Essay: Assess factors influencing adoption and use of ICT in Kenyan University Libraries

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  • Assess factors influencing adoption and use of ICT in Kenyan University Libraries
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Information Communication Technology (ICT) is the process of accessing or getting, storing, transferring, processing and transferring ideas and information through computers and other communication facilities (Fabunmi, 2012). Wikipedia defines ICT as the hardware and software of electronic devices such as computers, radio, television, digital camera, telephone, computers networks to improve communication. ICT has played a critical task in the development of any nation; it has been a tool for achieving social, economic, educational, scientific and technological development (Adedeji, 2010).
The development of science and technology has made incredible improvement in the lifestyle of the society today. It has Influence almost all walks of life, especially, the magnetic words; Information Technology has been chanted in all corner of the world and has been incorporated in organization, managerial, development and marketing sectors. These are services offered with the aid of Information Communication Technology (ICT) which are faster and more effective. Libraries have not been exempted from the impact of the ICTs. The implementations of ICT in the library and Information Centers have made great improvement in the management of these centers. These have made libraries users friendly and have improved the efficiency of the library professionals (Kumar, 2011).
According to Khan et al, (2012) Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have impacted greatly on many fields including teaching, learning, research, and school management in a many ways. In libraries ICT has made information faster from acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval. Also it has improved the service delivery of library and information services reducing time, distance and other barriers. However, it is extensively settled that ICT adoption in libraries is not a solution for all library problems as initially assumed. Regardless of their remarkable potential, ICTs have also brought different challenges that must be dealt with to boost the efficiency of libraries in unindustrialized countries.
Avemari, (2011) describes library automation as computer use and general/ customized software designed for library and information services procedures that are used to perform specific information services deliver. Globally automation in libraries first began in the 1960s. According to Muhammad (2014) Libraries automation began in the 1970s, where libraries began adopting software applications and Machine Readable Cataloguing (MARC). In 1980s, network technologies, optical discs, CD-ROMs and communications technologies were introduced. The major goal of the early technology applications was used in automation circulation, acquisitions and the catalogue to make library operation and services efficient and effective. The 1990s witnessed radical changes in the application ICTs in libraries such as the Internet, World Wide Web protocols. The 2000s is an era of digital libraries, virtual collections, paperless environment and 24/7 instant remote access to unlimited resources.
In Africa it began in 1950s, however, there were several challenges which were making it harder for academic libraries to adopt it, thus depriving them of the several touted benefits a library stands to gain from automating its services. In Kenya, most libraries, especially universities, schools, private organizations and little-funded institutions, were using Computerised Documentation System/Integrated Set of Information System (CDS/IS) library software. CDS/ISIS was used mainly for maintaining databases. For instance, the University of Nairobi maintains a list of research theses in Kenyan institutions of higher learning and a list of publications held in libraries in Kenya using Computerised Documentation System/Integrated Set of Information System(CDS/IS)(Mutula, 2012).
Kamba (2011) also noted that Information Communication and Technologies are not well spread and utilized in African higher learning institutions, mainly due to poor communication network, inadequate ICT hardware and software and government’s ineptitude to provide adequate funds to run the libraries. Inadequacy of skilled staff, lack of theoretical knowledge, lack of computer culture, lack of knowledge on the importance of ICT, lack of funds were among other factors have been cited by several authors.
1. 2 Statement of Problem
ICTs have become an important subject for all information providers. This is because of its relevance and application to tasks in the library such as quick and easier access of information and performing of library tasks with greater efficiency. Despite these benefits of ICT use many libraries are still not automated. Most of the problems faced by these libraries include; lack of sufficient funds to support the purchase of the technology, lack of qualified library professionals, lack of motivation and poor remuneration need among librarians to adopt ICT in their daily operations, lack of awareness of ICT potential users and poor attitude of library staff on automation. Other problems such as government policies, maintenance and security issues also consist of challenges faced by the libraries in the adoption of and implementation of ICT.
