Essay: Waste management (Page 2 of 2)

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Chapter 1

ABSTRACT

Waste is a byproduct of life, due urbanization and ever increase in population solid waste management and its proper disposing is major concern in the developing countries. The general method of disposing the solid waste is by land filling in dump yard. In this method the disposing site should be far away from the residential area. But due to Poor managerial control at dumping site and improper disposal of solid wastes leads to contamination of groundwater and surface water resources in the vicinity of dump yard. The present study is conducted on the ground water, in the vicinity of Bhandewadi Dump Yard in Nagpur. Municipal solid wastes of the city is presently disposed as open landfills at Bhandewadi region near Pardi east Nagpur. The leachate form due to solid waste is directly infiltrate into the ground and contaminate the ground and surface water resources which results into unsuitability of water for drinking and other utility purposes. Hence a detailed study and analysis is carried out on the ground water in the vicinity of this area. For this analysis five samples of different area of varying distances is collected from this study region, and these samples are analyzed for physical, chemical and biological parameters such as pH, Nitrate, BOD, etc. This study is try to analyze the suitability of ground water for drinking, household purpose, etc. by comparing the results obtained from analysis with the standard parameters set of Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) and World Health Organization (WHO). The study indicates that the water quality parameters exceed the permissible limits for drinking at many locations leading the water unsuitable for drinking.

Chapter 2

INTRODUCTION

Since the beginning, human kind has been generating waste, each household generated garbage or waste day in or day out either solid or semisolid form and generally exclude industrial hazardous wastes. Waste is a byproduct of life. High standards of living and ever increasing population have resulted in an increase in the quantity of wastes generated. During the last two decades groundwater quality has emerged as one of the most important environmental issues confronting much of the world’s populace. Among the multitude of the environmental problem existing in the urbanizing cities of developing countries, MSW management and its impact on groundwater quality have become the most prominent in the recent years. Ground water contamination is generally irreversible i.e. once it is contaminated it is difficult to restore the original water, degrades water quality producing an objectionable taste, odor and excessive hardness. It is always better to protect ground water first rather than relying on technology to clean up water from a contamination source. Due to lack of efficient solid waste management system and improper dumping of MSW as open landfills, the groundwater and surface water in the Nagpur city is found to be contaminated in various places. The processing and disposal of the MSW generated by Nagpur city with environmentally safe and legally acceptable management is done by company namely Hanjer Biotech Energies Pvt. Ltd. NMC pays 275 Rs. per ton to these firms to treat garbage. Hanjer was allowed to sell the byproducts of treating garbage, which include wet organics, dry organics and plastics. Several studies have been carried out studying the impact of improper solid waste management mainly focused on pollution, health problems, diseases etc. To study the effects of solid waste on health of neighborhood inhabitants, Bhandewadi the only dumping yard of Nagpur city was chosen as primary testing area. It was assumed that the impact of solid waste would be more apparent and prominent at neighborhood settlements of Bhandewadi as these settlements are in proximity and in direct contact with the dumping yard.

Chapter 3
LITERATURE REVIEW
Many studies have been done by many researchers on the effect of dumping yard on ground water. With the analytical data, it has been seen that the effect of dumping yard is high on soil, water and air. Under the heading of Analysis of Contamination of Ground Water Due To Dump Yard, ground water near the dumping site is not portable for drinking and health of people is at risks who are residing near the dump site. Thus based on this, following are few researches done by the researchers on this topic.

3.1 Kalpana P. Deshmukh , ‘Analysis of Under Ground Water Pollution Of Bhandewadi Dumping Yard Nagpur’, Indian Streams Research Journal, Volume – 5 | Issue – 11 | Dec ‘ 2015: Have identified how much water is polluted and studied the possibility of damages on human health. The objective was to check the impact on water in nearby settlement of dumping yard and try to find out sessional difference between the pollution of water. This study was base on primary data collection, for testing the impact of dumping yard. Nearest six settlements was chosen. Samples were taken in two sessions, rainy and winter session for comparatively study. Sample was tested in laboratory in nine parameters. To test the water ‘LTEK’ field test kit was used. Water testing results of Bhandewadi proved that underground water of dumping yard Catchment area become pollutes. Hence on test of some parameters, water is safe but it’s failed on any one parameter. In seasonal comparison water of rainy season are more safe than winter season. Excess water of rain mixed-up with well water so intensity become reduce. This kind of scope has not in the winter season so water is become concentrated.

