Essay: GCSR PROJECT – Canada

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  • GCSR PROJECT - Canada
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About selected country: Canada

Canada is the second largest country on earth. It has three ocean borders:

• the Pacific Ocean in the west

• the Atlantic Ocean in the east

• the Arctic Ocean to the north

Canada borders the United States in the south and in the northwest.

Canada has many different types of landscape, including:

• high mountains

• prairie grasslands

• different types of forests

• arctic tundra where the ground is permanently frozen

Canada is also home to many rivers and lakes.


The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Prior to European colonization, the lands encompassing present-day Canada were inhabited for millennia by Indigenous peoples, with distinct trade networks, spiritual beliefs, and styles of social organization. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first European arrivals and have been discovered through archeological investigations.

Starting in the late 15th century, French and British expeditions explored, colonized, and fought over various places within North America in what constitutes present day Canada. The colony of New France was established in 1534 and was ceded to the United Kingdom in 1763 after the French defeat in the Seven Year’s War.

The Canadian people

Immigration has been a key part in Canadian society’s growth throughout our nation’s history.

Canada’s population of around 31 million people reflects a cultural, ethnic and linguistic mix that is unique in the world.

Canadian multiculturalism is based on the belief that all citizens are equal and that diversity makes us stronger as a country.

Founding peoples

The founding peoples of Canada include:

• Aboriginal peoples

• French Canadians

• English Canadians

Aboriginal peoples

Aboriginal peoples had family living in Canada before European explorers, pioneers and settlers arrived. There are three different groups of Aboriginal peoples:

• First Nations

• Inuit

• Métis

French Canadians

French Canadians are the descendants of French settlers and include:

• Acadians

• Quebecers

• people in smaller French-speaking communities across Canada

The Acadians are descendants of French colonists who settled 400 years ago in what is now the Atlantic Region.

Quebecers (“Québécois” in French) live in Quebec. Most are French-speaking descendants of French settlers from the 17th and 18th centuries who brought many French traditions with them.

Quebecers have a unique identity, culture and language. In 2006, the Canadian Parliament recognized the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada. One million English-speaking Anglo-Quebecers form an important part of Quebec society.

English Canadians

Most English Canadians are descendants of English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish people. These include settlers, soldiers and migrants who came to Canada from the 17th to the 20th century. Generations of these pioneers helped bring British political customs and traditions to Canada.


Most Canadians were born in Canada and came from the original founding peoples. But over the past 200 years, many newcomers have helped to build and defend this country’s way of life.

Today, many ethnic and religious groups live and work in peace as proud Canadians. Until the 1970s, most immigrants came from European countries. Since then, the majority have come from Asian countries.

About 20 per cent of Canadians were born outside Canada. In Toronto, Canada’s largest city, this number is over 45 per cent. Immigrants like you are a valued part of Canada’s multicultural society.


• Winter

Winter is very cold in most places with temperatures often below zero degrees Celsius. Snow covers the ground from around December to March or April. In southwest British Columbia (around Victoria and Vancouver), rain is more common in winter than snow.

Depending on where you’re immigrating from, you may be quite surprised by the cold and snow during your first Canadian winter. With the right clothing, you’ll be prepared to enjoy the unique beauty of a Canadian winter.

• Summer

Summer lasts from around June to September and the weather varies from warm to hot. Daytime temperatures are between 20 and 30 degrees Celsius or Centigrade (68 and 86 degrees Fahrenheit) or higher. In southern Ontario and Quebec, it can often be very humid.

• Fall and spring

Fall and spring are transition seasons. This means the weather starts getting colder or warmer, and there is a lot of rain.

Canada has three levels of government

Federal government

The Prime Minister heads the federal government based in Ottawa. It deals with national and international matters, such as:

• mail

• taxes

• money

• banking

• shipping

• railways

• pipelines

• telephones

• criminal law

• foreign affairs

• national defense

• employment insurance

• Aboriginal lands and rights

Provincial and territorial governments

A Premier leads each province and territory.

The provincial and territorial governments have the power to change their laws and manage their own public lands. They are in charge of:

• education

• health care

• road regulations

Municipal (City) governments

Mayors lead municipal governments.

Municipal governments run cities, towns or districts (municipalities). They are in charge of things, such as:

• parks

• parking

• libraries

• roadways

• local police

• local land use

• fire protection

• public transportation

• community water systems

First Nations governance Across the country, band councils govern First Nations communities. Band councils are similar to municipal governments. Band members elect the band council, which makes decisions that affect their local community.

