Essay: GCSR PROJECT – Canada

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  • Subject area(s): Geography essays
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  • Published on: December 30, 2017
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About selected country: Canada

Canada is the second largest country on earth. It has three ocean borders:

• the Pacific Ocean in the west

• the Atlantic Ocean in the east

• the Arctic Ocean to the north

Canada borders the United States in the south and in the northwest.

Canada has many different types of landscape, including:

• high mountains

• prairie grasslands

• different types of forests

• arctic tundra where the ground is permanently frozen

Canada is also home to many rivers and lakes.


The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Prior to European colonization, the lands encompassing present-day Canada were inhabited for millennia by Indigenous peoples, with distinct trade networks, spiritual beliefs, and styles of social organization. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first European arrivals and have been discovered through archeological investigations.

Starting in the late 15th century, French and British expeditions explored, colonized, and fought over various places within North America in what constitutes present day Canada. The colony of New France was established in 1534 and was ceded to the United Kingdom in 1763 after the French defeat in the Seven Year’s War.

The Canadian people

Immigration has been a key part in Canadian society’s growth throughout our nation’s history.

Canada’s population of around 31 million people reflects a cultural, ethnic and linguistic mix that is unique in the world.

Canadian multiculturalism is based on the belief that all citizens are equal and that diversity makes us stronger as a country.

Founding peoples

The founding peoples of Canada include:

• Aboriginal peoples

• French Canadians

• English Canadians

Aboriginal peoples

Aboriginal peoples had family living in Canada before European explorers, pioneers and settlers arrived. There are three different groups of Aboriginal peoples:

• First Nations

• Inuit

• Métis

French Canadians

French Canadians are the descendants of French settlers and include:

• Acadians

• Quebecers

• people in smaller French-speaking communities across Canada

The Acadians are descendants of French colonists who settled 400 years ago in what is now the Atlantic Region.

Quebecers (“Québécois” in French) live in Quebec. Most are French-speaking descendants of French settlers from the 17th and 18th centuries who brought many French traditions with them.

Quebecers have a unique identity, culture and language. In 2006, the Canadian Parliament recognized the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada. One million English-speaking Anglo-Quebecers form an important part of Quebec society.

English Canadians

Most English Canadians are descendants of English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish people. These include settlers, soldiers and migrants who came to Canada from the 17th to the 20th century. Generations of these pioneers helped bring British political customs and traditions to Canada.


Most Canadians were born in Canada and came from the original founding peoples. But over the past 200 years, many newcomers have helped to build and defend this country’s way of life.

Today, many ethnic and religious groups live and work in peace as proud Canadians. Until the 1970s, most immigrants came from European countries. Since then, the majority have come from Asian countries.

About 20 per cent of Canadians were born outside Canada. In Toronto, Canada’s largest city, this number is over 45 per cent. Immigrants like you are a valued part of Canada’s multicultural society.


• Winter

Winter is very cold in most places with temperatures often below zero degrees Celsius. Snow covers the ground from around December to March or April. In southwest British Columbia (around Victoria and Vancouver), rain is more common in winter than snow.

Depending on where you’re immigrating from, you may be quite surprised by the cold and snow during your first Canadian winter. With the right clothing, you’ll be prepared to enjoy the unique beauty of a Canadian winter.

• Summer

Summer lasts from around June to September and the weather varies from warm to hot. Daytime temperatures are between 20 and 30 degrees Celsius or Centigrade (68 and 86 degrees Fahrenheit) or higher. In southern Ontario and Quebec, it can often be very humid.

• Fall and spring

Fall and spring are transition seasons. This means the weather starts getting colder or warmer, and there is a lot of rain.

Canada has three levels of government

Federal government

The Prime Minister heads the federal government based in Ottawa. It deals with national and international matters, such as:

• mail

• taxes

• money

• banking

• shipping

• railways

• pipelines

• telephones

• criminal law

• foreign affairs

• national defense

• employment insurance

• Aboriginal lands and rights

Provincial and territorial governments

A Premier leads each province and territory.

The provincial and territorial governments have the power to change their laws and manage their own public lands. They are in charge of:

• education

• health care

• road regulations

Municipal (City) governments

Mayors lead municipal governments.

Municipal governments run cities, towns or districts (municipalities). They are in charge of things, such as:

• parks

• parking

• libraries

• roadways

• local police

• local land use

• fire protection

• public transportation

• community water systems

First Nations governance Across the country, band councils govern First Nations communities. Band councils are similar to municipal governments. Band members elect the band council, which makes decisions that affect their local community.