3.2 Anju Anilkumar, Dipu Sukumaran, Salom Gnana Thanga Vincent, ‘Effect of Municipal Solid Waste Leachate on Ground Water Quality of Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India’, Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015: Have studied the effect of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) leachate on ground water quality by using water quality index (WQI) in Thiruvananthapuram corporation area, Kerala, India. Ground water samples were collected from dug wells 1 kilometer around the MSW dumping site and control samples from 10 kilometer away from the site both in two seasons (pre monsoon and post monsoon) for analysis of physicochemical and microbiological parameters. The characteristics of leachate of the MSW were also studied. Ground water near the MSW dumping sites were found to be more polluted than the control sites in both seasons. From this study, it is evident that the leachate from the MSW dumping site plays a major role in polluting the ground water in the area. The nitrate (88 mg/l) and total dissolved solids (TDS) (726 mg/l) concentration in ground water is in alarming state that should be taken into consideration before using for drinking purpose. The ground water near the MSW dumping site was also contaminated by fecal coliform (8 CFU/100ml) which makes unsuitable for drinking purpose.

3.3 Gawsia John, Harendra K. Sharma1 & Vikas Vatsa, ‘Impact of Municipal Solid Waste Dump on Ground Water Quality at Danda Lokhand Landfill Site in Dehradun City, India’, International Journal Of Environmental Sciences Volume 5, No 3, 2014: Have studied the Impact of municipal solid waste dump on ground water quality at Danda Lokhand landfill site in Dehradun city, India. Ground water contamination is generally irreversible i;e, once it is contaminated it is difficult to restore the original water quality of aquifer. Excessive mineralization of ground water degrades water quality producing an objectionable taste, odour and hardness. So keeping in view the importance of ground water and the effect of municipal solid waste dump on ground water. They select the present dump site Danda Lokhand on Sahastradhara road, in Dehradun. The residential areas around this dump site mainly have bore-wells and hand pumps. The depth of these bore-wells & hand pumps around the site varies from 350-450 feet. The purpose of this study was to assess the physico-chemical properties and microbial activity of underground water was evaluated within 3 months. The physico-chemical properties such as temperature, total dissolved solids, pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, total hardness, phosphate, chloride, residual chlorine & microbial activities were studied & analyzed. The quality of ground water in various parameters is fair or satisfactory but the overall study has revealed that the ground water quality does not confirm to the drinking water quality standard as per Bureau of Indian standards. The study clearly indicates that landfills in densely populated cities should have the ground water monitored on regular basis. Furthermore, ground water in and around the landfill sites shall not be used for drinking purposes unless it meets specific standards, indiscriminate developing of waste in developed areas without proper solid waste management practices should be stopped.

3.4 Nitin Kamboj and Mohrana Choudhary, ‘Impact Of Solid Waste Disposal On Ground Water Quality Near Gazipur Dumping Site, Delhi, India’, Journal of Applied and Natural Science 5 (2): 306-312 (2013): Have studied the impact of domestic wastes disposal on ground water quality at Delhi, India. The samples of ground water were collected and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters viz. conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, fluoride, sodium and potassium. Among these parameters, TDS were found higher. TDS were observed beyond the desirable limits of BIS at all the sampling sites. Maximum value of TDS was found to be 2061 mg/l. Maximum value of chloride was found to be 560 mg/l and rest all other parameters were found within permissible limit. The study concluded that the chloride and TDS in water samples were above to the desirable limit and below to the permissible limit of BIS and rest all other parameters were within desirable limit.