Parliamentary democracy

Parliament has three parts:

• The Sovereign (Queen or King)

• The Senate

• The House of Commons

Canadian citizens elect political representatives at all three levels of government:

• federal

• provincial or territorial

• municipal

Elected representatives hold positions in:

• city councils

• the federal House of Commons

• provincial and territorial legislatures

Their duties include:

• passing laws

• approving and monitoring spending

• keeping the government accountable

Constitutional monarchy

Canada is a constitutional monarchy. This means:

• the Queen or King of Canada is the head of state

• the Prime Minister is the head of government

The Governor General represents the Queen in Canada. The Sovereign appoints the Governor General on the Prime Minister’s advice. The appointment is usually for five years.

In each of the ten provinces, the Sovereign is represented by the Lieutenant-Governor. They are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister. The appointment is also normally for five years.

Cities, provinces and regions

• Alberta

• British Columbia

• Manitoba

• New Brunswick

• Newfoundland and Labrador

• Northwest Territories

• Nova Scotia

• Nunavut

• Ontario

• Prince Edward Island

• Quebec

• Saskatchewan

• Yukon

Ottawa is the capital city of Canada and is located on the Ottawa River between Ontario and Quebec.

Canada has 10 provinces and three territories, each with its own capital city. These provinces and territories are grouped into five regions:

• Atlantic Provinces:

Newfoundland and Labrador

Prince Edward Island

Nova Scotia

New Brunswick

• Central Canada:



• Prairie Provinces:




• West Coast: British Columbia

• North:


Northwest Territories

Yukon Territory

Most people live in southern Ontario and Quebec, southwest British Columbia and Alberta. Much of the north has a very low population because of the cold climate.


Canadian Money is similar to USD But lot more colorful.

• Is a dollar ($) currency.

• Is usually at a lower value than American money.

• Has a $1 and $2 coin called the loonie and toonie (seriously)


• Canada used the Imperial system before 1970.

• Canadians are generally familiar with the Imperial system. Except for Fahrenheit. That one is confusing. Canadians use degrees Celsius.

• Ounce

• Liter

• Yard

• Kilometer

• Feet

• Pounds

Time zones

Canadian time zones basically the same as mainland American time zones. After all, Canada is directly above America (except Canada goes a little further east)

• If your favorite TV show is on at 7:00pm in New York, Boston, Philadelphia or Detroit, then it’s on at 7:00pm in Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, and Quebec. And it’s on at 4:00pm in Los Angeles and Vancouver.

• The exceptions are New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and PEI. They’re 1 hour ahead of Eastern Time. And Newfoundland is 1 hour and 30 minutes ahead of Eastern Time (oddly enough).

Language & Culture

Americans and Canadians are very close in language and in culture. But, like the finer things in life, it’s all in the details.

• French is an official language and is spoken in every province, but the highest concentration of native French speakers is in Quebec.

• There are hundreds of languages in use in Canada.

• You can travel just about anywhere in Canada using only English.

National Flag of Canada

The National Flag of Canada, also known as the Canadian Flag or the Maple Leaf Flag (l’Unifolié in French), consists of a red field with a white square at its centre atop of which sits a stylized, 11-pointed red maple leaf. A joint committee of the Senate and House of Commons voted for the present flag in 1964 against formidable odds. After months of debate, the final design, adopted by Parliament and approved by royal proclamation, became Canada’s flag on 15 February 1965.

National Anthem O Canada

O Canada!

Our home and native land!

True patriot love in all thy sons command.

With glowing hearts we see thee rise,

The True North strong and free!

From far and wide,

O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

God keep our land glorious and free!

O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

Lyrics: Adolph-Basil Routhier (French, 1880)

Robert Stanley Weir (English, 1908)

Music: Calixa Lavallée, 1880

Adopted: July 1, 1980

Canada now has 18 UNESCO World Heritage sites

Global News – July 20, 2016

Natural (N)

Cultural (C)

1) L’Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site, Newfoundland (C)

2) Nahanni National Park, Northwest Territories (N)

3) Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta (N)

4) Kluane/ Wrangell-St, Elias/ Glacier Bay / Tatshenshini-Alsek, B.C. and Yukon territory (N)

5) SGang Gwaay, B.C. (C)

6) Head- Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, Alberta (C)

7) Wood Buffalo National Park, Alberta and Northwest Territories (N)

