Abstract – To improve the level of intelligence and communication between vehicles, we analyzed the basic functioning of intelligent transport system. Congestion posses challenge in transportation during any crucial period. In this paper, we proposed a feasible scheme. At first we took a built-in camera in front of each vehicle, which will help the vehicle behind to know the traffic in the opposite direction and the blind spot area avoiding collision. Secondly we used GPS for efficient navigation system for ambulances in realtime traffic congestion to avoid unexpected congestion and follow the shortest path to the destination (hospital) based on historical data and the updates of realtime traffic information. And also it proposes an ideology of intelligent transportation (system) which includes vehicle subsystem, GPS & monitoring system to itemize inter vehicular communication by embedding them in IOT. The paper discusses about regulating traffic during an emergency (ex: ambulance) using inter vehicular communication accompanied by a geo sensory mechanism.
Keywords- Internet of things, GPS, Inter vehicle communication, Geo sensing mechanism.
All objects, animals and people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction is the scenario of Internet of Things. It has evolved from convergence of wireless technologies, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and the Internet..
‘Computers and, therefore, the Internet today are almost wholly dependent on human beings for information’. Nearly all the roughly 50 petabytes (a petabyte is 1,024terabytes) of data available on the Internet were first observed and erected by human beings by typing, pressing a record button, taking a digital picture or scanning a bar code.
The problem is, people have limited time, attention and accuracy, all of which means they are not very good at apprehend data about things in the real world. If we had computers that knew everything, it would know about things using data it gathered without any help from us — we would be able to visualize and count everything and would have managed time and cost more effectively. We would know when things needs augmentation and whether they were fresh or past their best.’ With the increase in vehicles, causing traffic has already become a huge problem. In order to resolve this problem, the government should firstly improve business efficiency and the intelligent transportation system quality. Intelligent traffic study is one way to solve the problem of city traffic. Advanced city mass transit system can help urban resident to gain dynamic data and static state traffic information effectively. Mass transit has much merit such as large carrying capacity, high delivery efficiency, low energy consumption and low transportation costs. Therefore it is a very important function to have the city more informative.
In the face of the problem of huge population density, acceleration of urbanization and addition of automobiles retain, the existing transportation system cannot satisfy the practical requirement. It is obvious that the intelligent transportation system based on internet of things can reduce the phenomenon of crowding and even solve it. The internet of Things uses the technology of GPS, GPRS and GIS etc to carry out the intelligence of ambulance where the value of time becomes tangible.
All vehicles connected will be the ultimate Internet of Things. They will collect and make sense of massive amounts of data from a huge array of sources. Cars communicate to other cars, exchanging data and alerting drivers to potential collisions. To do all that, they need the GPS. Because connected cars need data. Today automobiles are already packed with an impressive amount of processing power, because some 100 million lines of software code help run the typical luxury vehicle.
II. OVERALL DESIGN
In a country where hundreds of one lane is there, we can incorporate technology into the vehicles. In India almost ten people dies in a traffic accident every hour. Nearly 80% on roads, mainly from people attempting to overtake. We suggest a built-in wireless cameras in front and four rear outdoor monitors at the back of the vehicle. This will help the vehicle behind to know about the traffic in opposite side and the
blind spot area thereby avoiding collision. In this paper, we have addressed the medical emergency (ambulance), where the value of time becomes tangible. Minutes can make difference between life and death; disability and recovery by lessening the time of the ambulance to reach the destination.
Here the system (ambulance) takes the information from other vehicles through GPS equipments, and sends the signal to the internet using wireless technology. Control center receives the information and resend it to the real-time database system where the information will be analyzed and displayed on GIS. Otherwise, the communication between the control center and the internet is bidirectional, on the basis of comparing of the received data and setting value. Connected devices provide drivers with 3600 awareness of similar equipped vehicle with distance of approximately 300m, so that they can immediately leave way for the ambulance to go. The drivers are provided with forward collision warning, weather related traffic and safety issues when roads are slippery through GPS. Multiple connected vehicles can help to communicate about the damaged road or any breakdown of vehicles and warns the drivers before experiencing them and also warn to slow down and change the lane. By using the GPS, the ambulance can route to the nearest hospital or the hospital of preference. Emergency vehicle pre-emption of traffic signal and giving message to his family members about the patient through unique identity number can also be incorporated when we go for cloud computing technology.
III. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
A. Internet of Things
Internet of Things (IoT) semantically means ‘a worldwide network of interconnected objects uniquely addressable based on standard communication protocols’, which is a novel paradigm that is rapidly gaining ground in the scenario of modern wireless telecommunications. The basic idea of this concept is the ubiquitous presence of a multifarious things or objects such as (RFID) tags, sensors, actuators, mobile vehicles, etc. which, through unique schemes of inscribing, are able to interact with each other to reach common goals . The flairs offered by the IoT help in burgeoning unhackneyed protocols in variegated domains. : (1) Traffic transportation and logistics domain. (2) Healthcare domain (3) Smart environment (home, office, plant) domain. (4)Personal and social domain.
