Essay: Fundamental Analysis of Private Sector Banks in India

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ABSTRACT

Banking companies in India are one the most favourable investment decisions by shareholders. The Fundamental analysis studies the various parameter influencing the risk and return of stocks. The profitability and growth of stocks can be determined by using Fundamental analysis, which in turn helps the shareholders to make a informed and profitable decision making. This research analyses the profitability position of selected private sector banking companies in India using independent financial parameters. The analyses of profitability position leads to ascertain the best investment decision among the selected private sector banks. The study requires secondary data and the requisite data has been collected from official journals and websites. ANOVA test has been used for hypothesis testing. HDFC bank, ICICI bank, AXIS bank, Yes Bank and Kotak Mahindra bank was selected for the analysis. Return on Equity (ROE), Net Profit Margin (NPM), Return on Assets (ROA), Price to Earnings ratio (P/E), Debt to Equity ratio (D/E), Net Non – Performing Assets (NPA), Earnings per Share (EPS) and Dividend per Share (DPS) were the variables considered for this study. The investors have to analyse these variable to determine the profitability position of the banks.
Key Words: Profitability, Indian Banking sector, ROE, NPM, ROA, P/E, D/E, NPA,DPS, EPS.

INTRODUCTION:

The Banking industry in India plays an important role in the financial system as it provides financial assistance to industrial sector, agricultural sector and household sector. The banking industry contributes to the economical growth of the country as they are the major credit creators of the nation. During the recent time, the banking industry has seen significant development and large investments. The Reserve of India (RBI) is the central bank of India, it regulates, controls and monitors other banks in India. Banks are classified into commercial banks, private sector banks, public sector banks, foreign banks and cooperative banks. Technological advancements have improvised the banking sector. Banking sector provide wide variety of financial services which increases the productivity of the economy.

However the banking industry is facing many challenges. Increase in competition, increasing percentage of non – performing assets (NPA), asset quality issues are major concerns in the banking industry. Due to increase in competition, the private sector banks are trying to improve their performance and increase their profitability position.

Due to challenges faced by the banking industry, the investors are facing difficulty to determine the most profitable and best performing banks. This study primarily focuses on determining the profitability position of the selected private sector banks. Hence, there is a need to study the fundamentals of private sector banks.

Fundamental analysis examines the key financial ratios of the banks and helps in determining the profitability position of private sector banks. Determining the profitability position of the private sector banks helps the investors to identify the best investment decision.

LITERATURE REVIEW

P. Hanumantha Rao & Dutta in their research paper “ Fundamental Anlaysis Banking Sector in India (2014)” have examined the fundamentals of the banking sector in India. They considered operating profit margin, net profit margin, return on equity, earnings per share, price earnings ratio, dividend per share and dividend payout ratio for a period of six years starting from 2006 to 2012 for three major banks.

Sana Samreen has analyzed the overall banking industry with the help of Porter’s five forces model in her research study “Analysis of Indian Banking Industry with Special Reference to ICICI Bank (2014). The study also concentrated on the various developments, challenges and opportunities in the banking industry in India. The author has concentrated on commercial banks in India and examined the upcoming challenges and opportunities to reap profits.

Bhattacharya, A., Lovell, C.A.K., and Sahay P. in their study, “The impact of liberalization on the productive efficiency of Indian commercial banks (1997)” have examined the productivity efficiency of 70 Indian commercial banks during 1986 to 1991. Using Data Evolvement Analysis (DEA), they have concluded that public sector banks are the most consistent and efficient banks which are followed by the foreign banks and the private banks in India.

Seema Malik in her research paper “Technological Innovations in Indian Banking Sector: Changed face of banking (2014)” has analyzed the effect of technology on transformation of banking in India. The study also concentrated on the benefits and challenges of changing banking trends. The study has determined that the technology and financial innovations have improved the banking services in India. The study has concluded that the organizational effectiveness and operational efficiency have an direct impact on growth and profitability of banks.

