Essay: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

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  • Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
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Abstract : In a WSN, there are two methods to detect an intruder single-sensing detection and multiple-sensing detection. In the single-sensing detection, the intruder is effectively detected by a single sensor. Whereas, in the multiple-sensing detection, the intruder can only be detected by multiple cooperating sensors. In some applications, the detected data provided by a single sensor might be insufficient for identifying the intruder. It is because individual sensors can only sense a area of the intruder. For example, the position of an intruder can only be determined from at least three sensors’ sensing. The goal of using a layered model is to reduce calculation and the overall time required to detect abnormal actions. The time required to detect an intrusive event is significant and can be reduced by eliminating the communication overhead between different layers. This can be achieved by making the layers independent and self-contained to block an attack without the need of a central decision-maker. Every layer in The MLMD framework is educated separately and then organized serially. We describe four layers that agree to the four attack groups stated in the data set.
Keywords’ Intrusion detection, sensor nodes, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Heterogeneous WSN.
I. INTRODUCTION
We now describe the Multi-Layer multi detector (MLMD) in detail. The MLMD draws its motivation from what we call as the Airport Security model, where a amount of security checks are done one after the other in a sequence. Similar to this model, the MLMD represents a sequential Layered Approach and is based on confirming accessibility, confidentiality, and integrity of data and (or) services over a network.
The aim of using a layered model is to reduce calculation and the whole time required to detect abnormal events. The time required to detect an abnormal event is important and can be reduced by removing the communication overhead among different layers. This can be achieved by making the layers independent and self-contained to block an attack without the need of a central decision-maker. Every layer in
The MLMD framework is trained separately and then deployed sequentially. We define four layers that correspond to the four attack groups mentioned in the data set.
Each layer is then separately educated with a small set of related features. Feature selection is important for Layered Approach and discussed in the next section.
In order to make the layers independent, some features may be present in more than one layer. The layers basically act as filters that block any irregular connection, thereby eliminating the need of additional processing at following layers allowing quick response to intrusion. The effect of such a sequence of layers is that the irregular events are identified and blocked as soon as they are detected.
II. INTEGRATED LAYER DETECTOR APPROACH
We now describe the Layer-based Intrusion Detection System (MLMD) in detail. The MLMD draws its motivation from what we call as the Airport Security model, where a number of security checks are performed one after the other in a sequence. Similar to this model, the MLMD represents a sequential Layered Approach and is based on ensuring availability, confidentiality, and integrity of data and (or) services over a network.
The goal of using a layered model is to reduce computation and the overall time required to detect anomalous events. The time required to detect an intrusive event is significant and can be reduced by eliminating the communication overhead among different layers. This can be accomplished by making the layers independent and self-contained to block an attack lacking the necessity of a vital decision-maker. Every layer in The MLMD framework is trained separately and then deployed sequentially. We define four layers that correspond to the four attack groups mentioned in the data set
Each layer is then separately trained with a small set of relevant features. Feature selection is significant for Layered Approach and discussed in the next section.
In order to make the layers independent, some features may be present in more than one layer. The layers basically act as filters that chunk any irregular connection, thus removing the need of additional processing at following layers allowing fast response to intrusion. The effect of such a sequence of layers is that the anomalous events are identified and blocked as soon as they are detected.
III. PROPOSED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Proposed System Include Following Stages.
A. Constructing Sensor Network
B. Packet Creation
C. Find authorized and un authorized port
D. Constructing Inter-Domain Packet Filters
E. Receiving the valid packet
A. CONSTRUCTING SENSOR NETWORK
We are going to connect the network .Each node is connected to the next node and it is individually arranged in network area. And also arrange the each port no is authorized in a node.
B. PACKET CREATION
Browse and select the source file. And selected data is converted into fixed size of packets. And the packet is send from source to detector.
C. CREATE MLMD AND FIND AUTHORIZED AND UN AUTHORIZED PORT
The intrusion detection is defined as a mechanism for a WSN to detect the presence of improper, incorrect, or irregular moving attackers. In this module check whether the path is authorized or unauthorized. If path is authorized the packet is send to valid endpoint. Otherwise the packet will be removed. According to port no only we are going to find the path is authorized or Unauthorized
The MLMD have proven to be very effective in such tasks, as they do not make any unnecessary expectations about the data. Hence, we explore the correctness of MLMD for intrusion detection. This system can consider features such as ‘logged in’ and ‘number of file creations.’ When these features are studied separately, they do not provide any material that can benefit in discovering attacks.
Though, when these features are examined together, they can provide meaningful information, which can be useful for the organization task. Taking another example, the connection level feature such as the ‘service invoked’
Probe layer-Packet Feature
The probe attacks are designed to btaining information about the target network from a source that is outside to the network. Hence, basic connection level features such as the ‘duration of connection’ and ‘source bytes’ are important.
Whereas features like ‘number of files creations’ and ‘number of files opened’ are not expected to provide information for sensing probes.
