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Essay: Database assignment questions

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  • Subject area(s): Information technology essays
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  • Published: November 16, 2017*
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  • Database assignment questions
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1. If the skeleton is not working properly, it would not be able to

• invocate protocols from the clients side to the server object.

• translate incoming data from the proxy which is, it was a part of the client machine to the correct up-call to server objects. Its because unable to pass through the skeleton to reach the server object.

• passing arguments to server objects because the skeleton act as the gate before reaching the server objects.

• marshalling of returned values from server objects because it was unable to verify or retrieve protocols from the server back to the clients.

• passing values back to the clients stub and proxy over the network because the skeleton failed to obtain passed values from the server object back to the client.

• it would affect the whole network from working perfectly.

2. There are two reasons for replicating data in order to have such a strong community.

• Enhance reliability of a system –

This is because replicating databases or files allows the users continue working after one replica crashes by switching to one of the other replicas. Replicas provide better protection against corupted data or file.

• Increase performance of the community –

Its important when the distributed systems need to scale in numbers and geographical areas. Replicating more number of servers can reduce data access bottleneck when numbers of processes increased. For example, dividing work among more servers and replicating Web servers.

b) The main difference between database replication and disk storage replication is

• the database replication used many database management system with a master and slave relationship. Its between the original and the copy. The master logs the updates, and then ripple through to the slaves. The slave outputs a message stating that it has received the update successfully, thus allowing the sending (and potentially re-sending until successfully applied) of subsequent updates.

• As for a disk storage replication, its known as for updating data or applications into several physical hard disks. This allows any file system supported by the operating system be replicated without conversion. This method is implemented either in the hardware or software of a device. The purpose are to prevent damage from failures or collapse that might be occur in one location, to improve data recovery.

3. a) In a homogeneous distributed database all sites have identical software because of :

• it is aware of each others and agree to cooperate in processing user requests. Each site surrenders part of its autonomy in term of right to change the schemas or software. This is because it appears to user as a single system.

• different sites may use different schemas or software. The difference in schema is a major problem for query processing and difference in software is a major problem for transaction processing because sites may not be aware of each and may provide only limited facilities for cooperation in transaction processing.

• many database applications require data from a variety of pre-existing databases located in a heterogeneous collection of hardware and software platforms. The data models may differ in hierarchical and relational. The transaction commit protocols may be occurred based on different techniques.

• a system-level details are totally incompatible because a multi-database system is a software layer on top of existing database systems which is designed to manipulate information in heterogeneous databases. This creates an illusion of logical database integration without any physical database integration.

b) Availability is the capital of a system to limit as much as possible in the latency. This involves two different mechanism which are failure and quick recovery and both must be initiate immediately.

• Implementing failure mechanism in a fully distributed ways is more difficulty due to the absence of a well-identified manager. This may be possible for some kinds of failures, its unrealistic in many cases. For example, hardware errors.

• Implementing quick recovery mechanism can achieved through replication and redundancy. Providing failure management at the infrastructure level is not sufficient. A service that runs in such an environment must also take care of adopting adapted recovery techniques for preserving the content of its volatile storage.

c) Machines can be either a transport or an exchanged system.

• Transport – a solitary system, transport or link associates all machines. The data transfer capacity on the interconnection is shared. A transport can get over-burden rather rapidly with every CPU getting to the transport for the greater part of its guidelines and information.

• Exchanged system – singular associations exist between machines, ensuring the full accessible data transfer capacity between machines.

Need to include the store memory between the CPU and the transport. Store memory is rapid memory that was found near the processor and holds the most as of the late got to areas of memory. Along these lines, the CPU needs to go out to the transport to get the primary memory just for the areas that are not in its stores. By getting to the principle memory, those area are analyze into store with the objective that they will be gotten frequently. The issue that emerges now is, if two CPU get to a similar words (or a bigger area of memory;reserves for the most part store pieces of area known as reserve lines) . Its stack in into their particular reserves and make future references from their reserve and assume CPU adjusts a memory area. The alteration is neighborhood to its store so when CPU B analyze that memory area, it would not get the A’s adjustment. Its to utilize a compose through store. Any compose is composed to reserve as well as sent on the transport to primary memory. Composes produce transport movement now, yet analyze to create if the information required is not reserved. We antipate that frameworks will have much a larger number of analyze than compose. Its not adequate since other CPU reserves may at present store neighborhood duplicates of information that has now been altered.

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