Malaya Ranjan Mohapatra, Avizeet Lenka and Subrat Kumar Pradhan in their study “A Study of Operational Efficiency of Commercial Banks in Indian Financial System: At a Glance (2015)” have analyzed the operational efficiency of commercial banks in India and challenges faced by public sector banks. Labour productivity, branch expansion and profitability ratios have been considered as the parameters for the study. The study determined that foreign banks are better than commercial banks in terms of internal management and employee efficiency.

H.K. Singla in his study “Financial Performance of Banks in India (2008)” has examined the profitability position of the selected sixteen banks a period of six years (2001-06). The study identifies that the profitability position was consistent during the period of study when compared to the previous years. Strong capital position and greater revenues places the banks in a better position.
Karan Walia in his study “A Study on Fundamental Analysis of Banking Sector (2012)” has examined the impact of reforms on credit deposit ratio, credit to GDP ratio, investment in government securities, share of business of public sector banks and proportion of various types of advances. He also analysed the differences in various aspects of working results of public sector and private sector banks in comparison to foreign banks.

Amit Kumar Dwivedi and D. Kumara Charyulu in their research paper “Efficiency of Indian Banking Industry in the Post-Reform Era (2011)” have determined the impact of various market and regulatory initiatives on efficiency improvements of Indian banks. They concluded that reform process has led to a more efficient and profit oriented industry. The infusion of private equity capital has created challenges to shareholders and led to bureaucratic decision making. The reform process has improvised the traditional banking and created technology based banking.

R.K. Uppal in his study “Global Crisis: Problems and Prospects for Indian Banking Industry (2011)”, has examined the banks’ efficiency in the post- banking sector reforms era for the time period between 1999 and 2006. The study determined that public sector banks have improved their financial position in the period, but banks still need to make many changes. The study concluded efficiency of new private sector banks is high, when compared to other Indian banks but foreign banks have competitive advantage over new private sector banks.

Omprakash K.Gupta, Yogesh Doshit and Aneesh Chinubhai in their study “Dynamics of Productive Efficiency of Indian Banks (2008)”, have analyzed the performance of the Indian banking sector in two stages. Non-parametric frontier methodology DEA and TOBIT model have been used to construct productive inputs. The outputs are measured and efficiency scores have been determined for the period of 1999-2003. The efficiency is measured in terms of capital adequacy; the study concludes that the State Bank of India has highest efficiency level followed by private banks and other nationalized banks.

S. S. Rajan, K. L. N. Reddy and V. Pandit in their research paper “Efficiency and Productivity Growth in Indian Banking (2011)”, have examined the technical efficiency and productivity performance of Indian scheduled commercial banks, for the period 1979-2008. Using semi-parametric estimation methods they have model a multiple output/multiple input technology production frontier.

P.S Subbarao in his study “Changing Paradigm in Indian Banking, Gyan Management (2007)” has concluded that Indian banking has undergone transformation from domestic banking to the international banking. Mergers and acquisitions, globalization of players, development of new technology, universal banking and human resource in banking, profitability, rural banking and risk management are the major trends that transform the banking industry globally. The major challenges that the banking industry face in India are the capital adequacy norms under Basel I and II, technological innovations and free trade agreements.

Nishit V. Davda in his research paper “A Comparative Study of Selected Private Sector Banks in India (2012)”, has examined the economic performance and sustainability of six major banks in the private banking sector – ICICI bank, HDFC bank, AXIS bank, IndusInd bank, ING VYSYA bank and Kotak Mahindra bank. The profitability position of the selected banks for a period of ten years from 2002 to 2011 was analysed. The study identifies that HDFC has performed better in terms of Earning per Share (EPS) than other selected banks during the aforesaid period. The study also identifies that Kotak Mahindra bank was the best performer in terms of Net – Profit Margin (NPM), followed by HDFC bank. ICICI bank has the highest Return on Assets (ROA) when compared to other selected banks.