8) Canadian Rocky mountain Parks, Alberta and B.C. (N)

9) Historic District of Old Quebec (C)

10) Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland and Labrador

11) Old Town Lunenburg, Nova Scotia (C)

12) Miguasha National Park, Quebec (N)

13) Waterton Glacier International Peace Park, Albert and Montana (N)

14) Rideau Canal, Ontario (C)

15) Joggins Fossil Cliffs, Nova Scotia (N)

16) Landscape of Grand Pre, Nova Scotia (C)

17) Red bay Basque Whaling Station, Labrador (N)

18) Mistaken Point, Newfoundland (N)

Fears of Trump-driven tourism slump force NYC reps north to woo Canadians

Global News -April 30, 201

New York’s tourism industry is worried U.S. President Donald Trump’s “America First” policies are turning off Canadian visitors, and they’re heading north this week to woo Canucks and their tourism dollars.The head of New York City’s official tourism organization, NYC & Company, minces no words in admitting he’s keen “to counter a little bit of the negative rhetoric that is coming out of Washington.”

Canada eyes double digit tourist growth from India

Business Standard – March 31, 2017

Canada’s tourism board is expecting double-digit growth in visitor arrivals from India in 2017 with the introduction of a new non-stop service between Mumbai and Toronto. In the last six years, number of Indians visiting Canada on leisure and business trips has doubled. In 2016, Canada received 215,664 Indian visitors, a rise of 13.2% over the previous year.

Overview of Industries, Trade and Commerce in the country of study

List of industries in Canada


12.34 Real estate and rental and leasing

10.86 Manufacturing

07.96 Mining, quarrying and oil or gas extraction

07.03 Health care and social assistance

06.90 Public administration

06.55 Finance and insurance

05.41 Wholesale trade

05.41 Retail trade

05.38 Educational services

05.21 Professional scientific and technical services

04.20 Transportation and warehousing

03.31 Information and cultural industries

02.58 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services

02.46 Utilities

02.10 Accommodation and food services

Contribution of industries in national GDP

As of the end of 2016, Canada’s reported GDP per year, in 2016 dollars, was $2.068 trillion or $2,068 billion. The following chart shows the percentage contribution of the various goods and services sectors to the total.

• The actual figures show that “Real estate selling managing, renting and leasing” is the largest segment of Canada’s economy at 13.0%. And this does not include constructing real estate.

• Manufacturing, while it may be lower than in years past, is still a very large portion of GDP and is the second largest component at 10.4%. Note that manufacturing includes process industries such as oil refineries, pulp mills and chemical plants.

Export statistics of Canada

At the end of 2016, Canada’s exports of goods and services were 31.6% as large as GDP and amounted to $654 billion. This is based on seasonally adjusted and annualized Q4 2016 export figures and using calendar year 2016 GDP in current dollars of $2,068 billion.

To which countries does Canada export?

We hear a lot of talk about global trade. We hear about China buying Canada’s commodities. But the statistics for 2016 show that the United States still accounted for the vast majority of Canadian exports at 77%. The European union collectively, but excluding the UK. is the second largest export destination at 4.7% and China is third at only 4.4%. Things may be changing and China may quickly start to be an important “customer” country for Canada.

Import statics by Canada

Canada’s seasonally adjusted and annualized imports of goods and services were 32.5% as large as 2015 GDP and amounted to $673 billion. The following chart shows imports by segment as a percentage of total goods and services imports. .

The United States accounts for 66% of Canada’s goods imports. China accounts for 7%. The European Union excluding Germany and the U.K. accounts for 6%. The remaining 21% is spread widely around the globe. Most of the 192 or so countries in the world are individually insignificant to Canada in terms of imports.

Major players of each Industries

1. Transportation

Transportation companies—at least the biggest Canadian blue chips-finds themselves in the somewhat uncomfortable position of having to match their recent soaring successes.

Their players are

• Air Canada(De12), Revenue: $12,263,000

• National Railway Co.(De12), Revenue: $10,235,000

• Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd.(De12), Revenue: $5,704,000

• Transat A.T.(Oc12), Revenue: $3,724,777

2. Mining

It has been a painful year for the global mining sector, with billions of dollars in writedowns hitting the industry. Deals that made sense four or five years ago amid high commodity prices have lost their luster.

Their major players are,

• Rio Tinto Alcan Inc.(De12), Revenue: $10,105,000 (U.S.)

