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Essay: Understanding the Impact of Major Incidents: Definition and Examples

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Unit 13 LO1- Understand the impact of major incidents

In this coursework I will be defining what is meant by a major incident and saying what effects it has on individuals and organisations including some examples of major incidents and how it affected those who were affected.

Major incident definition.
A major incident is an event where multiple people are injured and excessive damage to property is caused. It is also where multiple services are required to work together to resolve a large problem such as police, ambulance or local authority.

Here are examples of two other different types of Major Incidents.

London bridge attack happened on June 3rd 2017 where three men drove a van into a crowd of pedestrians, the attack killed eighteen people and injured forty others, Isis claimed responsibility for the attack even though no evidence of involvement was shown. In this terror attack multiple services and agencies were involved making this a Major incident.

9/11 is one of the more larger scale tragic major incidents where four hijacked planes with nineteen terrorists crashed into the world trade center, this attack was commenced by the extremist group Al qaeda and 2,977 people died with more than 6,000 others injured. This was one of the biggest terror attacks in history and required lots of emergency services to work together to help victims and resolve the terrible situation.

Investigating a recent Major incident and explaining its cause (within the last 5 years).
A bomb detonated on a London Underground commuter train at 8:20am uk time september 15th 2017 at Parsons Green station in central London, more than 25 people were transported for injuries such as flash burns according to news articles the bomb did not go off correctly but if it had it would have blown up killing everyone around it. Luckily no one died from this major incident done by the islamic state.

Covid 19 natural major incident- Current
Covid 19 is a Major incident which is still ongoing and getting worse to this day it is a virus which affects the lungs and creates problems with things such as breathing and a constant cough and if you are old or have health problems this can be particularly dangerous and has killed over 971,869 people worldwide with a large majority being people who are older or those with health problems. This virus is spread very easily through the air or from surfaces which has created more than 31,658,573 cases worldwide. This virus originated in Wuhan China and it is believed to have come from unclean food products which then spread to multiple countries.

This is a major incident because nearly all services are used in helping fight the virus such as police putting restrictions and enforcing them so that people don’t spread the virus as easily, these restrictions include things such as no more than 6 people gathering at one time except from schools and workplaces and pubs and other entertainment being shut down from 10pm onward. Police enforce these rules with penalties such as fines, the police are needed to stop people from breaking these restrictions and causing more cases so they are a statutory organisation. Ambulance and paramedics are in constant use in a trying time such as this as there are lots of cases which are growing steadily which makes the service statutory to this major incident. It’s putting a large strain on the NHS and other hospital workers and hospitals themselves which are running out of space for people to be treated. Local governments and other organisations are also working hard to protect their region by doing local lockdowns to prevent the spread of the virus which is required by the government making it a non statutory organisation. There are also other charities coming forward to help with financial problems and helping people who are struggling with emotional problems combat the coronavirus such as Mind (https://www.mind.org.uk/) which is an emotional support charity for people struggling with emotional problems. Especially at the moment it is difficult to stay in a positive mindset when the whole world is in chaos and it is impossible to see family members and friends with restrictions. Some other charities include Crisis (https://www.crisis.org.uk/) which is one of the Uk’s lead charities for homeless people and with coronavirus the main priority is getting homeless people off the street to stop the spread. Another one particularly important is Masks for NHS Heroes (https://www.crowdfunder.co.uk/masks4nhsheroes) Which is a charity to help get NHS workers the correct PPE needed to perform their daily tasks at the NHS without a higher risk of getting coronavirus while working. All of these charities are Non statutory as they are not required but help all of those involved in the Major incident.

On going effects on individuals.

This major incident has caused lots of problems including loss of income from either being made redundant or reduced hours which means some people could have lost their house or apartment because they were unable to pay for the rent or mortgage. A loss of income could mean the loss of food or other necessities such as power or utilities. Loss of law and order is a big thing with covid 19 as all these protection methods keep changing and making it more difficult for people to understand what rules are current if they don’t keep up to date with the news, but this also means that people could break these rules which makes it necessary for police to monitor the situation and hand out fines if someone breaks these rules to keep people safe. Of course with all of this people can lose lots of loved ones if they are vulnerable and this could create people becoming depressed and potentially even getting PTSD if all of their loved ones have died around them. Everything is still ongoing now as Covid is still prevalent today so all of the uniformed services are still trying their best to stop the spread and help civilians cope with what is going on.