Objectives of the Study

  • To analyze the profitability position of the selected private sector banks
  • To ascertain the factors that influences the investment decision making
  • To ascertain the best investment decision

Hypothesis

HO: There is no significant difference between the selected variables of selected banks
H1: There is a significant difference between the selected variables of selected banks

METHODOLOGY

The study covers five private sector banks in India – HDFC bank, ICICI bank, Axis bank, Yes bank and Kotak Mahindra bank from financial year 2013-14 to 2017-18. The secondary data was used for the purpose of this study. All the secondary data used in the study was collected from Equitymaster (www.equitymaster.com) database. The secondary data was used to determine the profitability position of the banks. The variable which were considered for determining the profitability position were Return on Equity (ROE), Net Profit Margin (NPM), Return on Assets (ROA), Price to Earnings ratio (P/E), Debt to Equity ratio (D/E), Net Non – Performing Assets (NPA), Earnings per Share (EPS) and Dividend per Share (DPS). The Porter’s five forces model was used to analyse the banking industry. The following methods were used to analyse the data:

Arithmetic mean: The arithmetic mean was used to find the average of various observations. The arithmetic mean has been obtained by adding all the observations and dividing them by number of observations. The formula to calculate Arithmetic mean is as follows:

X ̅ = ∑ X / N = X1 + X2 + X3 + . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . + Xn ∕ N

Where X ̅ = Arithmetic Mean, ∑ X = Summation of all the observations, N = Total number of observations.

ANOVA: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is the technique to test the significance of difference between more than two sample means and to make inferences whether the samples drawn from the population have the same mean. One – factor ANOVA was used for analysis. The F – ratio indicates the ratio between ‘between group’ variance and ‘within groups’ variance. A significant F value indicates that the population means are not equal.

RESULTS

Return on Equity (ROE): Return on equity measures a corporation’s profitability by revealing how much profit the company generates with the money shareholders have invested. ROE is expressed as percentage.

ROE = Net Income / shareholder’s equity

TABLE 1 – Return on Equity (ROE)

HDFC ICICI AXIS YES KOTAK MAHINDRA
2014 19.8 14.4 15.8 22.6 12.9
2015 16.9 14.5 16.4 17.1 13.7
2016 17.2 10.8 16.6 18.4 10.4
2017 16.6 9.7 15.6 15.1 12.8
2018 16.9 7 7 16.4 12.3
AVERAGE 17.48 11.28 14.8 17.92 12.42
SOURCE: http://equitymaster.com
Interpretation: The return on equity of the selected banks is shown in Table 1. It can be seen that YES bank has highest average ROE (17.92% ) followed by HDFC bank ( 17.48% ) and AXIS bank ( 14.80% ). It is also seen that the ROE of YES bank has increased greatly when compared to other selected banks.

Table 2 – One Way ANOVA for ROE

ANOVA

Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between Groups 175.8256 4 43.9564 5.702698 0.003134 2.866081
Within Groups 154.16 20 7.708

Total 329.9856 24

Result of Hypothesis testing:

From the table 2, as the calculated value 5.708698 is greater than the critical value 2.866081 at 5% level of significance, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted.

Hence there is significant difference between the Return on Equity of HDFC, ICICI, AXIS, YES and Kotak Mahindra banks.

Net profit margin (NPM): Net Profit Margin is equal to net income or profits divided by total revenue, and represent how much profit each dollar of sales generates. Net profit margin expresses the ratio of net profits to revenues for a company. The net profit margin illustrates how much of each dollar collected by a company as revenue is converted into profit.

NPM = Net Income / Revenue

Table 3 – Net Profit Margin ( NPM in % )

HDFC ICICI AXIS YES KOTAK MAHINDRA

2014 20.61 22.30 19.20 16.1 20.6
2015 21.07 22.30 20.50 17.3 22.9
2016 20.41 17.20 20.80 18.7 17
2017 20.99 16.70 20.20 20.3 22.1
2018 21.79 12.40 8.8 20.8 24.7

AVERAGE 20.97 18.18 17.9 18.64 21.46

SOURCE: http://equitymaster.com

Interpretation: From Table 3, it can be seen that Kotak Mahindra has the highest NPM of 21.46, which implies that for every INR 100 the bank has earned INR 21.49. The HDFC bank follows the

Kotak Mahindra with NPM of 20.97. The NPM of Kotak Mahindra has increased greatly when compared to other selected banks.

