I always thought maybe I could become a policewoman, or a firewoman, or even a superwoman because they all have the same goal of protecting people. One peaceful evening at my home, I was watching my favorite show, my two youngest siblings were playing with each other, and my two younger older siblings were fighting about something foolish. My dad had just come home from work and my mom was irritated because we didn’t clean the house as she instructed. Out of nowhere, I heard my mom questioning my dad about something that involved with money. I turned around to make sure if everything was okay, and I saw something I have not seen my mom do in a long time; she spoke to my dad with an attitude in such an aggressive tone! I found out that they were arguing about how my dad doesn’t contribute as necessary to pay for the bills and that my mom had to pay more out of her hard-earned check to provide for them. This is where I stepped in. As the 16 year-old Fatima stood up, she told both her parents to calm down and be rational about the situation they’ve created. They wouldn’t listen to me’especially knowing that I’m their little girl, they didn’t care for what I had to say but I stood my ground and told them that this isn’t right, these constant fights affect their children and they needed to be stopped. I got so frustrated, cried a lot and explained to them in my perspective of what I thought about their opinions and finally concluded to an understanding. An understanding in which I developed and solve their vacuous problem to be more kind to each other and realize that money isn’t a problem when they’re working together for their loving family. I realized that helping my family was like helping people and helping people is what makes me happy. Suddenly, a thought occurred to me and I knew what I want to do for my Capstone project.
Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean and healthy by brushing, flossing, and using other necessities in order to prevent tooth decay and gum disease. According to society, people possess poor oral hygiene practice because they don’t know how to clean their teeth properly, making them at risk of oral diseases and cavities. They need to learn how to clean their teeth in order to have healthy mouths and lifestyles. Because of this, I love helping people and that’s when it hit me to choose the career I want to pursue in, which is to become children Dentist. I volunteer at my Dentist and I see my Doctor making people happy by advising them to keep their teeth clean in order to smile and that’s the most important part in helping someone, to maintain their smile. I want to create a commercial that signifies the important essence of cleaning teeth the correct way by using the necessary oral hygiene tools in a friendly and easy way. The commercial will serve a number of purposes: fixing people’s teeth cleaning habits, learning about periodontal diseases, improving my volunteer work to help me get better at what I want to do, and giving me an insight of my life in my future career.
I researched multitude information in regard to the procedures of teeth cleaning, tooth whitening, and the synopsis of nutrition needed for the mouth. I started on my research by researching articles about dental hygiene and its origin and background then leading to health and disease. According to the article, ‘A Concept Analysis of Oral Hygiene Care in Dependent Older Adults,” older patients have disadvantages since they possess poor oral health like the functional and cognitive abilities; they are at a high risk for dental caries because foods contain sugar and refined carbohydrates that remain in teeth for a long period of time (2361). According to the article, ‘Bacterial Community Development In Experimental Gingivitis,’ subjects were experimented to see if gingivitis would be produced if no tooth cleaning occurred for 2 weeks and the results show that after 2 weeks, they were bleeding excessively because of the lack of oral hygiene (2). Regarding oral health, in the article, ‘Health Literacy: A Pathway to Better Oral Health,’ it says patients that have low health literacy will most likely have a high rate of oral diseases and problems unlike patients that have high health literacy will have better care and with oral health behaviors (Guo et al., e88). People need to be equipped with a toothbrush, fluoride toothpaste, mouthwash, and floss; they need to use the tools they have and correctly utilize them in order to have a healthy oral hygiene. In order to maintain healthy oral hygiene, people should be more aware of periodontal diseases.
Oral hygiene has many problematic factors that occur if not treated right starting and ending with causes and effects. The main problem that occurs with The article, ‘The Effect Of Light-Activation Sources On Tooth Bleaching,” was written by Baroudi, Kusai, and Nadia Aly Hassan. Dr. Kusai Baroudi and Nadia Aly Hassan is in the Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing. The purpose of this article is to inform the reader of the effect of light-activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching a.k.a. tooth whitening. There are so many causes due to tooth discoloration and they have been classified as extrinsic (tea, coffee, tobacco, etc.) and intrinsic (medications after permanent teeth eruption, during development, childhood diseases, etc.) (363). The in-office bleaching treatment did not show any improvement with the light-activation sources on achieving the process of bleaching; therefore, concluding that the results of tooth bleaching is both harmful and inefficient for the mouth.