Parliamentary democracy

Parliament has three parts:

• The Sovereign (Queen or King)

• The Senate

• The House of Commons

Canadian citizens elect political representatives at all three levels of government:

• federal

• provincial or territorial

• municipal

Elected representatives hold positions in:

• city councils

• the federal House of Commons

• provincial and territorial legislatures

Their duties include:

• passing laws

• approving and monitoring spending

• keeping the government accountable

Constitutional monarchy

Canada is a constitutional monarchy. This means:

• the Queen or King of Canada is the head of state

• the Prime Minister is the head of government

The Governor General represents the Queen in Canada. The Sovereign appoints the Governor General on the Prime Minister’s advice. The appointment is usually for five years.

In each of the ten provinces, the Sovereign is represented by the Lieutenant-Governor. They are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister. The appointment is also normally for five years.

Cities, provinces and regions

• Alberta

• British Columbia

• Manitoba

• New Brunswick

• Newfoundland and Labrador

• Northwest Territories

• Nova Scotia

• Nunavut

• Ontario

• Prince Edward Island

• Quebec

• Saskatchewan

• Yukon

Ottawa is the capital city of Canada and is located on the Ottawa River between Ontario and Quebec.

Canada has 10 provinces and three territories, each with its own capital city. These provinces and territories are grouped into five regions:

• Atlantic Provinces:

Newfoundland and Labrador

Prince Edward Island

Nova Scotia

New Brunswick

• Central Canada:



• Prairie Provinces:




• West Coast: British Columbia

• North:


Northwest Territories

Yukon Territory

Most people live in southern Ontario and Quebec, southwest British Columbia and Alberta. Much of the north has a very low population because of the cold climate.


Canadian Money is similar to USD But lot more colorful.

• Is a dollar ($) currency.

• Is usually at a lower value than American money.

• Has a $1 and $2 coin called the loonie and toonie (seriously)


• Canada used the Imperial system before 1970.

• Canadians are generally familiar with the Imperial system. Except for Fahrenheit. That one is confusing. Canadians use degrees Celsius.

• Ounce

• Liter

• Yard

• Kilometer

• Feet

• Pounds

Time zones

Canadian time zones basically the same as mainland American time zones. After all, Canada is directly above America (except Canada goes a little further east)

• If your favorite TV show is on at 7:00pm in New York, Boston, Philadelphia or Detroit, then it’s on at 7:00pm in Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, and Quebec. And it’s on at 4:00pm in Los Angeles and Vancouver.

• The exceptions are New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and PEI. They’re 1 hour ahead of Eastern Time. And Newfoundland is 1 hour and 30 minutes ahead of Eastern Time (oddly enough).

Language & Culture

Americans and Canadians are very close in language and in culture. But, like the finer things in life, it’s all in the details.

• French is an official language and is spoken in every province, but the highest concentration of native French speakers is in Quebec.

• There are hundreds of languages in use in Canada.

• You can travel just about anywhere in Canada using only English.

National Flag of Canada

The National Flag of Canada, also known as the Canadian Flag or the Maple Leaf Flag (l’Unifolié in French), consists of a red field with a white square at its centre atop of which sits a stylized, 11-pointed red maple leaf. A joint committee of the Senate and House of Commons voted for the present flag in 1964 against formidable odds. After months of debate, the final design, adopted by Parliament and approved by royal proclamation, became Canada’s flag on 15 February 1965.

National Anthem O Canada

O Canada!

Our home and native land!

True patriot love in all thy sons command.

With glowing hearts we see thee rise,

The True North strong and free!

From far and wide,

O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

God keep our land glorious and free!

O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

Lyrics: Adolph-Basil Routhier (French, 1880)

Robert Stanley Weir (English, 1908)

Music: Calixa Lavallée, 1880

Adopted: July 1, 1980

Canada now has 18 UNESCO World Heritage sites

Global News – July 20, 2016

Natural (N)

Cultural (C)

1) L’Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site, Newfoundland (C)

2) Nahanni National Park, Northwest Territories (N)

3) Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta (N)

4) Kluane/ Wrangell-St, Elias/ Glacier Bay / Tatshenshini-Alsek, B.C. and Yukon territory (N)

5) SGang Gwaay, B.C. (C)

6) Head- Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, Alberta (C)

7) Wood Buffalo National Park, Alberta and Northwest Territories (N)