Libraries need adequate finances to obtain current ICT facilities such as scanners, photocopiers, computers, servers, software and paying of online and offline services such as e- journals and digital libraries which are very expensive to be purchased, and this has made many libraries lag behind because of insufficient funds. Lack of qualified professional has been a great hindrance to adoption since most of the staff do not have adequate skills to handle computers and other information technologies.
Staff motivation, poor remuneration and attitude have also been considered as factors affecting adoption in libraries. This has contributed to migration of skilled labor in search of better job opportunities abroad thus affecting the adoption of ICTs. Staff attitude has also been considered as problem since most staff feel that automation of libraries will take away their jobs. Lack of sufficient information on the potential user has also been a problem that hinders adoption, since most users had bad perception on ICT. University libraries need to sensitize their students and library staff that ICTs are very important part of library and library systems. They make it possible for information to be easily accessible, available with minimal effort. Given that libraries are the physical foundation of knowledge. It is therefore critical that they are equipped and every opportunity to make them efficient explored. However various factors impede the progress for the adoption of ICTs in universities. Therefore the study will assess the factors that influence the adoption and use of ICT in the university libraries in Kenya.
1.3 General Objective of the Study
This aim of the study is to assess the factors influencing adoption and use of Information Communication Technology in the Kenyan University Libraries.
1.3.1 Specific Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the studies were:
i. To determine whether students and staff perception and attitudes towards ICT has influence adoption and use of ICT in at the University of Eldoret library.
ii. To analyze effects of perceived benefits of ICT in the adoption and use ICTs at University of Eldoret library.
iii. To establish how the availability of ICT technologies has influenced the adoption and use of ICTs in University of Eldoret library.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
i. Ho1: The students and staff perception and attitude towards ICT has no significant influence on the adoption and use of ICT at the University of Eldoret library.
ii. Ho2: Perceived benefits of ICT have no significant effect on the adoption and use ICTs at the University of Eldoret library.
iii. Ho3: The availability of ICT technologies has no significant influence on the adoption and use of ICT at the University of Eldoret library.
1.5 Assumption of the Study
The study assumes the respondent selected to participate in the study were honest and truthful and they represent the population of the study.
1.5 Significance of the Study
i. The study findings were beneficial to the library staff and users of the University of Eldoret to acknowledge the benefits of ICT usage in the library.
ii. The study findings will be of useful to the entire university as it will provide sufficient information on ICT and it will make them have positive attitude towards ICT use in the library.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study was carried at the University of Eldoret Library. The research concentrated on factors influencing the adoption and use of ICT in the university library.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The limitations of the study were the area of study; the study was carried out at University of Eldoret Library. Secondly, the researcher had no control over the sincerity of the respondents in giving accurate and reliable responses. This also depended on individual capacity to read and understand the English language in a way that conveyed the same meaning to every respondent.
1.9 Conceptual Frame Work of the Study
The conceptual framework is used to show the association linking the dependent and independent variables. CT adoption is the dependent variable in the study. The dependent variable provides the solution to the problem i.e. what contributes the University to adopt ICT in their Libraries? In this situation, the study has tested three independent variables i.e. perceived benefit of ICT, user and staff perception and attitude towards ICT, and availability of Technology. These factors are believed to have some influences towards the dependent variable (ICT adoption) either in positive or negative way.
Figure 1 Conceptual Framework
1.9.1 Perceived benefits of ICT
One of the factors that might affect ICT adoption in the firms is the benefits. Peyala (2011) asserts that computerization of acquisition unit enhances funds control, quick and easy checking of approved books, devoid of duplication is managed. There are several benefits that have been made accessible through ICT adoption and there are still several organizations that are not taking advantage of ICT. Therefore, perceived benefits are taken into consideration as one of the factors that affect ICT adoption in Libraries.