Table 4 – One Way ANOVA for NPM

ANOVA

Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between Groups 55.1617 4 13.79042 1.22105 0.333243 2.866081
Within Groups 225.878 20 11.2939
Total 281.04 24

Result of Hypothesis testing:

From the table 4, as the calculated value 1.22105 is lower than the critical value 2.866081 at 5% level of significance, the null hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is no significant difference between the Net Profit Margin of HDFC, ICICI, AXIS, YES and Kotak Mahindra banks.

Return on assets (ROA): Return on assets indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. ROA gives any investor a guide to evaluate how efficient a company’s management is using its assets to generate earnings. Return on assets is displayed as a percentage

ROA = Net Income / Total Assets

Table 5 – Return on Assets ( ROA in %)

HDFC ICICI AXIS YES KOTAK MAHINDRA

2014 1.72 1.5 1.5 1.5 2
2015 1.73 1.5 1.6 1.5 2
2016 1.73 1.1 1.6 1.5 1.4
2017 1.68 1 1.5 1.4 1.8
2018 1.64 0.7 0.6 1.4 1.8

AVERAGE 1.35 1.16 1.36 1.46 1.8

SOURCE: http://equitymaster.com

Interpretation: From the table 5, we can interpret that Kotak Mahindra bank has the highest Return on assets value with 1.8% , followed by Yes bank with 1.46%. The most consistent bank in terms of ROA is Kotak Mahindra bank.

Table 6 – One Way ANOVA for ROA

ANOVA

Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between Groups 1.328 4 0.332 4.553559 0.008891 2.866081
Within Groups 1.4582 20 0.07291

Total 2.7862 24

Result of Hypothesis testing:

From the table 6, as the calculated value 4.553559 is greater than the critical value of 2.866081 at 5% significance level, the null hypothesis is rejected and Alternative hypothesis is accepted. Hence there is a significant difference between the ROA of HDFC, ICICI, AXIS, YES Kotak Mahindra banks.

Price to Earnings Ratio (P/E): The price-earnings ratio indicates the dollar amount an investor can expect to invest in a company in order to receive one dollar of that company’s earnings. This reason for P/E ratio sometimes being referred to as the price multiple is because it shows how much investors are willing to pay per dollar of earnings

P/E = Market value per share / Earning per share

Table 7 – Price to Earnings ratio ( P/E Ratio in %)

HDFC ICICI AXIS YES KOTAK MAHINDRA
2014 17.7 10.7 10.9 8.5 21.7
2015 21.3 14.8 43.1 13.7 27.5
2016 20.3 14.7 14.9 12.4 36
2017 21.2 14.5 14 16.3 28.7
2018 24.1 22.9 32 11.8 30.7

AVERAGE 20.92 15.52 22.98 12.54 28.92

SOURCE: http://equitymaster.com

Interpretation: From the Table 7, we can see that the Price to Earnings ratio of Kotak Mahindra bank is highest with 28.92% followed by Axis bank with 22.98%. The most consistent bank in term of P/E ratio is Kotak Mahindra.

Table 8 – One Way ANOVA for P/E Ratio

ANOVA

Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between Groups 824.302 4 206.0754 4.045041 0.01458 2.866081
Within Groups 1018.9 20 50.9452

Total 1843.21 24

Results of Hypothesis testing:

From the table 8, as the calculated value 4.045041 is greater than critical value of 2.866081 at 5% significance level, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted. Hence there is a significant difference between the P/E ratio of HDFC, ICICI, AXIS, YES and Kotak Mahindra banks.