8) Canadian Rocky mountain Parks, Alberta and B.C. (N)

9) Historic District of Old Quebec (C)

10) Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland and Labrador

11) Old Town Lunenburg, Nova Scotia (C)

12) Miguasha National Park, Quebec (N)

13) Waterton Glacier International Peace Park, Albert and Montana (N)

14) Rideau Canal, Ontario (C)

15) Joggins Fossil Cliffs, Nova Scotia (N)

16) Landscape of Grand Pre, Nova Scotia (C)

17) Red bay Basque Whaling Station, Labrador (N)

18) Mistaken Point, Newfoundland (N)

Fears of Trump-driven tourism slump force NYC reps north to woo Canadians

Global News -April 30, 201

New York’s tourism industry is worried U.S. President Donald Trump’s “America First” policies are turning off Canadian visitors, and they’re heading north this week to woo Canucks and their tourism dollars.The head of New York City’s official tourism organization, NYC & Company, minces no words in admitting he’s keen “to counter a little bit of the negative rhetoric that is coming out of Washington.”

Canada eyes double digit tourist growth from India

Business Standard – March 31, 2017

Canada’s tourism board is expecting double-digit growth in visitor arrivals from India in 2017 with the introduction of a new non-stop service between Mumbai and Toronto. In the last six years, number of Indians visiting Canada on leisure and business trips has doubled. In 2016, Canada received 215,664 Indian visitors, a rise of 13.2% over the previous year.

Overview of Industries, Trade and Commerce in the country of study

List of industries in Canada


12.34 Real estate and rental and leasing

10.86 Manufacturing

07.96 Mining, quarrying and oil or gas extraction

07.03 Health care and social assistance

06.90 Public administration

06.55 Finance and insurance

05.41 Wholesale trade

05.41 Retail trade

05.38 Educational services

05.21 Professional scientific and technical services

04.20 Transportation and warehousing

03.31 Information and cultural industries

02.58 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services

02.46 Utilities

02.10 Accommodation and food services

Contribution of industries in national GDP

As of the end of 2016, Canada’s reported GDP per year, in 2016 dollars, was $2.068 trillion or $2,068 billion. The following chart shows the percentage contribution of the various goods and services sectors to the total.

• The actual figures show that “Real estate selling managing, renting and leasing” is the largest segment of Canada’s economy at 13.0%. And this does not include constructing real estate.

• Manufacturing, while it may be lower than in years past, is still a very large portion of GDP and is the second largest component at 10.4%. Note that manufacturing includes process industries such as oil refineries, pulp mills and chemical plants.

Export statistics of Canada

At the end of 2016, Canada’s exports of goods and services were 31.6% as large as GDP and amounted to $654 billion. This is based on seasonally adjusted and annualized Q4 2016 export figures and using calendar year 2016 GDP in current dollars of $2,068 billion.

To which countries does Canada export?

We hear a lot of talk about global trade. We hear about China buying Canada’s commodities. But the statistics for 2016 show that the United States still accounted for the vast majority of Canadian exports at 77%. The European union collectively, but excluding the UK. is the second largest export destination at 4.7% and China is third at only 4.4%. Things may be changing and China may quickly start to be an important “customer” country for Canada.

Import statics by Canada

Canada’s seasonally adjusted and annualized imports of goods and services were 32.5% as large as 2015 GDP and amounted to $673 billion. The following chart shows imports by segment as a percentage of total goods and services imports. .

The United States accounts for 66% of Canada’s goods imports. China accounts for 7%. The European Union excluding Germany and the U.K. accounts for 6%. The remaining 21% is spread widely around the globe. Most of the 192 or so countries in the world are individually insignificant to Canada in terms of imports.

Major players of each Industries

1. Transportation

Transportation companies—at least the biggest Canadian blue chips-finds themselves in the somewhat uncomfortable position of having to match their recent soaring successes.

Their players are

• Air Canada(De12), Revenue: $12,263,000

• National Railway Co.(De12), Revenue: $10,235,000

• Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd.(De12), Revenue: $5,704,000

• Transat A.T.(Oc12), Revenue: $3,724,777

2. Mining

It has been a painful year for the global mining sector, with billions of dollars in writedowns hitting the industry. Deals that made sense four or five years ago amid high commodity prices have lost their luster.

Their major players are,

• Rio Tinto Alcan Inc.(De12), Revenue: $10,105,000 (U.S.)

• Vale Canada(De12), Revenue: $5,972,000

• First Quantum Minerals(De12),Revenue: $4,194,900 (U.S.)