• Vale Canada(De12), Revenue: $5,972,000

• First Quantum Minerals(De12),Revenue: $4,194,900 (U.S.)

• Cameco Corp.(De12), Revenue: $2,388,227logy

3. Technology and wireless

The country’s big three telecom players overpowered their new wireless competitors in short order, sending Wind, Mobil city and Public Mobile scrambling for financial saviors. It briefly looked as if TELUS, Rogers and BCE’s Bell Canada would be able to pick up the vanquished’ assets, but in June, Ottawa rejected TELUS’s $380-million plan to buy Mobil city.

• IBM Canada(De12), Revenue: $8,915,000

• 5. Rogers Wireless(De12), Revenue: $7,280,000

• 6. Celestica Inc.(De12), Revenue: (U.S.)$6,507,200

4. Retailers

For more than two years, Canadian retailers raced to prepare for Target’s arrival in March. They studied how it operates, polished their operations and accentuated their own strengths. But they still haven’t felt the full blow of the Minneapolis-based retailer’s launch. By the summer, Target will have opened fewer than half of the 124 outlets it plans this year.

Their major players are,

• Wal-Mart Canada(Ja13), Revenue: (U.S.)$23,435,000

• Costco Wholesale Canada(Se12), Revenue: (U.S.)$15,717,000

• Canadian Tire Corp.(De12), Revenue: $11,189,800

5. Oil and Gas

Pipelines have dominated discussions in oil patch boardrooms, with everyone waiting for decisions on two high-profile ones—Enbridge’s Northern Gateway and TransCanada’s Keystone XL.

Their major players are,

• Suncor Energy(De12), Revenue: $38,788,000

• Imperial Oil(De12) , Revenue $31,189,000

• Husky Energy(De12), Revenue: $23,358,000

• Canopus Energy(De12), Revenue: $17,756,000

Details of tourism industry with respect to Gujarat

Gujarat is the 6th largest state in India, located in the western part of India with a coastline of 1600 km (longest in India). It is one of the most popular tourist regions in the country, and was visited by 19.8 million domestic and international tourists in 2015-16 offers scenic beauty from Great Rann of Kutch to the hills of Saputara. Gujarat is the one and only place to view pure Asiatic lions in the world. During the Sultanate reign, Hindu craftsmanship mixed with Islamic architecture, giving rise to the Indo-Saracen style. Many structures in the state are built in this fashion. It is also the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, iconic figures of India’s independence movement. Gujarat is one of the most industrialized states in the country. There are many Indian and global companies located in Gujarat and the area has seen double digit GDP growth in past decade. It is also known as “Growth Engine of India”.

Brief about the sub –segment of the tourism industry

Over the ages, Gujarat has seen a succession of races-settlers as well as conquerors-and amalgamated their cultures into its own. The result has been a wonderful fusion of new ideas and old world traditions. Rich in crafts, history and natural beauty, this home state of Mahatma Gandhi continues to attract artists, scholars, intellectuals and businessmen from the world over.

Ways of the travelling

While travelling to Gujarat, you should know the various means of local transport in the state. The public transportation takes you around various places in different cities. It is also an easy way of moving around at an affordable price. You can explore the state with the help of the public transport. There is no dearth of local transportation in Gujarat. There are a number of options available for you. You can choose according to your need, comfort and budget

By bus

One of the most popular public transports in Gujarat is the City Bus. The only problem that can surface with the city buses is that the bus numbers and the route information is given in Gujarati. Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) is the primary body responsible for providing these services. Private buses are used by most of the people in Gujarat to commute. It is needless to say that these are outstanding modes of transport as the roads of Gujarat are amongst the best in India. For access to Travel Agents for getting private buses one may check in a hotel. It is advisable to keep away from Government operated public transport as far as possible.

By railway

The major railway stations in the state for the purpose of accessing the Indian Rail Network are at Ahmadabad, Vadodara, Surat, Rajkot, Bhavnagar, Bhuj, Jamnagar, Junagarh, Surendra Nagar, Porbandae, and Kandla.

By air

Airports in Gujarat

An insight into air network enumerating details of airports in major cities of Gujarat that connect the state to the various parts of the country:

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport Ahmedabad

Civil Aerodrome, Porbandar Porbandar

Civil Airport Surat Surat

Civil Aerodrome Rajkot Rajkot

Bhavnagar Airport Bhavnagar

Civil Airport Harni Vadodara

Kandla Airport Gandhi Dham (Kutch)

Keshod (Junagarh) Airport Keshod

Bhuj Airport Bhuj

Jamnagar Airport Jamnagar

Segments of the tourism industry

There are three segments

• Hotels

• Tours and travels

• Hospitality

But in the tourism industry only tours and travels segment is included.