1.9.2 Students and staff perception and attitude on ICTs
Attitudes of librarian are crucial in the adoption and use of ICTs in the libraries because they librarians affect the adoption if they are not checked properly. The acceptance of the ICTs by library professional is a crucial factor in the realization of the mission of the university library. For successful utilization of technologies in university libraries librarian should change their attitude toward these ICT tool.
1.9.3 Availability of ICT Technology
The availability and utilization of ICT facilities is essentially to fast track the processes about and to ensure that information resources spend the least period of time in library. Use of ICT technologies in the libraries provides most effective and efficient retrieval option to the library clientele. In computer system and network, availability has been described as the amount of time facility is available in the wake of components over a specified period of time.
1.9.4 Management Support
Management support refers to the degree to which an individual believes that management has committed to the successful implementation and use of a system. Duan (2012) Believes it ensures the limited resources and technological expertise are allocated for the embracing of new technology. Many university libraries are still lagging behind in terms of technology adoption due to lack of management commitment to support the technology both financially and formulating pertinent policies that provide the essential infrastructure for adoption of ICT.
1.10. Operational Definition of Terms
Adoption: In the study adoption is used to show how libraries are changing functions of the library from manual paperwork to the use of machines.
Attitude: in the study attitude has been used to show how user feels about ICT use in the libraries.
Perceived benefits: In the study benefits has been used to show the how ICT has influenced the service delivery in the library easy.
ICT: In the study ICT has been used as technologies used to generate process, store and disseminate information.
ICT application: it has been used in the study to show ICT based serviced in the Library.
Library Automation: In the study it has been used to define the application of ICT in the day to day operations of the library.
Library Networking has been used in the study to show a group of Libraries and Information Centers that are interconnected for some common pattern or design for information exchange and communication with a view to improve efficiency.
Library Management Library Management includes the following activities which are geared up by the use of these fast ICT based developments, Classification, Cataloging, Indexing, Database creation, Database Indexing.
Digital library: has been used in the study to mean a library in with a significant proportion of the resources that is available in machine-readable and accessible by means of computers.
E-reference services: has been used to show how electronic references services that has been enhanced with the use of ICTs.
Online Searching: has been used to refer to searchable information o on line. Which includes electronic resources and databases can be searched using the Internet through search engines.
Virtual library: has been used in the study to mean access points as well as the graphic records are in electronic/digital form when these electronic/digital libraries are connected via various networks, particularly the internet, this is called virtual library.
2.1 Introduction
This chapter presents a review of the related literature by various researchers, scholars, analysts and authors. The researcher has drawn materials from several sources based on the theme and the objectives of the study.
2.2 Overview of ICTs in Libraries
ICT is often used as an extended synonym for Information Technology (IT), but is a more specific term that comprises of computers as well as necessary software, storage, and audio-visual systems, which have enabled users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. The term and Communications Technology entails the science and skills of computing, information storage, and communications. It is a new, rapidly emergent area that is drastically changing the world by making potential new methods of doing business, entertaining, and crafting art. ICT has plays a crucial role in hastening sustainable development as well as bridging the ever-growing gap in our present-day society. There is, yet, a vital need to channel the immense potentials of ICT in the correct direction for the improvement of the corporation and active human development (Adesoji, 2012).
Currently Information Communication Technology has been the latest buzz word in the information and Technology arena. In fact the formal ways of communicating available information to end users from the various sources are among the major challenges nowadays. These days information can not only be stored, retrieved, disseminated in many forms bit also at higher speeds. Information Technology has open unprecedented opportunity in the form in which information is stored, retrieved, manipulated and exploited. There are three key components of the new technology .These are:
• New ways of storing information cheaply.
• New mechanism of manipulating, scanning and research such records
• New facilitates for cheap and rapid transmission of information over long distances.
With the hasty development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) the traditional concept of libraries has changed to modern academic libraries which has great potential, energetic and can reach their users without the limitations of geographical boundaries. In this era of internet libraries are fast changing to digital mode which can be accessed collectively. (Kamani, 2011). A study by Oyeyini, (2014) shows that ICT has brought tremendous changes in library and information science by changing the traditional concept of libraries from a ‘store house’ of books to an ‘intellectual information Centre. It is of no doubt, that it has open up a new stage in library communication and facilitated global access of information crossing the geographical limitations. Libraries now can use various types of technologies to perform some or all basic library procedural operations such as cataloguing, acquisitions, circulation, and on-line information access.