• Cameco Corp.(De12), Revenue: $2,388,227logy

3. Technology and wireless

The country’s big three telecom players overpowered their new wireless competitors in short order, sending Wind, Mobil city and Public Mobile scrambling for financial saviors. It briefly looked as if TELUS, Rogers and BCE’s Bell Canada would be able to pick up the vanquished’ assets, but in June, Ottawa rejected TELUS’s $380-million plan to buy Mobil city.

• IBM Canada(De12), Revenue: $8,915,000

• 5. Rogers Wireless(De12), Revenue: $7,280,000

• 6. Celestica Inc.(De12), Revenue: (U.S.)$6,507,200

4. Retailers

For more than two years, Canadian retailers raced to prepare for Target’s arrival in March. They studied how it operates, polished their operations and accentuated their own strengths. But they still haven’t felt the full blow of the Minneapolis-based retailer’s launch. By the summer, Target will have opened fewer than half of the 124 outlets it plans this year.

Their major players are,

• Wal-Mart Canada(Ja13), Revenue: (U.S.)$23,435,000

• Costco Wholesale Canada(Se12), Revenue: (U.S.)$15,717,000

• Canadian Tire Corp.(De12), Revenue: $11,189,800

5. Oil and Gas

Pipelines have dominated discussions in oil patch boardrooms, with everyone waiting for decisions on two high-profile ones—Enbridge’s Northern Gateway and TransCanada’s Keystone XL.

Their major players are,

• Suncor Energy(De12), Revenue: $38,788,000

• Imperial Oil(De12) , Revenue $31,189,000

• Husky Energy(De12), Revenue: $23,358,000

• Canopus Energy(De12), Revenue: $17,756,000

Details of tourism industry with respect to Gujarat

Gujarat is the 6th largest state in India, located in the western part of India with a coastline of 1600 km (longest in India). It is one of the most popular tourist regions in the country, and was visited by 19.8 million domestic and international tourists in 2015-16 offers scenic beauty from Great Rann of Kutch to the hills of Saputara. Gujarat is the one and only place to view pure Asiatic lions in the world. During the Sultanate reign, Hindu craftsmanship mixed with Islamic architecture, giving rise to the Indo-Saracen style. Many structures in the state are built in this fashion. It is also the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, iconic figures of India’s independence movement. Gujarat is one of the most industrialized states in the country. There are many Indian and global companies located in Gujarat and the area has seen double digit GDP growth in past decade. It is also known as “Growth Engine of India”.

Brief about the sub –segment of the tourism industry

Over the ages, Gujarat has seen a succession of races-settlers as well as conquerors-and amalgamated their cultures into its own. The result has been a wonderful fusion of new ideas and old world traditions. Rich in crafts, history and natural beauty, this home state of Mahatma Gandhi continues to attract artists, scholars, intellectuals and businessmen from the world over.

Ways of the travelling

While travelling to Gujarat, you should know the various means of local transport in the state. The public transportation takes you around various places in different cities. It is also an easy way of moving around at an affordable price. You can explore the state with the help of the public transport. There is no dearth of local transportation in Gujarat. There are a number of options available for you. You can choose according to your need, comfort and budget

By bus

One of the most popular public transports in Gujarat is the City Bus. The only problem that can surface with the city buses is that the bus numbers and the route information is given in Gujarati. Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) is the primary body responsible for providing these services. Private buses are used by most of the people in Gujarat to commute. It is needless to say that these are outstanding modes of transport as the roads of Gujarat are amongst the best in India. For access to Travel Agents for getting private buses one may check in a hotel. It is advisable to keep away from Government operated public transport as far as possible.

By railway

The major railway stations in the state for the purpose of accessing the Indian Rail Network are at Ahmadabad, Vadodara, Surat, Rajkot, Bhavnagar, Bhuj, Jamnagar, Junagarh, Surendra Nagar, Porbandae, and Kandla.

By air

Airports in Gujarat

An insight into air network enumerating details of airports in major cities of Gujarat that connect the state to the various parts of the country:

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport Ahmedabad

Civil Aerodrome, Porbandar Porbandar

Civil Airport Surat Surat

Civil Aerodrome Rajkot Rajkot

Bhavnagar Airport Bhavnagar

Civil Airport Harni Vadodara

Kandla Airport Gandhi Dham (Kutch)

Keshod (Junagarh) Airport Keshod

Bhuj Airport Bhuj

Jamnagar Airport Jamnagar

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