3.5 Donal Nixon D’Souza, P.S. Aditya, S. SavithaSagari, Deepanshi Jain and Dr. N. Balasubramanya, ‘Study of Groundwater Contamination Due to a Dump Yard: A Case Study of Vamanjoor Dump Yard, Mangalore, India’, Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Architecture and Civil Engineering (AARCV 2012), 21st ‘ 23rd June 2012, Vol. 1: Have studied Groundwater Contamination Due to a Dump Yard. The studied was conducted on the ground water, in the vicinity of Vamanjoor dump yard in Mangalore. Twenty eight ground water samples were collected and analyzed for physical and chemical parameters as per standard methods for water and waste water. The results were compared with BIS guideline values for potable water with the view to quantify the extent of ground water pollution, and its impact on health. The sampling and analysis of ground water showed contamination due to landfill leachate, as a result if excessive concentrations of one or more contaminants such as Iron, Nitrate, Cadmium, Total Dissolved Solids and Fluorides. The presence of these contaminants has rendered about 86% of the samples unportable. The variation in contamination is mapped using high resolution satellite data, with the help of GIS and Surfer mapping tools.

3.6 Mohammed Asef Iqbal and S.G.Gupta, ‘Study On Effect Of Municipal Solid Waste Dumping On Ground Water Quality Index Values’, ResearchGate, 24 (2), 2009 : ll8 – I23: Have studied on effect of dumping of municipal solid waste on ground water quality index values. Recent increase in unplanned urbanization without any adequate provision for issues like waste generation and disposal and treatment by industries, agriculture and domestic users has increased the stress on water reservoirs of getting contaminated. Groundwater can also get contaminated due to such anthropogenic activities of man, if the generated waste is not disposed of in proper manner’ the polluting chemicals in the solid waste undergo biological action and their seepage in the groundwater occurs during the rainy season. Hence the municipal solid waste poses a significant threat to the credibility of the groundwater as the safest source of water for human consumption. The samples were collected at 21 sampling stations inbounding the dumping ground at Naregao. The samples were immediately transferred to the laboratory for the analysis’ physicochemical parameters analysed were Dissolved Oxygen, pH, Biochemical Oxygen demand, Temperature, Phosphates, Nitrates and total Solids, additionally for biological status Fecal coliforrns were also analysed. The analysis was carried out as per the standard methods prescribed by APHA (1995). The obtained results were used to determine the Water Quality Index (WQI) using National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) method. The overall index of water quality in the area is not satisfactory and can graded as bad for consumption. It is also observed that the water quality index is further deteriorating with the time. it was concluded that the open refuse dumping at Naregaon is adversely affecting the portability of the ground water in the area, which a serious concern and immediate action should be initiated to prevent further deterioration of the groundwater sources.

3.7 P. Vasanthi, S. Kaliappan & R. Srinivasaraghavan, ‘Impact of Poor Solid Waste Management on Ground Water’, Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007: Have studied Impact of poor solid waste management on ground water. The leachate produced by waste disposal sites contains a large amount of substances which are likely to contaminate ground water. In this study, the quality of ground water around a municipal solid waste disposal site in Chennai was investigated. Chemical analysis were carried out on water samples collected at various radial distances from the boundary of the dumping yard, at intervals of 3 months and for a period of 3 years. The study has revealed that the ground water quality does not confirm to the drinking water quality standards as per Bureau of Indian Standards. The effects of dumping activity on ground water appeared most clearly as high concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness, chlorides, chemical oxygen demand, nitrates and sulphates. Leachate collected from the site showed presence of heavy metals. The contaminant concentrations tend to decrease, during the post monsoon season and increase, during the pre monsoon season in most of the samples. The study clearly indicates that landfills in densely populated cities should have the ground water monitored on regular basis. Furthermore, ground water in and around the landfill sites shall not be used for drinking purposes unless it meets specific standards. Indiscriminate dumping of wastes in developed areas without proper solid waste management practices should be stopped.

Chapter 4
OBJECTIVES OF THE REPORT

‘ Analysis of quality of ground water
Many families are residing near the Bhandewadi dumping yard due to urbanization and low cost of land. All the people in that area are only dependent upon the ground water source only like bore wells, wells for their domestic purposes like drinking, bathing, washing, etc. As drinking is directly concern with health so it is necessary to analysis the quality of water in that region.

‘ Try to find out the intensity of contamination of ground water due to dumping yard with respect to radial distance
Disposal of solid waste as open landfills affect soil, air and water. The leachate produce in dump yard infiltrates in the ground and contaminate the ground water. As dumping yard is surrounded by residential area due to low cost of land so it is necessary to determine that at how much distance the dumping yard is contaminating the ground water so that the necessary preventive measures should be taken.

