Essay: POSTERIOR CROSSBITE PREVALENCE ON BASIS OF GENDER

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  • POSTERIOR CROSSBITE PREVALENCE ON BASIS OF GENDER
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ABSTRACT
The aim of article was to evaluate the prevalence of posterior cross bite on the basis of gender. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 100 patients i.e 50 male patients and 50 female patients in Orthodontics Department, Fatima Memorial Hospital College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore under University of Health Sciences. Clinical examination of 100 patients and analysis of their diagnostic casts was performed. SPSS (21.0) was used for data analysis. 32% of the patients had posterior cross bite. Out of the 32% posterior cross bite patients 34.4 % were male patients while 65.6% were female patients. This showed that prevalence of posterior cross bite is more in females than males.
Key Words: prevalence, posterior cross bite, gender, diagnostic casts, clinical examination,
cast analysis
INTRODUCTION
Posterior cross bite is defined as any abnormal buccal-lingual relation between opposing posterior teeth in centric occlusion [4]. Success of orthodontic treatment depends on knowledge of etiology of malocclusion since a prerequisite of treatment is the elimination of the causes. The etiology of posterior crossbite can include any combination of skeletal, dental and neuromuscular functional components[1] and may also include, crowding, prolonged retention or premature loss of deciduous teeth, genetic control, palatal cleft, arch deficiencies, abnormalities in tooth anatomy or eruption sequence, oral digit habits, oral respiration during critical growth periods, nutritive sucking habits, malfunctioning temporomandibular joints, hypertrophy of adenoids and tonsils [1, 2, 3, 6, 7]. Posterior crossbite is one of the most prevalent malocclusion in the primary and early mixed dentition and is reported to occur in 7.7% to 22% of the cases [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].
Primary occlusion status affects development of the permanent occlusion. Thus, a posterior crossbite is believed to be transferred from primary to permanent dentition, and the posterior crossbite can have long term effects on growth and development of teeth and jaws [1, 2, 3]. In most cases crossbite is accompanied by a mandibular shift, which causes midline deviation [1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10]. This may cause strain of orofacial structures, causing adverse effects on temporomandibular joints and the masticatory system [2]. Accurate information on prevalence of crossbite may be needed when planning of orthodontic services. Considering the significance of crossbite in orthodontic treatment planning, accurately determining crossbite status is important.
METHODOLOGY
The study was done with 100 patients in Orthodontics Department, Fatima Memorial Hospital College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore under University of Health Sciences. Among 100 patients 50 were male patients and 50 were female patients. The 100 patients were clinically examined. Diagnostic impression of 100 patients was done and transformed to diagnostic cast. Cast analysis of diagnostic casts of these 100 patients was done. The study was done with intact and acceptable quality casts. Cases having previous orthodontic treatment, cleft lip/ palate, anterior crossbite/ Angle class III or other craniofacial syndromes [2, 3] and cases having peg shaped lateral incisors or supernumerary teeth were excluded from the study [11]. Posterior crossbite was defined as a minimum of two teeth in unilateral or bilateral posterior lingual crossbite[3]. Cast analysis of 100 sets of casts in which 50 casts were of males and 50 casts were of females was done to evaluate the prevalence of posterior crossbite on the basis of gender according to the above mentioned definition. For intra-examiner reliability, 50 sets of casts were randomly selected from the main sample and were reassessed 25 days after the initial assessment. SPSS (21.0) was used to analyze the data statistically.
RESULTS
The study includes patients with chronological age range from 5-23 years. Gender distribution of the sample is shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Gender distribution of the sample
Gender Frequency Percentage
Male 50 50
Female 50 50
Total 100 100
Distribution of the sample according to their chronological age, along with further division into male and female groups is shown in Table 2.
Table 2: Age distribution of the subjects
Age in groups Gender
Total
Male Female
5 3 2 5
6 3 3 6
7 3 2 5
8 2 1 3
9 6 3 9
10 4 3 7
11 2 4 6
12 3 4 7
13 3 3 6
14 3 5 8
15 3 2 5
16 6 3 9
17 2 4 6
18 3 3 6
19 1 1
20 1 2 3
21 2 3 5
22 2 2
23 1 1
Total 50 50 100
It is clear from Table 3 that 32% of the patients had posterior crossbite. Table 3 also shows that out of 50 male patients 11 patients (34.4% of 32%) had posterior crossbite, and out of 50 female patients 21 patients (65.6% of 32%) showed posterior crossbite. This showed that posterior cross bite is more prevalent in females.
Table 3: Prevalence of posterior cross-bite
Gender
Total
Absence of posterior cross bite
Presence of posterior cross bite
Male 50 39 11
Female 50 29 21
Total 100 68 32
DISCUSSION
Keeping in view the impact of transverse dimensions on orthodontic treatment planning, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of posterior crossbite on basis of gender in a sample of orthodontic patients. The study was conducted at Orthodontics Department, Fatima Memorial Hospital College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore under University of Health Sciences. The percentage of female patients was 50% and percentage of male patients was 50% in a sample. This is similar to the trend found by other studies done elsewhere [12]. It is clear from Table 3 that 32% patients had posterior crossbite. Of these 32% patients, 11 (34.4%) were male patients and 21 (65.6%) were female patients. This showed greater prevalence of posterior crossbite in female patients. Keeping in view the small sample size of study, its findings may serve as a reference for planning orthodontic services.
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