Procedures, legislation and review of disasters.

With Covid 19 there is lots of talk and unknowingness of what’s going on and what the next steps are as there has never really been a natural major incident as big as this other than the spanish flu which wasn’t quite as bad. But one thing that is for certain is that there are always people reviewing the government’s actions and questioning whether they were appropriate or reasonable and these are done via public inquiries where the public is questioning whether the government’s actions for preventing the virus from spreading while also keeping the country afloat is appropriate. Alongside this are procedures and prevention tactics which have been added by the government to prevent the virus from spreading such as the lock down we had a while back or the newest procedures they have put in place to prevent the virus from spreading as rapidly such as the prevention of over 6 people from gathering at one time. Face masks having to worn by both employees and shoppers. One other procedure for shops especially to prevent the spread is the cleaning of the shop alot more frequently which where I work we have to do once every hour making sure tills and baskets alongside door handles and staff areas are cleaned on a regular basis and ticked once done on the cleaning sheet.


There have also been lots of other advice for people to take which have been given by the government to stop the spread rate of coronavirus being:
Washing your hands frequently
Avoid touching your face
Stop shaking hands
Don’t share personal items
Cover mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze
Clean and disinfect surfaces
Social distancing
Don’t gather in groups
wear a mask
quarantine if sick
These are all pretty self explanatory in order to protect yourself and others and ultimately prevent the spread of the coronavirus and if you ignore these guidelines by the government then you could end up endangering or potentially killing lots of people. If you do stick to these rules then you are preventing the spread of the coronavirus.

Manchester arena bombing -2017

The manchester arena bombing is an example of not only a major incident but also of radicalisation of Salman Abedi a 22 year old who was radicalised into suicide bomboing manchester arena. The major inscident occurred during a ariana grande concert in the foyer rooms on the 22nd of may 2017 an Islamist extremist suicide bomber detonated a homemade bomb as people were leaving the Arena following the concert. Twenty three people died including the bomber and eight-hundred more were injured the victims include both parents and children and shows us an example of what a major incident is because multiple services were used in the incident with lots of casualties and property damage.

Some of the services used in the Major incident are police which dealt with reports, investigations and casualties; these are a required service making them a statutory service. Another service used to help deal with the major incident are the paramedics/ambulance service that are required to help people who were injured by the terrorist and need to be treated/taken to hospital, this is required and therefore is a statutory service. One other thing that was required to be there is the fire service because the bomb trapped people under rubble and created flames which needed to be put out. The manchester fire chief blamed the police for a two hour delay in firefighters arriving on scene saying his service was left in an information vacuum making it that the police failed to effectively communicate with the fire service. Some of the non statutory work that was done by fund raises to raise money for the victims of the Major incident was the Concert held which raised over 21 million pounds for families affected by the incident. These are non statutory because they are not required but still help those who were involved.

The Major incident caused problems for those involved which is still ongoing to this day. These include things such as PTSD for an event where you potentially saw a loved one die in front of you can cause mental disturbance if they think that they could have done something about it then it can tie into guilt and with the explosions that were at the concert made by the terrorist then loud sounds may trigger PTSD same way is it does for some soldiers in world. Another thing that affected families was arranging funerals for those who died or medical bills for people injured these both weight on the finances of the family and may stop them from being able to afford rent or other essentials luckily they hosted a fundraiser for families affected to donated money to help cover these so they don’t have to worry about money and can focus on coping of the loss of a family member.

There were multiple public enquiries questioning the services actions to the Major incident such as mentioned previously that the communication from the different services were faulty and that caused the fire department to be late onto the scene this caused multiple public enquiries into the services as to how they can do better and to find out who was responsible for the delay. After the Major incident the goverment considered a new anti terrorism legislation named after one of the victims of the manchester arena bombing Martyn Hett called Martyns Law which has currently been put on hold due to coronavirus this is what the legislation will include:
Counter terroism advice and training.
Vulnerability assessment.
Mitigate the risks created by the vulnerabilities
Counter terroism plans
Local authority to plan for the threat of terroism.

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