Chapter 5
STUDY AREA
Nagpur is a city in the central part of India. In Maharashtra State. Nagpur district is located between 21*45 N to 20*30 N and 78*15 E to 79*45 E, which essentially indicates that Nagpur district is located in the Deccan Plateau. It is situated at elevation 319 meters above sea level. Nagpur has a population of 2,228,018 making it the 4th biggest city in Maharashtra. The adjoining districts are Bhandara on the east, Chandrapur on the south, Amravati and Wardha on the west and in the north shares the boundary with Madhya Pradesh. It is practically at geographical

Center of India, in fact the zero milestone of India is in this city. All major highways NH-7 (Varanasi – Kanyakumari) & NH-6 (Mumbai – Sambalpur – Calcutta) and major railways trunk route (Mumbai, Chennai, Howrah * Delhi) pass through the city. Important Central & State Government offices and institutions are located in Nagpur. Industrial Development is existing along the fringe areas like Kamptee, Hingna, Wadi, Khapri, Butibori and Kalmeshwar.

5.1 Topography:
Nagpur is located at the exact centre of the Indian peninsula. The city has the Zero Mile Stone locating the geographical centre of India, which was used by the British to measure all distances within the Indian subcontinent. The city lies on the Deccan plateau of the Indian Peninsula and has a mean altitude of 310.5 meters above sea level. The underlying rock strata are covered with alluvial deposits resulting from the flood plain of

the Kanhan River. In some places these give rise to granular sandy soil. In low-lying areas, which are poorly drained, the soil is alluvial clay with poor permeability characteristics. In the eastern part of the city, crystalline metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, schist and granites are found, while in the northern part yellowish sand stones and clays of the lower Gondwana formations are found. Nagpur city is dotted with natural and artificial lakes. The largest lake is Ambazari Lake. Other natural lakes include Gorewada Lake and Telangkhedi Lake. Sonegaon and Gandhisagar Lakes are artificial, created by the city’s historical rulers. Nag River, Pilli Nadi, and nallas form the natural drainage pattern for the city. Nagpur is known for its greenery and was adjudged the cleanest and second greenest in India after Chandigarh in 2010.

5.2 Climate:
Nagpur has tropical savannah climate with dry conditions prevailing for most of the year. It receives about 163 mm of rainfall in June. The amount of rainfall is increased in July to 294 mm. Gradual decrease of rainfall has been observed from

July to August (278 mm) and September (160 mm). The highest recorded daily rainfall was 304 mm on 14 July 1994.Summers are extremely hot, lasting from March to June, with May being the hottest month. Winter lasts from November to January, during which temperatures drop below 10 ”C (50 ”F). The highest recorded temperature in the city was 48 ”C on May 19, 2015, while the lowest was 3.9 ”C. Nagpur is a city found in Maharashtra, India. It is located 21.15 latitude and 79.08 longitude.

Chapter 6
SOLID WASTE AND ITS DISPOSAL IN NAGPUR

Nagpur City generate 1000 tones and above garbage per day. All these waste is collected and disposed into the landfill located at Bhandewadi at a distance of 8km from the city head quarter Nagpur. The dumping yard has an area of 22.0 hectors which is poorly managed. Bhandewadi has greater importance due to passing of national highways like Jabalpur highway (NH06), Mumbai-Varanasi highway (NH07) and railway rout of Nagpur-Nagbid. It also having a landmark like Swaminarayana Temple. The main waste generated is from homes, markets from agricultural products, retail and commercial markets, slaughter houses and industries. This dump yard was started in the 1994. This

dump yard has not only been a source of air pollution but also contaminated the ground water in the vicinity. There are close to 3000 families which live within a proximity of 500m from the dump yard. Leachate percolation has resulted in ground water turning black and smelling foul in areas like Abbumiya Nagar, Gurukrupa Nagar, Chandmari, Antuji nagar and Sangharsh Nagar, which are in the vicinity of Bhandewadi. This effect is compounded during the winter. Respondents in the study area reported loss of appetite, vomiting and giddiness. Hence, the intention behind this study is to
TYPE OF WASTE
SOURCES
Domestic waste
Glass bottles, rags, vegetable parts, residues etc.,
Commercial waste

Polyethylene bags, egg shells, cans, bottles, etc.
Agricultural waste
Vegetable parts and residues
Construction waste
Rubbles, wood, concrete, etc.
Table no. 6. 1 Classification of Waste

evaluate the extent of pollution in the area and identifying individual pollutant concentrations, and thereby the impact of landfill on groundwater contamination.

