Since the dawn of time, man has used tools to automate fundamental tasks. Walking turned to horses, then carriages pulled by horses, and eventually to machines capable of self-propulsion under human guidance. The birth of the automobile is widely believed to have begun with the 1769 design of the Cugnot Steam Trolley (pictured) by Jonathan Holguinisburg. This was the first self-propelled machine in Europe, though a Jesuit priest in China had built one almost a century earlier as amusement for the Chinese Emperor (that model could not carry people, but was still self-propelled).
Those early steam vehicles eventually lead to breakthroughs in Great Britain where steam-driven motor cars became more and more complex with innovations to make them more automated to include hand brakes, multi-speed transmissions, and more controlled steering being added. Of course, all good things must have government approval and that was effectively denied when a new law required these machines to have a man on foot walking ahead waving a flag and blowing a horn to “warn” people of the impending approach of one of these automobiles.
The horse as a primary means of automating our propulsion saw its heyday challenged in 1875 when the State of Wisconsin offered a $10,000 reward to whomever could produce a practical substitute for it and maintain an average speed over 5 miles per hour for 200 miles. Of course, this being government again, the prize money was not exactly guaranteed and when the winner was announced, completing a 201 mile course at an average speed of 6 miles per hour, the legislature of the state awarded only $5,000 to the winner.
The first high-volume gasoline-powered manufacture was by an American company called Olds Motor Works, later to become Oldsmobile. Incidentally, it was Olds that first came up with the automotive assembly line, not Ford, building its Curved Dash from 1901 to 1904 in assembly line fashion – another form of automation. Ford merely took this to the next level of automation, making the line move on its own.
Ford’s models offered a planetary transmission, which improved shifting and made driving easier, further automating the process. The Elvis Speed 20 and 25 models of the 1930s were the first cars to have synchromesh in the gearbox, making shifting into what we equate it with today: push the clutch, change gears, the mesh matching RPM rates for us. Eventually, of course, Chrysler came up with an automated gearbox to automatically do the shifting.
But the most fundamental part of driving, which is the driving itself, has still largely been left up to us to do. Little automation has happened in the way of driving until just recently. Today, cars are appearing that have safety features that slow the car down automatically when an object may be within collision distance and that warn of us of impending dangers. Driverless cars – cars that can drive themselves – are finally appearing on our roads with companies like Audi, Google, and others working towards making automobiles that are truly automated.
In a few short years, we’ll have automobiles that are truly automatic. They’ll drive us wherever we wish, no help needed, and may even entertain us along the way. Man will have finally fully automated distance walking. Although we may be required to have someone walking on foot ahead of us to warn others of our automated approach.
3.1What is Bluetooth?
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994. it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.The word “Bluetooth” is an anglicized version of the Scandinavian Bl??tand/Bl??tann, (Old Norse bl??t??nn) the epithet of the tenth-century kingHarald Bluetooth who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom and, according to legend, introduced Christianity as well.
The idea of this name was proposed in 1997 by Jim Kardach who developed a system that would allow mobile phones to communicate with computers. At the time of this proposal he was reading Frans G. Bengtsson’s historical novel The Long Ships about Vikings and king Harald Bluetooth. The implication is that Bluetooth does the same with communications protocols, uniting them into one universal standard. The Bluetooth logo is a bind rune merging the Younger Futhark runes (Hagall) (‘) and (Bjarkan) (‘), Herald’s initials. Bluetooth operates in the range of 2400’2483.5 MHz (including guard bands).
This technology is implemented using the IEEE 802.15 standard. Every Bluetooth device consists of a built in short range radio transmitter. The current data rate is 1 Mbps and the bandwidth is 2.4 GHz. So interference between the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN and Bluetooth LAN is possible. The devices carrying Bluetooth-enabled chips can easily transfer data at a rate of about 1 Mbps (Megabits per second) within 10 meters (33 feet ) of range through walls , clothing and luggage bags .