James Kistler studied Microbiology Unit at King’s College London Dental Institute, London, United Kingdom and explained the dangers of one of the most common problematic mouth diseases, gingivitis. He wrote the article, ‘Bacterial Community Development In Experimental Gingivitis,’ and gave many crucial information about the topic. The purpose of this article is to apprehend the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis based on microscopy and cultural methods. According to the article, the literal definition of gingivitis is a reversible form of periodontal disease characterized by inflammation of the gingivae in response to a mature dental plaque biofilm (1). Subjects were experimented to see if gingivitis would be produced if no tooth cleaning occurred for 2 weeks and the results show that after 2 weeks, they were bleeding excessively because of the lack of oral hygiene (2). There is countless of oral bacteria that can cause gingivitis such as the Filifactor alocis and Treponema medium, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola, and the most common Leptotrichia and Selenomonas (2). Overall, the extensive research shows bacterial in health-associated plaque and longitudinal shifts in bacterial community as plaque assemble and gingivitis develops. The outcome of this serious disease is that it damages the teeth and results to tooth decay and bad breath, in which can be deadly for the mouth and the body.
Shervan Shoaee DMD, Anoosheh Ghasemian DDS, Amir Kasaeian MSc PhD Candidate, and Farshad Farzad elaborated the death rate of dental diseases occurred in Iran. They wrote the article, ‘National and Sub-national Burden of Oral Diseases in Iran: 1990 ‘ 2013, Study Protocol,’ to entail information about the reoccurring deaths. According to the article, in adulthood and older ages, tooth loss, because of pain and discomfort, represents the impact of dental diseases which is leading to reduced quality of life (159). Estimating the trends of prevalence and burden of oral diseases from 1990 to 2013 at national and sub-national levels in Iran, is a sub-component of National and Sub-national Burden of Diseases, injuries and risk factors (NASBOD) study from 1990 to 2013 (160). Dental caries, periodontal diseases and edentulism remained highly prevalent, and all ranked among the top 100 causes of DALYs (164). In conclusion, the present study is the first comprehensive systematic study assessing the prevalence and burden of oral diseases for the Iranian population at national and sub-national levels (166). The main point of this article is to determine the countless death rates of oral diseases that occurred in Iran from 1990 to 2013.
Coker is a Clinical Nurse Specialist of Hamilton Health Sciences. A group of people wrote this article, “A Concept Analysis of Oral Hygiene Care in Dependent Older Adults,” in order to inform the reader of providing care for older patients and oral health while preventing periodontitis and other bacterial mouth diseases but I found information that negates this topic for many reasons. Older patients have disadvantages since they possess poor oral health like the functional and cognitive abilities; they are at a high risk for dental caries because foods contain sugar and refined carbohydrates that remain in teeth for a long period of time (2361). The consequences of oral hygiene care that events or incidents can occur as a result of oral hygiene were clustered into the following themes: (a) prevention of microbial infections; (b) prevention of periodontal diseases; (c) prevention of dental caries; (d) prevention of oral discomfort; (e) prevention of oral candidiasis; (f) enhanced cough reflex; (g) enhanced psychosocial wellbeing; and (h) enhanced functional well-being (2366). Overall, hospitals and other facilities provide care for older patients with a better oral hygiene by taking care of teeth and preventing mouth diseases.
Eduardo Gomes Ferraz, Luciana Rodrigues Silva, Viviane Almeida Sarment??, Elis??ngela de Jesus Campos, Thais Feitosa Leitao de Oliveira, Juliana Cunha Magalhaes, Gardenia Matos Paraguassu and Ney Boa-Sorte all cooperated in the article, ‘Association between childhood obesity and oral hygiene status,’ to write about obesity and oral hygiene due to childhood and adulthood. Studies have reported an association between gingivitis and periodontitis in obese adults. As the main etiological factor for both diseases is represented by the accumulation of dental plaque, gingivitis is often observed in pediatric patients, whereas the diagnosis of periodontitis is less frequent in this group (254). The OHI is the combination of two components, the dental plaque index and the dental calculus index, which are estimated by 12 numerical determinations found in the labial and lingual/palatal surfaces of the teeth. The presence of dental plaque or dental calculus is examined in each sextant, using the tooth with the highest value for the calculation of the OHI (sum of value of both dental plaque index and dental calculus index) (255). The diseases that most commonly affect the stomatognathic system, such as dental caries and periodontal disease, are caused by specific microorganisms found in dental biofilm (256). According to the authors, the main factor responsible for gingivitis is dental plaque accumulation. Gingivitis observed in young patients with obesity is probably due to a combination of metabolic disorders and inflammatory profiles, as a result of lack of care with oral hygiene procedures and information about diet (257). In conclusion, there are many factors that cause obesity but one issue to this matter is the affect of oral hygiene.