Similarly ICTs has impacted in libraries by provide access to information resources and services leading to the disappearance of the notion of a library as have been known for years as a physical structure located in a particular geographical setting. It has changed the nature of library services over time as library “collections” comprise not only of physical information materials such as books, periodicals, films, videos, and others, stored in physical library structures, nowadays it include digital resources generated locally and those accessed through the Internet from laptops that are managed by other libraries.( Awour & Kefah, 2013).
2.3 ICTs application in University Libraries
Application of Information Communication Technology is very useful for libraries in creating databases of their own and making them available to users through networks. ICT has also enabled libraries to offer effective and efficient services to the end-users’. Nearly all of the library operations like book acquisition, circulation, office management, the information services, are connected together, and are dependant and are mutually supportive for overall administration of library. Emerging of new technology has library revolutionize new ways of information storage and retrieval in university library field. In this technology era more and more libraries in the world make use of these new technologies for storage, retrieval and distribution of information in more effective way. Libraries have ability to store large amount of information using this new technologies and can transmit this information to anywhere anytime without any geographical barrier (Kamani, 2011)
Now days there are numerous ICT technologies for various library functions, these includes; housekeeping, organization and managerial functions, which utilize different electronic and digital media equipment, networks and internet which has provide significant role in retrieving and dissemination of information thus playing a vital role by upgrading of libraries. According to Saleem (2013) some of these applications are:
i. Library Automation is the concept of changing human involvement in all library services to enable any user to receive preferred information within his comfort and at the lowest cost. Main areas of the automation are classified into organization of all library database and housekeeping operations of library.
ii. Library Networking this involves connecting of libraries and information centers to widespread pattern or design to enable information exchange and communication in the common view of improving efficiency.
iii. Library Management involves the following activities which are certainly geared up by the use of fast Information Communication Technologies developments, library Classification, Cataloging, Indexing, Database creation, Database Indexing.
iv. Digital Library refer to an assembling of digital computing, storage and communication of machinery together with the content and software needed to create, imitate and extend the services provided by conventional libraries
v. E-reference services: These are digital reference which are available for the user. This includes Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI and Current Awareness Service (CAS) are enhanced with use of ICTs.
vi. Online Searching: ICT has promoted on line searching, electronic resources and databases which can be searched using the Internet through search engines. This has provides a great resource for researchers and general information retrieval.
Buarki (2011) in his study on Impact of ICT on library and Library Information System observed that modern library and information system can be grouped into four areas, as follows:
a) Computer Technology.
b) Communication Technology
c) Reprographic Technology
d) Printing Technology
2.3.1 Computer Technology
Computers are now used extensively in the library operations and have great impact in the management of libraries and information centers. Computer technologies have been used in various fields of library activities. Some of these areas where computer application takes place are:
Information Resource Building:
This involves acquisition of books, monographs, audio-visual, electronic equipment such as CD-ROM, maps etc. Acquisition process involved the following functions:
• Checking duplicates in book acquisition in library.
• Books supplier selections.
• Preparing and cancellation of orders
• Checking orders which are long overdue.
• Record of items on order of acquisition
• Records of received and non-received items and receipt to the book supplier
• Verification of items with order files and invoice number.
• Inspection of items ordered by the concerned department.
• Preparation of payment after accessioning.
• Preparation budget and maintaining accounts statistics.
Data Entry
This requires database for each: Books, Clients/Members, Serials, Audio-visuals, CD-ROMS, Floppies, Gifted items, and Maps, Reports etc.
Classification and Cataloguing are:
• Catalogue card production.
• On-line cataloguing
• Duplicating and checking of catalogue cards.