A GPS consists of three distinct parts as it is embellished in the following Figure 1. These three parts are: the satellites in orbit, the ground control stations, and the users (satellite receivers found in land, air, sea). For the part of satellites in orbit, out of the twenty four, twenty one are in operation. Among these 21 satellites four are visible at any time from any station on earth. The latitude and longitudinal position for each specific station is feasible to be obtained in the form of X, Y, Z coordinates (position vector). The information concerning the speed (dx/dt, dy/dt, dz/dt) of a vehicle, airplane, ship etc. is also available all over the world, at any time, and under all weather conditions . Ground control station consists of master control station, monitoring station and injecting station. The master manipulates the satellite ephemeris and correction parameters of satellite clock, and injection of these data into the satellites. Moreover it controls the satellite and issues ordinance to it as well as associates in monitoring. Monitoring station perceives the reception of satellite signals; superintending the working status of satellites; injecting station effectuates the injection of satellite ephemeris and correction parameters of satellite clock
Figure 1: Parts of GPS
There are a lot of applications of global positioning system (GPS) technology in many scientific fields all over the world, among which, it allows the accurate positioning of an object using satellite signals.
The general packet radio service (GPRS), a data extension of the mobile telephony standard GSM, is emanating as the first cardinal veracious packet-switched architecture that allows mobile subscribers to benefit the perks of high-speed transmission rates and run data applications from their mobile terminals. It is a GSM-based wireless packet switching technology, providing end to end and wide-area wireless IP connectivity, whose purpose is to provide packet-based form of data services for GSM users. GPRS provides high-speed wireless IP services for mobile users, fully supports the TCP/IP, dynamically allocates IP addresses for the mobile sites and achieves mobile Internet functions, accessing to the Internet through GGSN. Any kind of business in the fixed Internet will also be able to be achieved through GPRS mobile networks . Two new network nodes GGSN and the SGSN are introduced for transmission and reception of GPRS data packets. Node GGSN is a gateway connecting GPRS network with external data network, by which GPRS packet data packets can be subjected to protocol conversion, so these data packets can be sent to a remote TCP/IP. The main role of node SGSN is to record the current location information for mobile terminals and complete the sending and receiving of packet data between mobile terminal and GGSN. GPRS terminal obtains data from the client system through the interface and treated GPRS packet data are sent to GSM base station. And then after the data are packaged by the SGSN, the communication begins between GPRS backbone network and the gateway support node GGSN. GGSN performs a parallel processing to packet data and sends them
to the destination network Internet.
Figure 2: GPRS Architecture
IV. DESIGN OF NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
The grail of intelligent traffic monitoring system is to conceptualize unmanned surveillance for traffic vehicles. In order to hit this objective, we should firstly elucidate three Gordian knots. The first one is how to discern and espy these mobile objects. The next one is how to procure their locale. At last, detected data of these mobile objects will be transmitted from outside to monitoring center for computation, and when mobile vehicles are far from cities beyond the range covered with Internet, how to carry the data for them? To solve these problems, we have designed novel network architecture for intelligent traffic monitoring as shown in Figure.
Figure 3: Network Architecture
Here each vehicle will be equipped with a built-in wireless camera in front and four rear outdoor monitors at the tag end, so that the vehicle behind gets information about blind spot to avoid collision and accidents .Synchronously, a GPS receiver installed in a monitoring station can communicate with GPS satellites to obtain its position information that is taken as a position parameter of the vehicle. So with this method the position data of mobile vehicle is encapsulated. As a solution to the third problem, we take wireless GPRS scheme to transmit data of mobile objects. GPRS provides high speed wireless IP services for mobile users, fully supports the TCP/IP, dynamically allocates IP addresses for the mobile sites and achieves mobile Internet functions, so it can be connected with Internet seamlessly.
A. Data flow analysis
Figure 4: Diagram of software flow in a query manner
Firstly the system initialization done by connecting it to the internet. The destination is set on the device and a reply expected from the receiver. Once the reply is received the system optimizes the routes and collects the GPS address. The messages are then exchanged between the vehicles on the route and hence the congestion in the traffic gets optimized.
B. Decision Making System
KBMS: Knowledge based management system
DBMS: Data base management system
Figure 5: Software structure of traffic decision-making support system
A decision-making system connected to a man machine interface which in turn connected to a problem analyzer. The problem analyzer analyses the traffic level in the routes and helps in calculating the commuting time. This in turn connected to a problem solving mechanism which consists of 3 units via, KBMS, Model Base, and DBMS from where the data will be retrieved and segregated. This mechanism helps in diverting the traffic volume and hence optimizing the route during an emergency.
C. Data Flow Analysis
Initially ambulance will be connected to the internet. Emergency communication sent from the ambulance to the GSM through Wi-Fi connection and in turn sent to GPRS via same means. The GSM n GPRS mechanisms are for bi directional transmission. These signals and information monitored by a centralized mechanism from where it is transmitted to other vehicles on the route. Thus traffic is optimized under such emergency situation.
Figure 6: Data flow analysis
This system can revolutionize the transportation system. With the above ideology to the system, we can overcome the expenditure spent on allocation of spectrum for vehicular communication. With the draconian technology innovation and the upcoming of features for the high speed internet, the system can be implemented with more options, consummate efficiency and flexibility. On taking the application forward, we can aggrandize by adding up more features and cleaner fuels which can ameliorate the travel efficiency using real time information and hence customizing the vehicular communication using IOT.
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