Hye jin Kim, Ara Shin, and Jong Hwa Yum from the Department of Biomedical Health Science, Dong-Eui University Graduate School. They all wrote an article, ‘The Influence of Oral Health Status and Causes of Dental Caries on the OHQoL of University Students,’ that articulates the oral health status of males and females. According to the article, the plaque index in university students was reported to be higher in males compared to females, and the oral health status of male students was worse, which is consistent with the results of this study. As to the causes of caries depending on sex, the intake of sugar-containing food was higher in females (1.84) than males (1.50) (p<.05) (45). Regarding oral health-related quality of life, females demonstrated a tendency toward higher psychological anxiety, with females scoring 1.89, and males scoring 1.67 (p < .05). This may probably be explained by the fact that many students consume sweet foods as a method of decreasing stress related to employment and specialization-related study courses (45). In addition, when experiencing high levels of stress, students most often choose to consume spicy and sweet food, and female students prefer sweet food. Such results are consistent with the fact that, even without stress factors, the consumption level of sweet foods is higher for female students (45). In conclusion, the study investigates the influence of oral health status and causes of dental caries on the oral health-related quality of life of university students (45). This study implies that females have a higher chance of poor oral hygiene than males. Life without dental caries and periodontal diseases would be one of the most incredible things. People possess poor oral hygiene practice because they don't know how to clean their teeth properly, making them at risk of oral diseases and cavities. People need to learn how to clean their teeth in order to have healthy mouths and lifestyles. A great example of preventing periodontal diseases would be the miswak because it contains great nutrients for the teeth to replenish and place vitamins inside the gums. Miswak would be a great cleaning tool to promote the healthiest toothbrush commonly known. My question is: How can the society maintain the best dental health and hygiene in order to prevent periodontal diseases? For my Capstone project, I researched 10 articles and a book about oral diseases, procedures of teeth cleaning, tooth whitening, miswak, and a synopsis of nutrition needed for the mouth. I searched an article describing the oral hygiene for adults. The steps in having a great outcome for older patients is showing care for the patients, inspecting oral cavity, removing dental and denture plaque, cleansing the oral tissues, decontaminating the oral cavity, applying fluoride products and maintaining oral tissue moisture (2363-2364). The article, "A Concept Analysis of Oral Hygiene Care in Dependent Older Adults," was written by Coker, Ploeg, Kaasalainen, and Fisher. Coker is a Clinical Nurse Specialist of Hamilton Health Sciences. The purpose of this article is to inform the reader of providing care for older patients and oral health while preventing periodontitis and other bacterial mouth diseases. Effective oral health programmers for older patients need three pillars: oral health assessment, dental treatment and daily oral hygiene (2361). Older patients have disadvantages since they possess poor oral health like the functional and cognitive abilities; they are at a high risk for dental caries because foods contain sugar and refined carbohydrates that remain in teeth for a long period of time (2361). Overall, hospitals and other facilities provide care for older patients with a better oral hygiene by taking care of teeth and preventing mouth diseases. I researched an article about the general oral hygiene an individual requires in order to lead a healthy lifestyle. The article, 'Health Literacy: A Pathway to Better Oral Health,' was written by Yi Guo. Guo has a PhD from Ohio State University and is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Outcomes and Policy in the College of Medicine at University of Florida. The purpose of this article is to state statistics of surveys given about oral health of health literacy in patients. Oral health is recognized as one of the top 5 health priorities in the Rural Healthy People 2010 (Guo et al., e85). An effective patient has the benefit of dentist communication that increases utilization of dental service by reducing dental anxiety and increasing patient point of views of provider competence (Guo et al., e85). It is suggested patients that have low health literacy will most likely have a high rate of oral diseases and problems unlike patients that have high health literacy will have better care and with oral health behaviors (Guo et al., e88). Overall, even though the effects of gender, race, financial status, and access to dental care are discussed, it is crucial to consider the health literacy of oral health dentist communication. I started on my research by researching articles about dental hygiene and its origin and background about health and disease. In the first article I chose to be part of my research, 'Dental Caries: Strategies to Control this Preventable Disease,' was written by Andrew Rugg-Gunn, the Co-Director of the Human Nutrition Research Centre, Newcastle University and is an assistant scientific editor of the BDJ. He organizes the article by giving strategies to help prevent diseases from occurring in the mouth. Dental decay is another word for saying Dental 'caries' meaning rottenness or the rotting of teeth; dental decay is considered one of the most common chronic disease and is