Some tours and travels agency and their tours and packages are as follow.

Gujarat tour and travels organizer

Established in 2009, one of the Gujarat’s leading travel agency cum tour operator with its head office at Ahmedabad (Gujarat) and representative offices in all major cities of Gujarat. We have an efficient and dedicated team of hardcore tourism professionals who are committed to provide best services & hospitality. Our staff is very friendly, caring and having professional attitude who wins everyone. We are prompt in our replies to your queries, so we have earned a reputation as the best and most efficient tour operator. Gujarat Tour and Travels Organizer is a professionally managed company having extensive knowledge, varied range of resources to handle, and specialized in concept & implementation of events, business delegation, conferences & individual tours.

Gujarat tours and travels organizer is arrange so many tours ..Those tours are following .

Temple Tour With Shaktipeeth (10 Nights /11 Days Tour)

Dwarka Somnath Tour (4 Nights / 5 Days Tour)

Panch Dwarka Tour (7 Nights / 8 Days Tour)

Gujarat & Rajasthan Tour ( 8 Night / 9 Days Tour)

Transline tours and travels Pvt ltd.

Tran line Tours and Travels are tour operators for India. We, being travel agents for India, offer you information on tourism of India & all Travel Packages for India. We also offer some great deals on our special Travel packages for India. Our well designed Travel packages for India attract tourists from all over India and abroad.

This company arranges so many tours as following

Temples And Wildlife (9 Days / 8 Nights)

Majestic Gujarat (7 DAYS / 6 NIGHTS)

Kutch Trail (6 Days / 5 Nights)

Tribes Of Gujarat (7 DAYS / 8 NIGHTS)

Tremendous Textiles Of Gujarat (11 Days /

10 Nights)

Deasert & Beach (5 Days / 4 Nights)

The Ultimate Gujarat (10 DAYS / 9 NIGHTS)

Spectacular South Gujarat (7 DAYS / 6 NIGHTS)

Royal Palace of Gujarat (15 DAYS / 14 NIGHTS)

Treasure of North Gujarat (5 DAYS / 4 NIGHTS)

Sarthi tours and travels

Sarthi Tours & Travels Feel the excitement of traveling to a place where you can spend quality time with your family and friends. We pack a lot of things to do and see in a short holiday, for some it may be taxing, for most it is the best way to holiday.

`Sarthi Tours & Travels’ is a Leading Tour Operator and Travel Agent established Many Years ago. We are In Bound and Out Bound Tour Operator having fixed departure escorted tours in India and Abroad, World Wide Hotel Bookings, Air Tickets, Vehicle operator, Cruise Holidays.

Arrange so many tours all are under

Gujarat (6 Night-7 Days)

Kashmir (6 Nights – 7 Days)

Shimla-Manali-Dharmshala-Dalhousie (8 Nights – 9 Days)

Kerala (7 Nights – 8 Days)

Goa (3 Night – 4 Days)

Nainital-Corbett National Park-Ranikhet-

Mussoorie-Haridwar (7 Night – 8 Days)

Jodhpur-Jaisalmer–Bikaner-Jaipur (Rajasthan 6 Night-7 Days)

Tourist’s attractions

Ahmedabad, the city of Ahmed Shah (the medieval ruler of Gujarat), is known for its rich past and its association with Mahatma Gandhi. The city offers the traveller a unique style of architecture, which is a blend of Hindu and Islamic styles (Indo-Saracen style of architecture). The monuments of Ahmedabad mainly date back to the 15th century. Ahmedabad has been known for its industry since medieval times. Presently it is famous for its textile mills and is often referred to as the ‘Manchester of the East’.

Gandhinagar, situated about 25 kilometers north of Ahmedabad, is the newly built capital of Gujarat. Gandhinagar, named after Mahatma Gandhi, has been built on a grid pattern. The presence of abundant foliage here has earned it the title of the ‘Green Capital’. Jamnagar is situated in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat around 302 km from Ahmedabad. Major sites here include the Lakhota Fort, Kotha Bastion, Willington Crescent, Solarium, Jamsaheb’s Palace, and Rozi and Bedi ports.

