Nigeria, officially, The Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic consisting of 36 states and its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The nation is located on the coast of West Africa, bordered by the Bight of Benin and the Gulf of Guinea in south and it is bordered by Benin, Cameroon, Chad, and Niger, it shares maritime borders with Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, and São Tomé and Príncipe.
It is practically comparable in size to Venezuela and is about twice the size of California. With Niger State, one thousand four hundred and ninety-seven (1497) kilometers is shared between them, eighty-seven (87) kilometers with, seven hundred and seventy-three (773) kilometers with Benin, one thousand six hundred and ninety (1690) kilometers with Cameroon and a seaside of no less than eight hundred and fifty three kilometers. The existing numerous number of States, of which there were only three at independence, reflect the country’s tumultuous history and the difficulties of managing such a heterogeneous national entity at all levels of government. The states are aggregated into six geopolitical zones: North West, North East, North Central, South-East, South-South, and South West.
The population in Nigeria grew from 1990 to 2008 by 57 million, a 60% growth rate. From reports statistically, it is the most populated African country in the world. The projection set by the United Nations gave an estimation of about one hundred and fifty five million in 2009. The National census results in the past few decades have been uncertain. On December 2006, the census’ outcomes were announced with a total of 140,003,542 population. The main analysis accessible was by sexual orientation: the male gender numbered 71,709,859, and female gender numbered 68,293,08.
From the report documented by the United Nations, Nigeria has witnessed a rise in population rate which reflects a very high rate of growth and fertility in the world. By their projections, Nigeria is one of the eight countries expected to account communally for half of the world’s total population increase from 2005–2050. The United Nations has projected that by 2100, the Nigerian population would be between five hundred and five (505) million and one point zero three (1.03) billion people, middle estimate: seven hundred and thirty (730) million. Whereas, in 1950, the country had only thirty-three (33) million people.
One out of each four African is a Nigerian Citizen. At present, Nigeria is the seventh most populous country in the world. 2006 estimations show that forty-two point three (42.3) percent of the population is between zero to fourteen (0- 14) years of age, while fifty-four point six (54.6) percent is between fifteen to sixty-five (15–65) years old, the birth rate is meaningfully higher than the death rate, at forty point four (40.4) and sixteen point nine (16.9) per one thousa nd (1000) people respectively.
Nigeria is a mixed country with different religious groups which are categorized into three major groups namely Christianity which are more present in the Southern region; Islam, more densely populated in the Northern region of the Country; and Traditional worshipers are sparingly dispersed all around the country. There are over 500 ethnic groups in Nigeria; the three largest are the Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba in which the six geopolitical separates them into the cardinals.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria got independent from the British Colonial Masters on the 1st of October, 1960. The federal government became a sovereign State with no external influence on areas that has to do with its territorial defense, international relations, commercial and economic policy. Due to the parliamentray system operated, the Queen of England was the Head of Government while the president of Nigeria assumed the position of head of state. Its legislative arm was a bicameral system with two chambers namely the House of Senate and Chamber of Representatives. The executive arm of government had a Prime Minister and its cabinet which are selected from the party with majority members at the floor of the house by convention. The Federal Supreme Court which was the high court of law was the main Judicial authority. The political parteies united the country with more of national interest.
The contemporary history of Nigeria-as a sovereign state incorporating ethnic groups ranging from 250 to 400 in number with diverse societies, ways and means of political connections. This can be dated back to the end of the British invasion in 1903 and the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern Nigeria into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria in 1914.
The British Colonial representatives inoculated a structure of government at the time of independence in 1960. In 1963, a federal system of government was introduced to create tiers of power constitutionally and structure a-two-level of government that are independent and dichotomous in their own areas of influence. Federalism that undermines the sovereignty of its component will cause conflict, a peril to national peace and unity, and critical breakup. In addition, it is important to note here that Nigerian nation is fragmented in the sense that it reflects the high impact of the three predominant ethnic groups, Igbo (East), Yoruba (West), and Hausa (North).
The most intense experience, was the crude oil discovery and its exploitation which has a long haul impact on the economic growth of the country, The expedition for crude oil, started in 1908 and bring forth a signifcant discovery a couple of years later. It was brought back by Shell and British Petroleum in 1937. The crude oil extraction got to an optimal point in 1946; however, the first business disclosure was unknown until 1956, at a place known as Olobiri which is located in the Niger Delta region. Export started fuly in 1958 which was refined in the factory at Port Harcourt. Funds acquired from proceed on Oil was still insignificant. However, the projections for continuous monetary development seemed optimistic and additional complemented the political competitions on the day before independence.
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