• Producing duplicate catalogue cards.
• Preparing authority file subject.
• Catalogue cards checking and filing.
• Automatic generation of added entries
• Generation of monthly accession list.
Circulation Control:
• Registration of membership.
• An issue, returns, renews documents reservation and production of the slips for proof.
• Recording charges for late, lost book, binding and production of penalty slip.
• Maintaining of circulation statistics
• Inter -library loan.
• Statistics of circulation report
Serial Control:
• Input essential serials data.
• Preparing of new list serials orders.
• Preparing mode of payment,
• Updating and receipting the records.
• Receipting of Book seller or publishers.
• Preparing the list of present holdings, missing, additions, cancellation of serials chronologically, subject-wise, etc.
• Renewing and cancelling of present subscriptions.
• Accessing register of bound serials.
• Preparing budget sand maintaining accounts.
Documentation and allied services:
• Indexing and abstracting of micro and macro documents.
• Catalogue compilation
• Current Awareness Services.(CAS)
• Searching of literature.
• Selective Dissemination of Information.(SDI)
• Clipping of newspaper.
Information Retrieval:
• Creation of database and maintenance, interactive searching, saving of in house.
• Searching and print outs of queries against specified requirement
• Information about the books (issued, reserved, lost, overdue, weed-out), member-ship, inter library loan, penalty charges, periodicals, etc.
• Retrieval of information alphabetically, chronologically, per-subject members, reserved words with each particulars such as accession no-wise, title, author, call number, edition etc.
2.3.2 Communication Technology
Communication is the process of transforming information from the source to the destination. Communication, the exchange of information and the transmission is very essence in a social system or in an organization. Dictionary meaning of communication is news or the act of making oneself understand the means of sending information between one place to another. In modern days, various means of communicating the information came into existence. There is a need to communicate information effectively, efficiently and timely by applying modern technologies such as communication technology. The main areas of communication technology are; Audio-visual technology, Fax, Telex, E-mail, Video text, Tele text, Online search, Tele conference, Voice Mail Box, Satellite Technology, Cellular telephones, Internet, Intranet, Extranet, CD-ROM, and DVD.
2.3.3 Reprographic Technology
Reprography is also known as micrography is a reproduction process. It has made a great impact on document delivery system. Nowdays it is possible to record micro images in a range of microforms such as microfilm, microfiche, ultra fiche and COM (Computer Output Microform). Micro-graphics is a powerful micro-force for records management and information control.
Reprographic technology covers:
a) Photocopying
b) Micro-copying
c) Optical/Digital process
2.3.4 Printing Technology
Printing or Printing Technology has great importance and playing important role in information and communication process. It has various evolutionary changes from making of paper and invention of printing to the modern printing technology of laser printers. Printing Technology covers:
a) Technical Writing
b) Editing
c) Publishing
2.4 Adoption of ICTs in the University Library
ICTs have significantly transformed the world, from the time it was discoverers few years ago. Librarians have adopted a range of technologies to provide different types of services. Mairajand El-Hadi (2012) in a study on ICTs in libraries find out those ICTs has not only changes library everyday operations and services, but have also impact librarians with new and active role in the library. It has also change the way in which information is being handled resulting to speedy and accuracy information access, retrieval, stored and manipulating hence disseminating users in different forms. Computer telecommunication and mass storage technologies are main areas of remarkable improvement that have shaped the manner in which librarians obtain, stored, processes, retrieved and disseminate information to their clienteles. (Ogbodo, 2014).
Similarly ICTs has also played vital role by changing the conventional methods of library functions by giving new ways for teaching, learning and research in institution of higher education. Through the aid of ICTs tools, it has made it possible to store, retrieve, disseminate and arrange information by developing websites and databases. Information can now be published both by electronic means and by printing making it available to users needs. Oyeyini (2014) noted ICT has impacted on every area of library science especially in the form of library database, improvement of strategies, library structure and consortium.