Debt to Equity Ratio (D/E): The debt/equity ratio measures a company’s debt relative to the value of its net assets;. A higher the debt/equity ratio, higher is the risk; it means that a company has been aggressive in financing its growth with debt

D/E = Total Liabilities / Total shareholder’s equity

Table 9 – Debt to Equity Ratio ( D/E ratio in % )

HDFC ICICI AXIS YES KOTAK MAHINDRA

2014 9.4 7.1 8.9 13.4 4.5
2015 8.1 7.1 8.7 10.4 4.7
2016 8.7 7.1 9.0 10.1 5.4
2017 8.1 6.7 8.8 8.2 5.3
2018 8.6 7.4 9.4 10.7 4.9

AVERAGE 8.58 7.08 8.96 10.56 4.96

SOURCE: http://equitymaster.com

Interpretation: From the table 9, we can be seen that Kotak Mahindra bank has the lowest D/E ratio with 4.96% followed by ICICI bank with 7.08%. The lower Debt to Equity ratio implies that the bank has lower risk and more of the bank’s financing is from issuing shares of equity and not from debt.

Table 10 – One way ANOVA for D/E Ratio

ANOVA

Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit

Between Groups 89.4784 4 22.3696 27.66461 6.69E-08 2.866081

Within Groups 16.172 20 0.8086

Total 105.65 24

Result of Hypothesis testing:

From the table 10, as the calculated value 27.66461 is greater than the critical value 2.866081 at 5% significance, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted. Hence there is a significant difference between Debt to Equity ratio of HDFC, ICICI, AXIS, YES and Kotak Mahindra banks.

Net Non – Performing Asset ratio (NPA): Net Non – Performing Asset ratio refers to a classification for loans or advances that are in default or are in arrears on scheduled payments of principal or interest. In most cases, debt is considered as nonperforming asset when loan or advance payments have not been made for a period of 90 days.

Table 11 – Net Non Performing Assets ( Net NPA in % )

HDFC ICICI AXIS YES KOTAK MAHINDRA

2014 0.3 1 0.4 0.1 1.1
2015 0.3 1.6 0.4 0.1 0.9
2016 0.3 3 0.4 0.3 1.1
2017 0.3 4.9 0.7 0.8 1.3
2018 0.4 4.8 2.1 0.6 1

AVERAGE 0.34 3.06 0.8 0.38 1.08

SOURCE: http://equitymaster.com

Interpretation: From the table 11, we can interpret that Net NPA of HDFC bank is the lowest with 0.34%, closely followed by Axis bank with 0.38%. The lower Net NPA ratio indicates that the bank has lower number of defaults from loans and advances.

Table 12 – One way ANOVA for Net NPA

ANOVA

Source of Variation SS Df MS F P-value F crit
Between Groups 25.2744 4 6.3186 8.176242 0.000446 2.866081
Within Groups 15.456 20 0.7728

Total 40.7304 24

SOURCE: http://equitymaster.com

Result of Hypothesis testing:

From table 12, as the calculated value 8.176242 is greater than 2.866081 with 5% significance level, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is a significant difference between the Net NPA of HDFC, ICICI, AXIS, YES and Kotak Mahindra banks.

Earnings per Share (EPS): Earnings per share is part of a company’s profit distributed among each share of a common stock. Earnings per Share is one of the tools used to indicate a company’s profitability position. For the study diluted EPS is considered which is calculated as follows:

EPS = (Net Income – Dividends on preferred stock) / (Average outstanding shares + Diluted shares)

Table 13 – Earnings per share ( EPS in INR)

HDFC ICICI AXIS YES Kotak Mahindra
2014 34.3 17.2 21.9 7 13.4
2015 42 19.1 26.4 8.7 16.6
2016 50.3 15.9 31.2 11.1 18.8
2017 59.9 15.9 34.9 14.6 26.9
2018 72.7 12 16.5 18.5 33.8

AVERAGE 51.84 16.02 26.18 11.98 21.9

SOURCE: http://equitymaster.com

Interpretation: From the table 13, we can interpret that EPS of HDFC bank is the highest with INR 51.84, followed by Axis bank with INR 26.18. The higher the EPS the higher is the profitability of a bank.

Table 14 – One Way ANOVA for EPS

ANOVA

Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between Groups 4899.22 4 1224.804 16.22692 4.55E-06 2.866081
Within Groups 1509.6 20 75.4798

Total 6408.81 24

Result of Hypothesis testing:

From table 14, as the calculated value 16.22698 is greater than 2.866081 with 5% significance level, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is a significant difference between the EPS of HDFC, ICICI, AXIS, YES and Kotak Mahindra banks.

