Crystal Martin, author of The Effects of Nurse Staffing on Quality of Care, explains that not having enough staff members correlates to an increase in a nurses workload and job dissatisfaction which then leads to a decrease in patient care (2015, p. 4). Martin continues to develop the argument that the ethical principle nonmaleficence is being jeopardized. Nonmaleficence is a nurse’s duty to not cause harm to patients. Whenever a nurses nonmaleficence is called into question or is compromised then so is a patient’s safety and care.
The argument is also made that whenever a patient’s quality of care is decreased so is their overall outcome and it is “directly related to low nurse staffing” (2015). The main one illness that are associated with poor patient outcomes include pneumonia, shock, cardiac arrest, and urinary tract infection and it is said that hospitals with higher RN staffing do not have as many poor outcome and their quality of care along with patient satisfaction is higher (2015). If a nurse is overloaded with her responsibilities due to not having enough staff members for support or assistance then the overwhelming feeling of being able to care for all of their patients could set in and mistakes could be made inadvertently or advertently either due to stress or fatigue.
Those mistakes could be as simple as not taking out a patient’s Foley catheter in time. Something like that very well could lead to a urinary tract infection. If a patient contracts an infection while they are in the hospital that they did not have prior to admission that is not enjoyable for the patient and it does not reflect well on the hospital, or the nurses/personnel caring for the patient. Martin agrees that “poor staffing places undue burdens on nursing staff and can put patients in harm’s way” (2015).
Along with patient safety Martin (2015) explains how poor patient outcomes can also cost facilities, such as hospitals, millions in money. Apparently, hospitals have been charger over $ 9 billion a year for poor patient outcomes such as pneumonia and pressure ulcers (2015). If hospitals are continually charged for these poor patient outcomes then they will not have the funds to higher more nurses so the issue of being understaffed will not be corrected and the cycle will not be stopped.
Nursing burnout is a common phrase within the nursing profession. According to Lilia de Souza Nogueira, Reginia Marcia Cardoso de Sousa, Erika de Souza Guedes, Mariana Alvina dos Santos, Ruth Natalia Teresa Turrini, and Dina de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da Cruz, authors of “Burnout and nursing work environment in public health institutions”, burnout is in response to chronic work stress (2018). De Souza Nogueira and et al. explore the factors that lead to burnout in nursing in Brazil. Although the study was done in another country they found that burnout was linked to the work environment (de Souza Nogeira, et al., 2018). It is explained that interventions can increase a better work environment and potentially decrease the presence of burnout. The article suggests. Interventions in America could be more RN’s hired at facilities because de Souza Nogeira and et al., have agreed that “burnout is mainly determined by inadequate organization of work, which can result in work overload, lack of autonomy and lack of support for tasks” (2018). Those outcomes are also caused from understaffed nurses.
A study was done in regards to midwives in Uganda. Again, although the study focuses on a sample from a different country it is still relatable to the United States. Ultimately the article “Professional Quality of Life and Associated Factors Among Ugandan Midwives Working in Mubende and Mityana Rural Districts” written by Rhoda Suubi Muliira and Vito Bosco Ssendikadiwa agrees that factors similar to a shortage of nurses leads to burnout and a decline in a quality of life for nurses (2015). The relationship between job satisfaction and burnout are highly related and are associated with “frustration, powerlessness, inability to meet work goals and less engagement in work” (Muliira, Ssendikadiwa, 2015). These feelings and issues can also be associated with understaffing of nurses.
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