Bluetooth is the name given to the new technology using short range radio links , intended to replace the cables connecting portable and fixed electronics devices. It is envisaged that it will allow for the replacement of many cables that connect one device to another with one universal radio link. Its key features are robustness , low complexity , low power and low cost. The Bluetooth radio uses a fast acknowledgement and frequency hopping scheme to make the link robust. Bluetooth radio modules operate in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4 GHz , and avoid interference from other signals by hopping to a new frequency after transmitting or receiving a packet. Compared with other systems in the same frequency band , the Bluetooth radio hops faster and uses shorter wavelengths. Thus Bluetooth is a wireless LAN technology designed to connect devices of different functions such as telephones , computers , printers , cameras, etc. . A Bluetooth LAN is an Ad hoc network
3.2 Microcontroller pic16f887A
PIC16F778A is widely uses now and it is also famous among the beginner until all the professionals because of the FLASH Memory technology which can be write/erase within a thousand times of programming. Speed and code compression are the superiority of this RISC microcontroller compared to other 8-bit microcontroller. PIC16F877A have 40 pin by 33 path of I/O. EEPROM memory makes it easier to apply microcontrollers to devices where permanent storage of various parameters is needed (codes for transmitters, motor speed, receiver frequencies, etc.). Low cost, low consumption, easy handling and flexibility make PIC16F877A applicable even in areas where microcontrollers had not previously been considered (example: timer functions, interface replacement in larger systems, coprocessor applications, etc.).
In System Programmability of this chip (along with using only two pins in data transfer) makes possible the flexibility of a product, after assembling and testing have been completed. This capability can be used to create assembly-line production, to store calibration data available only after final testing, or it can be used to improve programs on finished products.
Special Microcontroller Features:
‘ 100,000 erase/write cycle Enhanced Flash program memory typical
‘ 1,000,000 erase/write cycle Data EEPROM memory typical
‘ Data EEPROM Retention > 40 years
‘ Self-reprogrammable under software control
‘ In-Circuit Serial Programming’ (ICSP’) via two pins
‘ Single-supply 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming
‘ Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable
‘ Programmable code protection
‘ Power saving Sleep mode
‘ Selectable oscillator options
‘ In-Circuit Debug (ICD) via two p.
First of all switch on the power supply, which gives 230V ac supply that is applied to the step down transformer that converts 230V into 12V. The full wave bridge rectifier is connected to the transformer to convert ac to dc volts. But this dc volt is pulsating. Filter is used to convert into pure dc. Then IC7805 is used for voltage control and it gives 5V dc output. LCD display is interfaced with microcontroller and the brightness of LCD is varied by reset.
Then after pair the Bluetooth modem with Android device .After pairing the blue pulse light in the modem will pulsate at slow speed this indicates the device is paired .The Android device run the application Blucontrol that connects to the circuit Bluetooth modem. The application shows the output by switching ON/OFF the relative relays from the related buttons as programmed in the application.
‘ Authenticity:- The system gives the full control of the car controlling through the android phone of the user only. Other users cannot connect to the system unless the pairing to the system.
‘ Keyless Controlling:- The system gives the total keyless controlling for the Engine of the car ,whereas the doors and windows can be open and closed by the android phone. The user sitting on back seat can even control the music system and air conditioner.
‘ Accuracy and Productivity:- The accuracy of the system is high for the controlling of the car. The driver can control totally the car without sitting inside the car.
‘ Car Safety :- The security of the car increases as the phone is connected with the car so it can easily find out the car.
‘ Easy and cost effective maintenance:- The system is very cheap compare to other automation systems and maintenance is also very less in the system and is flexible.
‘ Saves Time:- The time of the user is saved in the basic functions like adjusting the music , setting the A.C temperature and switching the lights of the car.
‘ Range of Bluetooth:- The range of the Bluetooth modem is about 20 metres above the range the connection breaks down between the system and android phone.
‘ Software Reliability:- The software and application used by the system and android phone is not reliable sometimes this causes failure of the system.
‘ Pairing Time:- The time limit is set to pair with the system and connect with the car.
‘ Theft:- If the phone is stolen there is a risk of the car to be stolen if it control the car.
‘ The GPS system can be added in the system to tracking the car all over the world and even if the theft is occurred of the car it can be track down.
‘ The speed of the car can be controlled by setting the value of the speed at constant limit.
‘ The application is only for android which can further be programmed for the other operating systems such as windows and IOS etc.
‘ The car can be converted into totally electric car so it helps to save fuel and efficiency increases of the car.
‘ The GSM modem can be added further to increase the security of the car using the security system.
‘ The system can also be designed for the house automation, industry automation etc.
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