Essay: Dijkstra's algorithm flow chart

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  • Dijkstra's algorithm flow chart
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3.2 Metrics Used
Various metrics used for QoF mechanism are discussed as follows.
a.ETX (Extended Transmission Cost)
b.PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio)
PDR is examined based on the various links like PDR over a physical link.
3.3 Multi-hop routing
When nodes attempt to post in order to other node which is not in range, they can send the data via one or other middle nodes.
Figure 2. Three stage routing process
3.4 System Architecture
The Systems Architecture set up the essential arrangement of the scheme, major the vital hub plan attribute and part that gives the construction. The Architecture give the designer view of the consumer idea. In figure 3 diagram user first login to the account then he can sent a file which is transfer to receiver. Figure 3 about the explains the Systems Architecture.
Figure.3 system architecture
4. Result and discussion
The Distance Estimation Method is applied to approximate the shortest path by using the above algorithm based on the lane deviation and the estimated straight path. On the Basis of the experimental results, when comparing QoF and CTP mechanisms, QoF outperforms CTP on optimal data delivery path and the faulty node exclusion.
Communication between Cluster Head to Certifications Authority
Each CH located within the CA region receives CH’s of its neighbor clusters from its CA. A destination can be find through announcement among CHs. Since the destination node may be located in the same cluster with node n1 or in another cluster separated from n1, node n1 should find its destination n2 before starting communication and select the suitable approach based on the location of its destination. The declaration based on the target can be divided into two categories: communication between two nodes located in the same cluster, and communication between two nodes located in two different clusters. Therefore, according to these categories, the message scheme is divided into two classes that will be the privacy of cluster members can be preserved in communications. Moreover, HMAC work for concurrently authenticate data-integrity and data authentication.
Figure.4 shows the receive packets of CTP – ETX. During this step the faulty nodes randomly drop around 30 percent of received packets. In the figure 4 all nodes in CTP – QoF have higher receive packets, mainly defective nodes exist above the best data release path elected by CTP and ETX. In the CTP and QoF many of the defective nodes are barred from the best routing path.
Figure 4. Comparison of node id Figure 5. Performance analysis of faulty node and ETX
and receive packets
Figure 5 shows the analysis of faulty node and ETX. The path-ETX is not constantly sufficient in sensible systems as it just provide an unfinished report of the lane quality and the faulty node 14, 15,88,89,90 and 100 it shows the etx -estimation of cost is lesser for 5,10,15,20,25,30 nodes.
Creating Clustering Node
In the system model, each frame creating multiple nodes in the ad hoc network. This frame also contains into the only one clustering head. This clustering head monitoring to all the clustering node.
Isolating Malicious Node
The number of node is situated in a group and each group has a CH, where the CH is the accurate node in the group. Then, every node is check by several of it accurate next node is called verifier nodes.Note that each node knows Td of other nodes that are within its neighborhood list. Moreover, if node V generates fake information when it plays as a basis node, verifier nodes can check the information generated by node V via the monitoring process. After spot the abnormal actions of node V by a verifier, the trustiest verifier in the cluster requests parameters (such as speed and distrust value) from each verifier node and then calculates new distrust value for node V. When node V changes its value the new value should be informed to its neighbor by the verifier node, (i.e., CH).
Figure 6. Isolating malicious node
Communication between nodes located within two Different Clusters
When two nodes N1 and N2 located within two different clusters decide to communicate with each other, information that should be exchanged among n1, n2, CH1, and CH2 in order to generate message. When node N1 within cluster C1 with cluster-head CH1 wants to communicate with node N2 within cluster C2 with cluster-head CH2, node N1 first generates a random number R1 and a timestamp T1. Then, N1 message through forwards it to CH1. CH1 received message with N1’s proxy message and verifies the warrant of V1, WV1, to ensure whether V1 is legal to forward data.
Figure 7. Communication between nodes located within two Different Clusters
5. Conclusions
In this paper, Security in VANETs is a vital necessity and the network must ensure that traffic comes from a trusted source and has not been changed during transmission. In this paper, we have introduced a security scheme to improve security of VANET(vehicular Ad Hoc Network) based on clustering and key distribution. As analyzed, our scheme preserves verification, discretion; data-integrity, on-repudiation and un forge ability. Moreover, based on the obtained computational results, the time and cost computations of key generation and distribution have decreased using SCKD. Therefore, the SCKD can meet strict time constraints of VANETs. Finally, clustering feature of our proposed scheme can reduce overhead and number of saved keys. Therefore, SCKD is applicable to create a secure communication among vehicles in a VANET.
References
[1]Gentian Jakllari, Raytheon BBN Technologies (2012)’Link positions Matter: A Non commutative Routing Metric for Wireless Mesh Networks’ Issue No.01 – January (2012 vol.11)pp: 61-72
[2] H. Zhang, L. Sang, and A. Arora(2010), ‘Comparison of Data-Driven Link Estimation Methods in Low-Power Wireless Networks,’IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 9,Issue no. 11, pp. 1634-1648, 2010.
[3]L. Mo, Y. He, Y. Liu, J. Zhao, S. Tang, X. Li, and G. Dai, (2010)’Canopy Closure Estimates with GreenOrbs: Sustainable Sensing in the Forest,’ Proc. Seventh ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys).
[4]O. Gnawali, R. Fonseca, K. Jamieson, D. Moss, and P. Levis,( 2009)’Collection Tree Protocol,’ Proc. Seventh ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys).
[5] S. Lin, G. Zhou, K. Whitehouse, Y. Wu, J. Stankovic, and T. He,(2009)’Towards Stable Network Performance in Wireless SensorNetworks,’ Proc. IEEE 30th Real-Time Systems Symp. (RTSS)
[6]S. Moeller, A. Sridharan, B. Krishnamachari, and O. Gnawali,(2010)’Routing without Routes: The Backpressure Collection Protocol,’Proc. ACM/IEEE Ninth Int’l Conf. Information Processing in SensorNetworks (IPSN).
[7] Yash Arora*, Himangi Pande***(Department of Information technology, Pune University, Pune, India)**(Department of Computer Science, Amravati University, India)(2013)’Energy Saving Multipath Routing Protocol for Wireless SensorNetworks’Yash Arora et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and ApplicationsVol. 3, Issue 5, Sep-Oct 2013, pp.152-156
[8] Meera Gandhi.G, P.Rama, ‘GPS based Multi-hop Communication with Localization in Subterranean Wireless Sensor Networks’, proceedings of Elesevier 3rd International Conference on Recent Trends in Computing 2015 (ICRTC-2015), procedia computer science 2015.
[9] P Vijayakumar1, S.Bose2, A.Kannan3 and L.Jegatha Deborah1,’ Computation and Communication Efficient Key Distribution Protocol

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