs in the champagne region, and Mesozoic limestone in Bordeaux, while some sweet Banyuls vine flourish in soils on slate. In another part of the world, vines are cultivated in the soil of the former volcanic region, in Tokaj in Hungary.
The depth of the soil depends on how long the root system should be there. The deep soil with more water reserve can be used in bulk vine production. A relatively shallow, dry soil, by contrast, it gives better quality. Soils which are highly waterlogged can have a negative effect on root growth.
A soil which content high clay is fairly impermeable. When it connects with dry weather, the soil becomes hard, cracked, and more difficult to cultivate. The organic material in the soil-plant residues, manure, added compost- blinds with the clay and this clay-humus is a main factor in stabilizing soils against the danger of erosion and compaction.
Stony soils are good for producing qualities wine but are more difficult to cultivate. The stones help the soil retain water by aiding drainage and preventing direct evaporation. The stone absorb heat during the day and release it at night, its help in the ripening process. The chemical composition of a soil can include a number of trace and macro-element such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, boron and several others.
Counter the Danger of Erosion.
The major problem get by soils are erosion and the removing away of nutrient as water flows down the slopes during heavy storms. The consolidation of agricultural land can be added such as follow: – As the vines rows are extended and walls heaps of stone removed, water can run down the slope even faster-increasing erosion. The structure of the soil is also the factor. The soil which is loosely packed and which allow the water, so its flow faster and faster and cut deeper and deeper washing away the topsoil and all nutrient with it.
One of the factors which affect the soil is the clay-humus complex. For humus to be created, decompose organic matter is added in the form of compost. Similarly are the creature living in the soil, because they ensure that soil remain permeable.
The problem of erosion can be countered by growing grass between the rows of the vine, in order to stimulate the growth of micro-organisms. Depending on the spices chosen competion with the vine can be so intense that yield are considerably reduced, or the grape don’t get the nitrogen which can disturb alcoholic fermentation. In the end, it is down to the skill of the winemaker to find the best soil between the desired yield and the dictates of circumstance.
The role of the climate is extremely important in the context with the type of soil for growing the grapes in the various regions in France growers of the old world offend limited their means of vine cultivation which has lack to limit of success and thus any all projects is of two litters sunshine and two produce plenty of rain to get a perfectly ripped and flavoursome grapes. There is greater variation in the quality as well as the style of the grape. There is a greater variation in the quality as well as style of the grape from village to vintage the new world vine lives with the prospect of warmth and two litters of rain to produce grape which are balanced fruit of acidity alcohol and tannin thus this help in getting more constant result.
Threw the outcome of all these in today time, the greatest wine available have come from the hottest year of European vineyard it is a greater quality potential and is less likely hood to be realized by the Europeans. (simon, 24/02/1998)
Practices is of canopy management affects the yield of grapes and also quality of wine produce from them there are many appellation system based for it maximum yields and bane irrigation are some of the examples the equation is not as simple as it looks. There is no denial is saying that when the level of yields increases the quality of the grapes starts decreasing. Grape varieties of certain types began to suffer at lower yields for example chardonnay place is another criteria for the yield of the wine harsh climate will produce lower yields in compare to moderate climate third factor depends for the yield of the crop in the den-city of planting and is obviously tricky to come over . measurement of yield is often done in volume per hector though the no of vine planted per hector varies from vineyard to vineyard where harvesters are mainly used requires large space to move while in regions like burgundy where mechanization is quiet less there is no much space needed between two vines. Thus it can be sale that while spacing cannot be considered good for the quality of vine because the roots trying to spread lazily in horizontal direction and in down words there is no Drought to be said that some of the best vintage and wines like bordex and champagne are obtained from larger yields it is the responsibility of individual to produce the proper yield as it helps in proper wine production a proper vine production can be done by combination of punning and green punning with the considerable used of fertilizers and pesticides in vineyards . (simon, 24/02/1998)
Pruning of vine plant
Starting of spring season it is the time to prune your grape vine. Pruning helps making the structure of the grapevine such that it utilizes the sunlight to maximum in thus helps the vine to adopt special characteristics pruning helps in making economical &efficient practices for the vineyard
In the first year of the pruning season when multiple shoots tart to grow vine become bushy some cultivar’s prefer like then grow while others trim them back one or two shoots
During the first pruning selection of the best cones done while all others literal canes are removed excessive sap is produced from roots shots year the goal is to achieve balance between the leaves and grape-based cones are pruned when the fruiting wire is approximately 4to8’near to the bird about 4to6shoots grow from the cone during the next growing season.