27 Patan lies further north of Jamnagar, founded during the 9th century. Originally known as Anhilwad Patan, the city is famous for its architectural wonders built during the rule of the Solanki dynasty. The Rani Udayamativav (step well) and the Sahastralinga Lake are some of the tourist attractions here.

To the south of Ahmedabad lies the city of Vadodara, Gujarat’s cultural capital, which has a long tradition of music, fine arts and education. The credit for this cultural awareness goes to Maharaja Sayaji Rao Gaikwad who made primary education mandatory for both boys and girls and encouraged artistes.

A favorite hill resort for the people of Vadodara, Pavagadh is believed by many to be the chunk of the Himalayas that was to be carried by Hanuman to Lanka. Lying at the base of the Pavagadh hill is Champaner, the ancient capital of Sultan Mahmud Beghara.

The Jama Masjid here is considered to be one of the finest in the State. Further south of Vadodara lies the important trading center and port of ancient India called Surat. Today, Surat is an important center for textiles, zari (gold and silver threadwork) and diamond cutting and polishing. Saputara-literally, the Abode of Serpents-is Gujarat’s best-known hill resort, situated atop the second highest plateau in the Sahyadri range and in the midst of thick forests.

Founded by a Rajput chief in the 16th century, Rajkot had been the scene of many a clash between the Mughals and the British. Located in the center of the peninsula further northwest of Surat, the city is mainly known for the handicrafts it produces. Especially famous are its bead and mirror work, tie and dye (bandhani), silk embroidery and appliqué work. To the southeast of Rajkot is the city of Bhavnagar, originally the capital of a state of the same name and ruled by the SuryavanshiRajputs from Marwar. The prime attraction here is a Mahadev Temple. To the west of Bhavnagar, situated at the base of the Girnar Hills is Junagadh. Its special claim to fame is the rock edict of Emperor Ashoka, dating back to 250 BC. 28

One of the biggest attractions about five kilometres from Junagadh is Uperkot. The fort atop the Uppercut hill, originally constructed by the Rajputs, has an ornamented triple gateway. Equally fascinating are the Buddhist caves and stupa all dating back to 100-700 AD. Further west of Junagadh, situated along the coast is Porbandar-the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi. Known popularly as the gateway to Kutch, Bhuj is the most important town in this region.

An old walled city, the gates of which (in olden times) were locked from dusk to dawn, it encloses within itself not only the palace but also the entire bazaar and a lake too. Situated in Junagadh, near the port town of Veraval, Somnath is probably one of the best-known pilgrimage centers of Gujarat. Yet another pilgrimage for which this state is known, is the holy town of Dwarka lying on the northern tip of the Saurashtra peninsula, at the confluence of the Gomti River and the Arabian Sea.

One of the most sacred pilgrimage centers for the Jain community, situated in Junagadh district, are the 16 marble temples atop the 1,118-meter high Mount Girnar. The architectural grandeur of many of the 863 Jain temples at Palitana has few parallels. Located on the 600 meter high Shatrujaya Hill, this cluster of temples, dedicated to various Jain saints and deities, is yet another important place of pilgrimage on the Jain circuit.

Fairs & festivals

Navratri, literally nine nights, is celebrated for the 10 days preceding the festival of Dussehra-usually in October. The most eagerly awaited festival of the year, which celebrates harvest time, Navratri is an occasion when both rural and urban Gujarat is worship the nine incarnations of the Mother Goddess, Shakti, denoting cosmic energy.

Closely following Dussehra is the famous festival of lights, Diwali, which also has its genesis from the same epic-Ramayana. Interestingly, it is the only Hindu celebration which falls on Amavasya, a moon-less night in the lunar calendar. Celebrated on January 14, the festival of MakarSankranti heralds the kite-flying season and the International Kite Festival is held in Ahmedabad on that day every year.

29 Celebrated as the birthday of Lord Krishna, Janmashtami usually falls in the months of July/August and is celebrated with great fervour in Gujarat. Tableaux showing scenes from Lord Krishna’s life are modelled and displayed in homes and temples. The most common of these depicts Krishna as a babe in the cradle.

The small hamlet of Tranter, about 75 kilometres from Rajkot, is the site for one of Gujarat’s most well known annual fairs, held here during the first week of Bhadrapad (September-October). This three day long fair is primarily a ‘marriage mart’, called swayamwar, where gaily attired young men, in their traditional attire, come to be chosen by village belles dressed in colorful finery. Other festivals of Gujarat include the Bhavnath fair, Dang Darbar, Saputara Summer Festival, Madhavrai fair, and Desert Festival.