ICTs in libraries has offer access to information resources and services resulting in the fading of the concept of a library being known for decades — as physical building situated in a specific geographic location. ICT has changed the nature of library services over a time. Library “collections” consist not only of material information resources such as books; periodicals, videos, films, etc are mainly stored in physical library buildings. But now includes digital resources created locally and those accessed online and are managed by other libraries or information service providers (Awour & Kefah, 2013).
Oyeyini(2014) pointed out that for any library to reach maximum gain in the 21st century, globalization and implementation of information technology will be a great feature of the libraries. The size of libraries or their collections may not be to the standard but rather made it accessible to the major thrust of the library automation. Additionally, Quadri (2012) noted that nowadays libraries are changing their role from the custodian of traditional information resources to the provider of service oriented digital information resources. Extensive use of computers has increased reliance on computer networks, the quality and quantity of information has improved with the use of the internet , thus making university libraries to embrace modern technology for the storing, retrieving and disseminating information.
With the inception of various Information and Communication Technologies trends , library operation have undergo restructuring, transformation .From the last many years, librarians have remained unchallenged as the sole custodian and gate keepers of information. But with the introduction of ICTs especially the Internet services, librarians has began to lose the impact of being the sole custodian of information. Krubu & Osawaru (2011). Emojorho (2011) also noted that the accelerated adoption and use of information and communication technology (ICT) has resulted in the globalization of information and knowledge resource Islam (2007) .In a consortium, a group of member libraries are linked together via electronic information network and this has tremendously reduces the acquisition costs of information resources and allows users of individual library to have access to numerous information materials that ordinarily one library may not own.
Library Automation is required mainly for the following reasons:
• Obtain increased operational efficiencies;
• Relieved professional staff from clerical responsibilities so that they concentrate on user oriented services;
• Improve the services quality, speeds and effectiveness
• Improved access to remote users and other stakeholders (e.g., the general public);
• Improve access of resources on other networks and systems, including the Web;
• Provide new services
• Facilitate large access to information for their clients;
• Facilitate distribution of information products and services;
• Enable library participation in resource-sharing through networks.
• Enable rapid communication with other libraries (including libraries) and professional peers.
2.5 Students and Staff perception and attitude towards ICTs
Adekunle (2007) defines attitudes as “inclinations and feelings, prejudices or bias, preconceived notions, ideas, fears and convictions about any specific topic .it is chiefly positive attitudes which are assumed to be fundamental in the acceptance, implementation and success of new technologies. Eguavoen, (2011) defined attitudes toward ICT usage as a person’s general evaluation or feeling towards ICT, computer and internet service. An attitude has been used to represent perceptions of library staff on the value attached to Information Technology use in libraries-technical processing, collection, organization and user services. It also represents the value of these technologies in the library staff minds. Implementation of information communication technology (ICT) in the university libraries depends largely on the attitudes of librarians to its usage. The application of ICT in libraries has significantly changed libraries operations; which includes automated cataloguing, circulation, information retrieval, electronic document delivery, and CD-ROM databases etc.
Borrego (2010) in his study analyzed on Librarians’ perceptions on the use of electronic resources at Catalan academic libraries and found that perceptions of the usefulness of bibliographic software management have dramatically increased during the last few years, especially among PhD students. Furthermore he mentioned that librarians have stated that most of the complaints they receive from users were to do with systems breakdowns, inability to access resources off-campus, and discontinued resources. Sachin D. Sakarkar (2013) finds out that the librarians attitude on ICTs depends mainly on trainings which create an ideal atmosphere for ICT orientation of Librarians to change their attitudes favoring ICT amenities. This would certainly minimize the fear of digital divide amongst society and librarian. The ICT adoption and implementation is safe and progressive to the society under the guidance of a well-trained, qualified and positive librarian.