Year three dormant before pruning
While the vine is dormant choose two of your two of your thickest canes and prime away the rest prune these two canes to an appropriate length of 12-18′
Year three dormant after pruning
In this case spur was left as the top of the main cane as a possible fruiting if needed in the next growing season the top area spur was chosen because it is well positioned for future use we are constantly removing wood one of the biggest mistake new grape growers make in pruning and removing wood enough. Pruning makes the vine hardier and stronger it removes unwanted excess vegetation primary techniques provides much more balanced vine rub of canes that develops low on the trunk.
Year three growing seasons after pruning
Allow eight of tin shoots to grow these many possibly bear fruit the following growing seasons the pruning and training techniques illustrated here are basically the same for the various training system used worldwide climate variety and soil fertility pretty much determine the rate at which vines will progress .hybrid varieties were developed to be harder during the winter and more resistant to diseases they tend to produces less foliage removes the previous year fruiting canes or spurs because fruit is only produced on shoots growing from one year too old canes healthy new canes must be produced by the vine every year .when removing shoots that are one-year-old hand pruners can be used effectively on the other hand wood should be cut with either the lopper or a handsaw. (pruning grape vine, 2009)
Care of grapevine plant.
Grapes should be cared yearly because grapes only form on buds that come out from previous growth. There are many methods of training grape vine. Like space limitation, a variety of grapes that’s growing is suggesting trellis system. Prune of the vine when they are dormant means very early spring before any green shoots appear.
When the soil is very poor, grapes, which are deeply rooted, don’t need much fertilization. When fertility is low, then we should decide that whether we add phosphorus or potassium. Apply no more than 1/4 pound of 10-10-10 fertilizer in a circle up to 4 feet far from each vine. When the vines are established, apply about a pound up to 8 feet far from the base if growth was slow or foliage colour poor, so apply it only when the buds start to swell in the spring; later fertilizing may cause extensive growth in late summer, making the plant more good to winter injury. (Garden resourse, 2015)
While grapevine can survive, they need regular attention to reach maximum yields:
1) Prune carefully. Leaving too much growth causes far more problems than over pruning.
2) Cultivate slowly around the base of a plant while its young to avoid breaking roots near the surface.
3) Fertilizer lightly. When the soil is very poor, grapevines need little feeding. Grape growers encounter a few common problems
4) In the first year, cut buds except for 2 or 3. Then select a couple of strong cane and cut back the rest. Make sure the remaining canes are fastened to the support.
5) In the second year, prune back all canes. Leave a couple of buds on each of the arms, remove flower cluster as they form. (garden.org, 2015)
Pest and Disease Control of Vineyard Grapes
Powdery Mildew: Grape vines infected with powdery mildew it looks white powder-like splotches on leaves, stems and grapes. Powdery mildew is found all worldwide. It can grow well in both wet and dry regions. It defoliate vine and it kill leaves of vine. Grape quality suffers when leaves are unable to perform proper photosynthesis. A well-managed canopy and regular sulphur spraying will prevent most powdery mildew occurrences. Spraying every 10 days when shoots reach 10″ in length, continue up until thirty days before harvest.
Downy Mildew: Symptoms include light green to yellow spots scattered on the leaf. These spots appear greasy and are commonly refer to as oil spots.
The big concern for downy mildew is leaf infection. The fungicides Copper, Captan, and Mancozeb can be sprayed every 10 days and is generally mixed with sulphur.
Black Rot: Symptoms include brown circular lesions on infected leaves. Left untreated it can destroy an entire grape crop. The big concern for black rot is the infection of young grapes clusters.
Infected grape first appear light brown and then turn to near black as masses of black pycnidia develop on the surface. Again, Copper, Captan, and Mancozeb are the most protective fungicides. For application follow the downy mildew recommendations.
Bunch Rot: Infected grape appear soft and watery. In high humidity regions grapes become covered in a grayish growth of fungus mycelium. Tight-clustered grape varieties are most vulnerable to bunch rot.
Canopy management is your most effective control tool in preventing bunch rot. Promote sunlight penetration, good air circulation and uniform leaf development by practicing proper canopy management. Remove leaves around grape clusters so that sunlight and air flow can help dry wet grape clusters (pest and disease control vineyard grapes, 2009)
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