Contribution of tourism to GDP as compared to other industries.

Tourism’s impact on Economy

Major players of Tours and Travels industry

1. Jaya Tours and Travels (5.0 rating)

Jaya Travel is a full-service leisure travel agency offering airline tickets, hotels, car rentals, and customized tour packages to their valued customers.

• U.S. Tours

• Group Travels

• International Tours

• Religious Tours

2. Gayatri Travels (5.0 rating)

Gayatri Travels is Ahmedabad based tourist transport service provider company. It is an online venture of City. It is an Ahmedabad based company into the business of cabs services to various locations in Gujarat since 2000. They provide services to the Corporate Companies, Govt. Sectors and to the Semi Govt. bodies by catering personalized services.

• Air, Railway and Bus Ticket Agent

• Bus and Car on Hire

• Hotel and Resort Booking

• Investment Consultant

3. Shakti Travels (5.0 rating)

Shakti Travels is a leading tour operator and travel agent established in 1977 having an IATA accredited Agent & also an Active Member of TAAI, TAFI and IATO.

It has in bound and out bound tour operator having fixed departure escorted tours in India and Abroad, World Wide Hotel Bookings, Air Tickets, Vehicle Providers, Cruise Holidays, Visa assist.

• Air Tickets

• Hotel/Resort Reservations

• Car/Taxi Bookings

• Holiday Packages for International and National level

• Wedding Trip Planner

• Group Booking

4. Rann Utsav (4.9 rating)

Kutch one of the most ecologically and ethnically diverse district of the state is a celebratory land of art, crafts, music, dance, people and nature. During the full moon night of the winters amid the awe-inspiring and contrasting landscape each year a three-day festive extravaganza brimming with hospitality, vigor and traditional flavor of the area is hosted and known as the Kutch or Rannutsav.

The festival is visited and enjoyed by more than 8000 tourists from all over the world. This is one time when natives of the region and travellers along with Government administrative officers all together come along to celebrate the mystical magic of Kutch and its diversity.

5. Vibrant Holidays (4.9 rating)

Vibrant Holidays is established in 2015 and they have changed the concept of traveling for their customers, because their CEO Mr.Vivek Shukla have watched travel industry very closely and knows the needs of travellers what they will be expecting during their trip. It is always there to assist us whenever and wherever.

• International and Domestic holiday packages

• Flight and hotel booking

• Domestic bus and rail tickets

• Private car and taxi services

6. Gujarat Tours and Travels organizer (4.8 rating)

Established in 2009, its one of the Gujarat’s leading travel agency cum tour operator with its head office at Ahmedabad and representative offices in all major cities of Gujarat.It is a professionally managed company having extensive knowledge, varied range of resources to handle, and specialized in concept & implementation of events, business delegation, conferences & individual tours. They are recognized by Department of Tourism, Government of Gujarat, Members of Gujarat Luxury cab owners Association, Indian Association of Tour operator, and Association of Domestic Tour Operator of India.

• Domestic and International air ticket bookings

• Gujarat hotel booking services

• Car rental services

• Inbound Gujarat tour services

7. Navbharat Tours and Travels (4.8rating)

The success of any tourism related organization depends on customer satisfaction. Navbharat Tours motto has been ‘Service before Self’. There tours are private and highly personalized, created for discerning travellers who expect the highest level of luxury, service, and attention to detail from the minute you begin planning your trip, to the day you return home safely. Your tour is flexible, where each day is tailored to your personal interests, schedule, and travel preferences.

• Domestic, Couple, Family and International package tour

• Air and Railway ticketing

• Catering Service

• Luxury Coach and Car on rent

8. Mohit Tours and Travels (4.8 rating)

Mohit Tours and Travels is no less than a brand in the travel industry when it comes to organising international tours. There tour packages come along with all the luxurious comforts and security. They are known to follow world-class standards and superior quality control. With us, you can travel to favourite destinations including Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Dubai, Hongkong, Europe, UK, Switzerland, Mauritius, Egypt, Australia, South Africa, USA, China, Sri Lanka, Maldives etc.

• Car Rental

• Hotel Bookings

• Gujarat Tour Packages

• International Tour Packages

• Honeymoon Tour Packages

9. Heena Tours and Travels (4 rating)

Heena Tours and Travel was started in 1987 at Vile Parle, Mumbai from a rented office of just 75 sq. ft. They have started by operating fixed departure tours to the Bangalore – Mysore – Ooty sector, with a unique feature of an accompany vegetarian, catering team. Today Heena Tours & Travels operates from its own 1000 sq. ft. 5 offices just in Vile Parla out of which one is the Head Office.