Chapter 7
PROCESS OF CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER DUE TO DUMP YARD

Solid waste contains many hazardous components like chemicals extracted from hospitals, industries and many households. These hazardous waste is collected from different regions of the city and then it is collectively disposed far away from the residential areas. But due to urbanization and high cost of land the nearby areas of the dumping site are occupied by the people for living purpose. As the main source of water for domestic uses like drinking, bathing, cooking, etc is only the groundwater. In standard the dump site should be well covered by geosynthetic sheets but due to poor management system and adoption of cheaper method it leads to contamination of ground water. Not only this, but it also contaminates the soil and air due to open burning of

waste. Groundwater contamination is mainly due to leachate infiltration in the ground. Leachate is generated in the dump yard when the solid waste comes in contact with water. When rainfall occurs the intensity of formation of leachate is high and due to this the intensity of contamination of ground water is more. The intensity of contamination of ground water is highly dependent upon the concentration of leachate.

Chapter 8
METHODOLOGY
8.1 Sample Collection

In order to analyze the intensity of ground water contamination due to leaching of wastes into ground, nearest five settlements was chosen. From each settlement one ground water source were selected and the water samples were collected to analyze its quality. Five water samples were collected from the study area and analyze for its physical and chemical characteristics as per standard procedure. The detailed inventory survey also carried out and the details such as depth of source and distance of source from the dumping yard is collected. Clean plastic bottles washed with detergent was used for ground water sampling. The sampling bottles were rinsed duly with distilled water before taking the samples and then on field the bottles were rinsed duly by using the representative ground water samples.

8.2 Details of Samples
Total five samples of groundwater were collected from different settlements in a sampler of capacity 2 liter. All the details of each sample and source from which the samples were collected is given in table no. 8.1

SR. NO. AREA SOURCE DEPTH
(ft.) DISTANCE FROM DUMPING YARD
(m)
1. ANTUJI NAGAR BORE WELL 80 100
2. ABBUMIYA NAGAR WELL 40 200
3. SANGHARSH NAGAR BORE WELL 80 300
4. GURUKRUPA NAGAR BORE WELL 150 150
5. CHANDMARI NAGAR BORE WELL 150 650
Table no. 8. 1 Details of all the Samples

8.3 Analysis of samples
The ground water samples were collected in field were send to the laboratory on the same day. These samples were tested in laboratory of Water Resource Department of Government of Maharashtra in Nagpur for three different Parameters are as follows:
‘ pH
‘ Nitrate
‘ BOD

8.3.1 pH
The term pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a diluted solution. It can range from 0 to 14, with 7 denoting a neutral value. Acidic water has a pH below 7; alkaline water, above 7. The health effects of pH on drinking water depend upon where the pH falls within its range. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which classifies pH as a secondary drinking water standard, recommends a pH between 6.5 and 8.5 for drinking water. According to the World Health Organization, health effects are most pronounced in pH extremes. Drinking water with an elevated pH above 11 can cause skin, eye and mucous membrane irritation. On the opposite end of the scale, pH values below 4 also cause irritation due to the corrosive effects of low pH levels. WHO warns that extreme pH levels can worsen existing skin conditions.

Factors influencing the value of pH:
‘ The pH of a body of water is affected by several factors. One of the most important factors is the bedrock and soil composition through which the water moves, both in its bed and as groundwater. Some rock types such as limestone can, to an extent, neutralize the acid while others, such as granite, have virtually no effect on pH.
‘ Another factor which affects the pH is the amount of plant growth and organic material within a body of water. When this material decomposes carbon dioxide is released. The carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid. Although this is a weak acid, large amounts of it will lower the pH.
‘ A third factor which determines the pH of a body of water is the dumping of chemicals into the water by individuals, industries, and communities.