Haneefa (2009) in a study of special libraries assesses in detail the application of ICTs in special libraries. The study provides a state of art application of ICT in automated special libraries of premier research institutions. The study identify the factors that promote or hinder application of ICT ,user’s satisfaction ,ICT skills of library professionals and the facilities for training in ICT in special libraries. It also assesses the attitude of users and librarians towards the application of ICT. Survey results show that majority of the libraries have basic hardware and software facilities. Majority provide training for their library staff in ICT based services. The librarians and users have a highly positive attitude towards ICT application and the main barrier to ICT application is inadequately trained library professionals.
Sagolsem, Purnima Devi & Vikas (2009) report a survey conducted among the library professional staff working in public libraries and NGO libraries of Manipur. The main objectives of the study was to find the status of digital environment in Manipur public libraries, The study revealed that public university libraries lack of trained staff with required ICT knowledge. Though most of them had a favorable attitude towards IT application majority were not satisfied with their opportunities to enhance qualifications. The problems in IT application include lack of qualified professionals, high cost of IT infrastructure and insufficient computer facilities.
Nair (2009) reports a study of the attitude of librarians in Kerala towards the use of information technology in library and information activities in his thesis. The main objective of the study was to find out the nature of attitude of librarians towards information technology (IT). The study was conducted on a representative sample of 284 professionally qualified librarians in different libraries of Kerala. The results of the study showed that majority of librarians showed favorable attitude towards information technology. They were prepared to accept modern technology in library activities. Librarians considered IT not as a means to reduce their workload but as a device to render effective information service to patrons. Librarians engaged in different professional work were similar in their attitude towards information technology.
Kosoko (2014) observed that attitude consists of three main components, these are the affective, behavioral and cognitive, that show how persons feel about a particular issue, what they intend to do about it and what they believe about it. This shows that there is inter-relationship between knowing, feelings and doing. Considering these explanations, attitude can be deduced as a favor or disfavor towards a concept that is positive or negative. Positive attitudes are necessary for the success and significant achievements in an organizations, thus employees are expected to demonstrate positive
In addition, a research done by Rajagopal & Chinnasamy (2012) on users’ attitudes and approaches towards e-r-resources and services in academic libraries showed that there was an increasing interest in electronic information resources among the engineering users at associated colleges of Pondicherry University. Olatokunbo (2012) confirmed through his study on electronic information resources awareness, attitude, and use by academic staff members of University of Lagos, Nigeria that 55% of university staff members indicated that the level of awareness of the subscribed electronic information resources by the Library Management is rather low.
2.6 Perceived benefits of ICTs Adoption in the University Libraries
In spite of the problems associated with automation, its benefits rather outweigh its disadvantages. It is a known as a fact that automation has enables easy access of library materials, and allows staff to serve users better and facilitate a multitude of tasks such as acquisitions, cataloging, circulation, and reference (Egunjobi & Awoyemi, 2012).
According to (Awuor & kefah, 2013) ICTs has managed to changed several library operations and activities which can now be done better at the same times which were previously not easy to carry out are now possible. These days there are many opportunities ICTs has presented to libraries; most current information is recorded in electronic format. ICT has also contributed enormously on the performance of librarians who are discharging of their duties in the library such as in cataloguing, reference services, circulation management, serials control etc. Similarly Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have facilitated the flow and effective means of communication. It provides correct data collection as well as giving strategies for attaining objectives, which would otherwise be reserved for organizational structures. Okonand & Iogbodo, (2014) asserts ICTs have become a way of life the world over even though libraries and librarians in Nigeria are still struggling with the traditional methods of information processing, storage and delivery.
Saleem (2013) noted Computer has brought in a new impact to the library and information usage. ICTs have enabled library staff to provide quality and valuable information service by giving more remote access to the internationally available information resources. Recently highly sophisticated information technology has facilitated the storage of huge amounts of data or information in a very compact space. Jayaprakash & Balasubramani, (2011) stated the University Libraries must increase the numbers of computer to enable the users to maximize the usage of ICT-based resources and services. Information and communications technologies are being used by libraries for book and serial acquisitions, classification and cataloguing, reference service, money transition, user orientation service, interlibrary loan, circulation service, electronic contents, document delivery service, e-mail and chat assistance, web 2.0 interactive sharing, photocopies services and bibliographic service. These opportunities not only allow libraries to deliver fast information to users but also promoting remote libraries. (Adeleke & Olorunsola, 2010).