important socially, economically, and medically (117). Statistics shows that 'The Stephan curve' proves that enamel dissolves when the pH falls below about 5.5 and shows that the pH within dental plaque falls quickly after exposure to sugar from a value of about 7 to below 5.5 which takes about 40 minutes to go back to its original resting value (122). Overall, Dental caries/decay is chronic and can be prevented by taking care of teeth. I researched an article about a tooth-cleaning tool, the Miswak. The article, "Biological Effects Of Miswak (Salvadora Persica)," was written by Yaghma Masood, Masood, Abu Hassan, and MA Al-bayaty. They are all from the Departments of Oral Pathology, Community Dentistry, and Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. The purpose of this article is to inform the reader about Miswak a.k.a. Salvadora Persica and how it is the most natural oral hygiene tool used by millions of people in multitude parts of the world. Miswak or 'sewak' is a subtropical shrub from the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, and India and means 'tooth-cleaning stick or sticks for rubbing the teeth' in Arabic (161). The Miswak (Salvadora Persica) has the potential antifungal effect on different fungal species and screened some chemicals so that the Miswak stems activity are against some Candida species (163). Overall, the Miswak is a useful and common natural and healthy source of maintain oral hygiene and preventing periodontal diseases and tooth decay. I researched an article regarding a review about the Salvadora Persica Miswak tree branch toothbrush. The article, "A Review On Phytochemical And Pharmacological Investigations Of Miswak (Salvadora Persica Linn)," was written by Jamal Akhtar, Siddique, Bi, and Mujeeb. All of these authors are from Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Bioactive Natural Product Lab, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India. The purpose of this article is to inform the reader on a review about phytochemical and pharmacological investigations on the Miswak and its great benefits. The Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceac) tree comes from its Persian name, Drakht-e-miswak also called tooth brush tree (113). The major components from the essential oil of the toothbrush tree Miswak stem were identified as eucalyptol, caryophellene, etc. (114). Studies show that the data collected from investigating and comparing the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush and toothpaste to show the risk of dental caries for each tooth in the control group was 9.35 times more than the case group (115). Using Miswak is as effective as a toothbrush for decreasing plaque on buccal teeth surfaces both clinically and experimentally (115). Overall, the reductions of microbial count in different groups and improve oral health and a perfect example of the best use of toothbrush is a Miswak. Dental caries/cavities and periodontal diseases need to be prevented in this world. If there weren't any oral problems, people would be having healthy, white teeth instead of suffering from diseases and pain. People need to be equipped with either a toothbrush or a Miswak and any type of fluoride toothpaste; they need to use the tools they have and correctly utilize them in order to have a healthy oral hygiene. My question is: How can the society maintain the best dental health and hygiene in order to prevent periodontal diseases? Works Cited Akhtar, Jamal, et al. "A Review On Phytochemical And Pharmacological Investigations Of Miswak (Salvadora Persica Linn)." Journal Of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences 3.1 (2011): 113-117. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Oct. 2014. Baroudi, Kusai, and Nadia Aly Hassan. "The Effect Of Light-Activation Sources On Tooth Bleaching." Nigerian Medical Journal 55.5 (2014): 363-368. Academic Search Complete. Web. 7 Oct. 2014. Coker, Esther, et al. "A Concept Analysis Of Oral Hygiene Care In Dependent Older Adults." Journal Of Advanced Nursing 69.10 (2013): 2360-2371. Academic Search Complete. Web. 8 Mar. 2015. Daly, Christopher G. "Prescribing Good Oral Hygiene For Adults." Australian Prescriber 32.3 (2009): 72-75. Academic Search Complete. Web. 3 Nov. 2014. Gomes Ferraz, Eduardo, et al. "Association Between Childhood Obesity And Oral Hygiene Status." Nutricion Hospitalaria 30.2 (2014): 253-259. Academic Search Complete. Web. 8 Mar. 2015. Hye jin, Kim, Shin Ara, and Yum Jong Hwa. "The Influence Of Oral Health Status And Causes Of Dental Caries On The Ohqol Of University Students." International Journal Of Bio Science & Bio-Technology 6.3 (2014): 41-47.Academic Search Complete. Web. 8 Mar. 2015. Kistler, James O., et al. "Bacterial Community Development In Experimental Gingivitis." Plos ONE 8.8 (2013): 1-13. Academic Search Complete. Web. 9 Sept. 2014. Masood, Yaghma, et al. "Biological Effects Of Miswak (Salvadora Persica)." Current Topics In Nutraceutical Research 8.4 (2010): 161-167. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Oct. 2014. Rugg-Gunn, Andrew. "Dental Caries: Strategies To Control This Preventable Disease." Act Medica Academica 42.2 (2013): 117-130. Academic Search Complete. Web. 3 Nov.2014. Shoaee, Shervan, et al. "National And Sub-National Burden Of Oral Diseases In Iran: 1990 2013, Study Protocol." Archives Of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 17.3 (2014): 159 168. Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 Feb. 2015. Yi, Guo, et al. "Health Literacy: A Pathway To Better Oral Health." American Journal Of Public Health 104.7 (2014): e85-e91. Academic Search Complete. Web. 9 Sept. 2014.
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