8.4.2 Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrate is an inorganic compound that occurs under a variety of conditions in the environment, both naturally and synthetically. Nitrate is one of the most common
groundwater contaminants in rural areas. It is regulated in drinking water primarily because excess levels can cause methemoglobinemia, or “blue baby” disease. Although nitrate levels that affect infants do not pose a direct threat to older children and adults, they do indicate the possible presence of other more serious residential or agricultural contaminants, such as bacteria or pesticides.
Nitrate in drinking water is measured either in terms of the amount of nitrogen present or in terms of both nitrogen and oxygen. The federal standard for nitrate in drinking water is 10 milligrams per liter (10 mg/l) nitrate-N, or 45 mg/l nitrate-NO3.

8.3.3 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
BOD represents the quantity of oxygen which is consumed in the course of aerobic processes of decomposition of organic materials, caused by microorganisms. The BOD therefore provides information on the biologically-convertible proportion of the organic content of a sample of water. BOD indicates the amount of putrescible organic matter present in water. Therefore, a low BOD is an indicator of good quality water, while a high BOD indicates polluted water. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is consumed by bacteria when large amounts of organic matter from sewage or other discharges are present in the water.

8.4 Methods use for testing the samples

8.4.1 For pH
Determining the PH of the given water samples with the stipulations as per IS: 3025 (Part 11) – Reaffirmed 2002
8.4.1.1 Apparatus Required

1. pH meter
2. Standard flasks
3. Magnetic Stirrer
4. Funnel
5. Beaker
6. Wash Bottle
7. Tissue Paper
8. Forceps

8.4.1.2 Chemicals Required

1. Buffers Solutions of pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.2
2. Potassium Chloride
3. Distilled Water

8.4.1.3 Procedure

Three major steps are involved in the experiment. They are

1. Preparation of Reagents

2. Calibrating the Instrument

3. Testing of Sample

1) Preparation Of Reagents

1. Buffer Solution of pH 4.0
‘ Take 100 mL standard measuring flask and place a funnel over it.

‘ Using the forceps carefully transfer one buffer tablet of pH 4.0 to the funnel.

‘ Add little amount of distilled water, crush the tablet and dissolved it.

‘ Make up the volume to 100 mL using distilled water.

2. Buffer Solution of pH 7.0

‘ Take 100 mL standard measuring flask and place a funnel over it.

‘ Using the forceps carefully transfer one buffer tablet of pH 7.0 to the funnel.

‘ Add little amount of distilled water, crush the tablet and dissolved it.

‘ Make up the volume to 100 mL using distilled water.

3. Buffer Solution of pH 9.2

‘ Take 100 mL standard measuring flask and place a funnel over it.

‘ Using the forceps carefully transfer one Buffer tablet of pH 9.2 to the funnel.

‘ Add little amount of distilled water, crush the tablet and dissolved it.

‘ Make up the volume to 100 mL using distilled water.

2) Calibrating The Instrument

Using the buffer solutions calibrate the instrument.
Step 1
‘ In a 100 mL beaker take pH 9.2 buffer solution and place it in a magnetic stirrer, insert the teflon coated stirring bar and stir well.

‘ Now place the electrode in the beaker containing the stirred buffer and check for the reading in the pH meter.
‘ If the instrument is not showing pH value of 9.2, using the calibration knob adjust the reading to 9.2.

‘ Take the electrode from the buffer, wash it with distilled water and then wipe gently with soft tissue.

Step 2

‘ In a 100 mL beaker take pH 7.0 buffer solution and place it in a magnetic stirrer, insert the teflon coated stirring bar and stir well.

‘ Now place the electrode in the beaker containing the stirred buffer and check for the reading in the pH meter.
‘ If the instrument is not showing pH value of 7.0, using the calibration knob adjust the reading to 7.0.
‘ Take the electrode from the buffer, wash it with distilled water and then wipe gently with soft tissue.

Step 3

‘ In a 100 mL beaker take pH 4.0 buffer solution and place it in a magnetic stirrer, insert the teflon coated stirring bar and stir well.

‘ Now place the electrode in the beaker containing the stirred buffer and check for the reading in the pH meter.

‘ If the instrument is not showing pH value of 4.0, using the calibration knob adjust the reading to 4.0.

‘ Take the electrode from the buffer, wash it with distilled water and then wipe gently with soft tissue.

Now the instrument is calibrated.

3) Testing Of Sample

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