A comprehensive study by (ibianye 2012), (Ghuloum &Ahmed, 2011) shows the cost of maintenances costs of digital library is much lower than that of a traditional library especially with regards to space. Traditional libraries are expensive to maintain. Automated libraries on the other have minimum maintenance; the importance of ICTs is characterized by information services format change, contents and way of producing it, method of production and delivery of information products. The onset of internet has made changed on library profession role from intermediary to facilitator, modern tools for broadcasting information and change from physical to virtual services environment and disappearance of some conventional information services and emergence of modern and innovational web based. (Krubu &Osawaru, 2011).
A study by Okonand &Iogbodo (2014) observed that ICTs had benefited university libraries in the following ways;
i. Creation of OPAC: Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) which is the computerized form of the library catalogue .OPAC is easy to use, save space and can be used to access even catalogues of other libraries
ii. Networking: this involves linking ICT enables libraries to network. Networking can either be local (LAN) or wide (WAN). This will enable libraries to access information from different types of on line databases, in various disciples, on-line magazine and newspapers, e-journals and e-books.
iii. Resource Sharing: ICT has enhanced the creation of a central union catalogue which allows libraries to share their resources with other libraries.
iv. Institutional Repositories: This involves compilation of publications which originate from scholars within an academic institution. These are academic theses, dissertations, conference and seminar papers, curriculum vitae, reports, inaugural lectures and any other publication emanating from individual scholars within academic institutions. ICT has enabled other libraries to access the information.
v. Library Electronic Security system: ICT has enhanced library security through the use of Radio Frequency Identification Detector (RFID). RFID is the latest library technology used for theft detection. RFID combines radio frequency and microchip technology.
vi. Creation of a virtual library: ICT has promoted the establishment of a virtual library. A virtual is a library that exists without any physical space or location.
Parvez (2011) noted that owed to the automation, circulation is one of the most affected areas of library operations, it has help saved a lot of time for both users and library staff. Dzandu & Boateng (2014) noted that with the inception of web OPAC, users can now search information from anywhere at any time; users can also easily do the reservation of library sources and this has helps to avoid or reduce the theft of library resources with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system. In the confirmation he pointed the respondents revealed that borrowing time was short and the OPAC has made library resources accessible from different angles. However, the study could not confirm if the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has reduced theft in that it wasn’t operational because the contractor did not finish installing and she abandoned the job. Additionally automation has enables easy access; that is users are able to search for materials within the library and from remote locations via search items as author, title, subject, call number and keyword and allows library staff to better serve users and facilitate large number of tasks. Awoyemi (2012) in his study revealed that, the filling of slips for borrowed books were things of the past; books are just scanned during borrowing.
Osawaru & Krubu (2011) opines that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has brought unprecedented changes and transformation to university library and information services, digital library information systems (LIS) such as OPAC, users services, reference services, bibliographic services, current awareness services, document delivery, interlibrary loan, audio visual services and customer relations can be provided more efficiently and effectively by using ICTs, as they offer convenient time, place, cost effective, quicker and most-up-to-date dissemination and end users involvement in the library and information services process. The impact of ICT on information characterized services by changes in format, contents and production method and delivery of information products. However with the emergence of internet information and knowledge has changed the role of library and information science professionals from intermediary to facilitator, by providing new tools for dissemination of information and shift from physical to virtual services environment
Mutula (2012) presented the experiences and the lessons learned from the University of Botswana (UB) library automation project. He found that the automation has impacted many project hence increasing access to diversity of electronic resources, improved image of librarians, invention of new services, freeing of library physical space, transformation of the library into a social learning environment, access to local content made possible through digitization, new skills acquisitions, remote access to library electronic resources from different sites.

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