• Senior Citizen Tours

• Milkcheese Adlabs Imagica Tour

• Milk and Cheese Tour

• Adventure Tours

• Domestic and International Tours

10. Jain Tours and Travels (4 rating)

Jain Tours and Travels is an institution within itself has unmatched potential and capabilities to thrive for the same with securing a smiling faith in their customers fills the void. It constantly thrives for the better treatment and luxury of our customers and tourists.

• Glorious Gujarat

• Explore India

• International Packages(Dubai Tour and Singapore)

Local taxes and Duties applicable in Tours and Travels industry

GST rate for all goods and services has been notified by the GST Council. GST Council fixed rates for all goods and services in five different slabs namely, 0%, 5%, 12%, 18% and 28%. GST portal was made live on 25th June, 2017 and GST registration has been opened. GST return filing is also set to commence from July partly. GST was now all set to be rolled out from 1st July, 2017.

GST Rate for Travel Agents

As per the Schedule of GST Rates for services approved by the GST Council on 19th May, 2017, supply of tour operator services attracts 5% GST rate with no input tax credit. Also, services provided by a tour operator to a foreign tourist in relation to a tour conducted wholly outside India would continue to be exempt from GST, as it was exempt from service tax.

GST Rate for Transport Services

The following types of transport services attract 5% GST:

• Transport of goods by rail

• Services of goods transport agency (GTA) in relation to transportation of goods [other than used household goods for personal use]

• Services of goods transport agency in relation to transportation of used household goods for personal use.

• Transport of passengers by rail (other than sleeper class)

• Renting of motorcab

• Transport of passengers by air in economy class

• Transport of passengers, byAir-conditioned contract/stage carriage other than motorcab or and radio taxi.

The following types of transport services attract 12% GST rate:

Transport of passengers by air in other than economy class

Benefit given by Gujarat Government to the Tourism Industry

The Gujarat government has announced its new Tourism Policy for 2015-20, under which the sector has been given industry status among various other provisions to motivate entrepreneurs engaged in setting up new infrastructure and services in this sector. This announcement was made by state Tourism Minister Saurabh Patel at a function.

According to him, this decision to give industry status to tourism sector will bring a paradigm shift to this sector.

Let us see some more examples:

• Promoting Gujarat Tourism in the advertisement that “Kuch Din to Gujaro Gujarat Me”.

• Doing Program such as “Vibrant Gujarat”.

• Hosting Kite Festival in Ahmadabad.

• Ran Utsav

• Tarnetar No Medo

• Navratri Festival

• Gir National Park

Sector of country of study

Travel and Tourism Industry Overview

Tourism is one of the world’s fastest developing industries as well as the chief source of foreign exchange earning & employment for many developing countries. It comprises the airline terminal in the suburbs, the restaurant in town, the highway motel, the travel agency down the block, and a host of other businesses that do not even recognize their dependence on tourism, since visitors are indistinguishable from local customers.

The concept of tourism denotes to the broad framework that identifies tourism’s essential characteristics & distinguishes tourism from similar, often related but different phenomena The two terms ‘travel’ & ‘tourism’ can be used in isolation or together to describe three concepts:

• The movement of the people

• A sector of the economy or an industry

• A broad system of interacting relationships of people, their needs to travel outside their communities & services that attempt to respond to these needs by supplying products

The World Tourism Organization (WTO) mentioned these definitions of tourism:

International Tourism: Consists of inbound tourism, visits to a country by non-residents, & outbound tourism, residents of a country visiting another country.

Internal Tourism: Residents of a country visiting their own country

Domestic Tourism: Internal tourism plus inbound tourism (the tourism market of accommodation facilities & attractions within a country)

National Tourism: Internal tourism plus outbound tourism (the resident tourism market for travel agents & airlines.

According to the WTO tourists are people who: “travel to & stay in places outside their common environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business & other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited”.

Globally, tourism is booming. International travel between countries represents the fourth largest export sector in the global economy, with 1.2 billion international travelers spending $1.3 trillion outside their own borders in 2015.

The global tourism economy is valued at over $1 trillion and produces one in every 12 jobs in the world. In 2013, global tourism accounted for over 1 billion international overnight visits, representing a 5% growth from the prior year.


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