Dividend per Share (DPS): Dividend per share is the sum of total declared dividends issued by a company to every outstanding share. An increasing DPS indicates strong performance to its shareholders. While calculating DPS interim dividends has to included but special dividends should not be included as special dividends are expected to be issued only once.

DPS = Dividends / No. of outstanding shares

Table 15 – Dividend per Share (DPS)

HDFC ICICI AXIS YES Kotak Mahindra

2014 6.46 4.15 3.52 1.26 0.34
2015 7.88 4.51 19.66 1.64 0.38
2016 9.43 4.52 4.56 1.84 0.5
2017 11.07 2.27 4.99 2.39 0.6
2018 13.25 1.36 5.01 0.54 0.73
AVERAGE 9.61 3.32 7.54 1.53 0.51

Interpretation: From the table 15, we can interpret that DPS of HDFC bank is the highest with INR 9.61, followed by Axis bank with INR 7.54. The higher the DPS the higher is the performance of a bank.

Table 16 – One Way ANOVA for DPS

ANOVA

Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between Groups 307.477 4 76.86936 6.874066 0.00119 2.866081
Within Groups 223.65 20 11.18252

Total 531.128 24

Result of Hypothesis testing:

From table 16, as the calculated value 6.874066 is greater than 2.866081 with 5% significance level, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is a significant difference between the DPS of HDFC, ICICI, AXIS, YES and Kotak Mahindra banks.

DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

This study examined a few selected determinants which helps to determine the profitability position of five selected private sector banks in over India over a period of 2013-14 to 2017-18. The determinants used were Return on Equity (ROE), Net Profit Margin (NPM), Return on Assets (ROA), Price to Earnings ratio (P/E), Debt to Equity ratio (D/E), Net Non – Performing Assets (NPA), Earnings per Share (EPS) and Dividend per Share (DPS). Based on the review of body of existing literature the most commonly used determinants to ascertain the profitability position of the bans are Return on Equity (ROE), Return on Assets (ROA), Price to Earnings ratio (P/E), Net Non – Performing Assets (NPA), Earnings per Share (EPS) and Dividend per Share (DPS).
The table 1 represents the ROE of selected banks shows that Yes bank has 17.92% ROE which is highest when compared to other selected banks, which indicates that Yes bank is most profitable in terms of ROE. The table 5 represents ROA of selected banks shows that Kotak Mahindra bank has 1.80% ROA which highest compared when compared to other selected banks. In a recent study which involved three private sector banks in India during the period of 2006 to 2012 P. Hanumanth Rao & Dutta (2014), found that ROE and ROA are one of the tools to determine the profitability position of banks. The higher the ROE and ROA of a bank higher is the profitability position of the bank. The ROE of a bank represents how much profit the bank has generated by using its shareholders’ money whereas ROA of a bank represents how efficient the bank’s management is using its assets to generate higher profits.

The table 3 represents the NPM of selected banks; the Kotak Mahindra bank has an average of 21.46% of NPM in the period of 2013-14 to 2017-18. It indicates that Kotak Mahindra bank was most profitable terms of NPM. The Table 9 represents the D/E ratio of the selected banks, the lower the D/E ratio, better is the performance of the bank which also implies that number of defaulters is low. The D/E ratio is lowest for Kotak Mahindra bank with 4.96%; which indicates that Kotak Mahindra is most profitable in terms of D/E ratio. The study conducted by Singla, H. K. (2008), found that NPM and D/E ratio are the main drivers of profitability of banks.

The table 13 represents the EPS of selected banks; the EPS of HDFC bank is highest with an average of INR 51.84. The table 15 represents the DPS of selected banks; HDFC bank has an average of INR 9.61 which is highest when compared to other selected banks. In the study conducted by Nishit V Davda (2012) it was found that whenever the performance of a bank increases, then the EPS of aforesaid bank eventually increases which implies that EPS indicates the performance of the banks. HDFC bank is most profitable in terms of both EPS and DPS.
The table 7 represents the P/E ratio of selected banks; Kotak Mahindra bank has the highest P/E ratio of 28.92%. The table 11 represents the Net NPA’s of the selected banks; the HDFC bank has the lowest Net NPA of 0.34%. The P/E ratio indicates how much the investors are willing to pay per dollar of earnings. Hence, a higher P/E ratio is better and indicates that banks performance is better than its peer group. The Net NPA of a bank represents the portion of loan or advances that are in default or in arrears on scheduled payments of principal or interest.

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides an insight on the financial performance of the selected private sector banks. HDFC bank scores highest in terms of Earnings per Share (EPS), Dividend per Share (DPS). HDFC bank has the lowest Net NPA’s which implies that number of defaulters in case of HDFC bank are low and HDFC has taken requisite precautionary methods to collect the loans or advances. HDFC bank has highest EPS when compared to other selected banks, which indicates us that the bank has more available money to reinvest or to distribute the amount as dividends, in either of the scenarios the investors win. The higher DPS of HDFC bank indicates that the bank has positive expectations about its future earnings and hence the market value of company’s stock increases.
The Kotak Mahindra bank performed best in terms of Net Profit Margin (NPM), Price to Earnings ratio (P/E), Return on Assets (ROA) and Debt to Equity ratio (D/E). The Debt to Equity (D/E) is lowest in case of Kotak Mahindra which implies that the bank is not financing its growth with debt. The P/E ratio of Kotak Mahindra is 28.92% which implies that the investors are ready to pay $28.92 for every $1 of their current earnings, which eventually increases the demand of the shares of the bank. The Kotak Mahindra bank has a Net Profit Margin (NPM) of 21.46% which indicates that the bank is earns 21.46 cents in profit for every dollar it collects, making it most profitable among the selected private sector banks. The higher Return on Assets (ROA) value of Kotak Mahindra indicates that the bank is earning huge income on lower investment on assets.
Yes bank performed best in terms of Return on Equity (ROE), the higher ROE of the bank indicates the rate of return the equity shareholders of the bank will receive on their shareholdings.
Any investors of banking companies in India have to consider these determinants for determining the profitability position of banks. The study determines that Kotak Mahindra bank is profitable in terms of most of the determinants and a better investment decision when compared to other selected banks.

REFERENCES

  1. Benjamin Graham & David L. Dodd, Security Analysis: Principles and Techniques, Sixth edition, The McGraw Hill Companies, New York, 2009
  2. Rao, P.Hanumantha & Dutta Sudhendu (2014). Fundamental Analysis of Banking Sector in India. Indian Journal of Finance, (8:9), 47-56
  3. Samreen, Sana, (2014). An Analysis of Indian Banking Industry with Special Reference to ICICI Bank. International Journal of Recent Research in Social Sciences and Humanities (IJRRSSH), Vol. 1 (1), 29-39
  4. Bhattacharya, A., Lovell, C.A.K., and Sahay, P. (1997). The impact of liberalization on the productive efficiency of Indian commercial banks. European Journal of Operational Research, 98, 332-345
  5. Das, Abhiman & S. Ghosh. (2006). Financial Deregulation and Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis of Indian Banks during the Post Reform Period. Review of Financial Economics, Vol. 15(3), 193-221
  6. Malik Seema (2014), Technological Innovations in Indian Banking Sector: Changed face of banking. International Journal of Advance Research in Computer Science and Management Studies, Volume 2 (6)
  7. Mohaptra Malaya Ranjan, Lenka Avizeet, Pradhan Subrat Kumar (2015). A Study of Operational Efficiency of Commercial Banks in Indian Financial System: At a Glance. Abhinav Journal of Research In Commerce & Management, Vol. 4(6), 13-18
  8. Singla, H. K. (2008). Financial Performance of Banks in India. The ICFAI Journal of Bank Management, 22(1), 50-62
  9. Walia, Karan (2012). A Study on Fundamental Analysis of Banking Sector. Asian Journal of research in Banking & Finance, Vol.2 (4)

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