R2L layer ‘Network Feature
The R2L attacks are one of the most problematic to detect such as they include the network level and the host level features. We hence carefully chosen both the network level features such as the ‘duration of connection’ and ‘service requested’ and the host level features such as the ‘number of failed login attempts’ between others for detecting R2L attack.
DoS layer-Traffic Feature
For the DoS layer, traffic features such as the ‘ratio of connections having same destination host and same service’ and packet level features such as the ‘source bytes’ and ‘ratio of packets with errors’ are important. To detect DoS attacks, it might not be important to know whether a user is ‘logged in or not.’
U2R layer (User to Root attacks)
The U2R attacks contain the semantic information that are very difficult to capture at an initial stage. Such attacks are frequently content based and target an application. Therefore, for U2R attacks, we carefully chosen features such as ‘number of file creations’ and ‘number of shell prompts invoked,’ whereas we ignored features such as ‘protocol’ and ‘source bytes.’
D. CONSTRUCTING INTER-DOMAIN PACKET FILTERS RECEIVING THE VALID PACKET
If the packet is received from different port no it will be filtered and rejected. This filter only removes the unauthorized packets and authorized packets send to destination.
E. RECEIVING THE VALID PACKET
After filtering the inacceptable packets all the valid Packets will send to the destination.
IV. ALGORITHM & TRAINING:
Step 1: Select the number of layers, n, for the complete system.
Step 2: Separately perform features selection for each layer.
Step 3: Train a separate model with MLMD for each layer using the features selected from Step 2.
Step 4: Plug in the trained models sequentially such that only the connections labeled as normal are passed to the next layer. Testing
Step 5: For each (next) test instance perform Steps 6 through 9.
Step 6: Test the instance and label it either as attack or normal.
Step 7: If the instance is labeled as attack, block it and identify it as an attack represented by the layer name at which it is detected and go to Step 5. Else pass the sequence to the next layer.
Step 8: If the current layer is not the last layer in the system, test the instance and go to Step 7. Else go to Step 9.
Step 9: Test the instance and label it either as normal or as an attack. If the instance is labeled as an attack, block it and identify it as an attack corresponding to the layer name
V. CONCLUSION
This paper studies the intrusion detection problem by illustrating intrusion detection probability with respect to the intrusion distance and the network parameters (i.e., node density, sensing range, and transmission range).The analytical model for intrusion detection allows us to analytically formulate intrusion detection possibility within a certain intrusion distance under various application scenarios.
VI. FUTURE SCOPE
Our Future improvements are intrusion detections in internet application and parallel computer interconnection network. We matched our approach with some well-known methods and found that most of the current systems for intrusion detection fail to reliably detect R2L and U2R attacks, whereas our integrated system can effectively and efficiently detect such attacks giving an improvement of 34.5 percent for the R2L and 34.8 percent for the U2R attacks. We also discussed how our system is implemented in real life. Our system can help in identifying an attack once it is detected at a particular layer, which advances the intrusion response mechanism, thus reducing the effect of an attack. We presented that our system is robust to noise and performs better than any other compared system even when the training data is noisy. Finally, our system has the advantage that the number of layers can be increased or decreased depending upon the environment in which the system is deployed, giving flexibility to the network administrators.
REFERENCES
[1] R. Hemenway, R. Grzybowski, C. Minkenberg, and R. Luijten, ‘Optical-packet-switched interconnect for supercomputer applications,’OSA J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 900’913, Dec. 2004.
[2] C. Minkenberg, F. Abel, P. M??ller, R. Krishnamurthy, M. Gusat, P.Dill, I. Iliadis, R. Luijten, B. R. Hemenway, R. Grzybowski, and E.Schiattarella, ‘Designing a crossbar scheduler for HPC applications,’IEEE Micro, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 58’71, May/Jun. 2006.
[3] E. Oki, R. Rojas-Cessa, and H. Chao, ‘A pipeline-based approach formaximal-sized matching scheduling in input-buffered switches,’ IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 263’265, Jun. 2001.
[4] C. Minkenberg, I. Iliadis, and F. Abel, ‘Low-latency pipelined crossbar arbitration,’ in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM 2004, Dallas, TX, Dec. 2004, vol. 2, pp. 1174’1179.
[5] C. Minkenberg, R. Luijten, F. Abel, W. Denzel, and M. Gusat, ‘Current issues in packet switch design,’ ACM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 119’124, Jan. 2003.
[6] C. Minkenberg, F. Abel, P. M??ller, R. Krishnamurthy, and M. Gusat,’Control path implementation of a low-latency optical HPC switch,’ inProc. Hot Interconnects 13, Stanford, CA, Aug. 2005, pp. 29’35.
[7] C.-S. Chang, D.-S. Lee, and Y.-S. Jou, ‘Load-balanced Birkhoff-von Neumann switches, part I: One-stage buffering,’ Elsevier Comput.Commun., vol. 25, pp. 611’622, 2002.
[8] A. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996.
[9] R. Krishnamurthy and P. M??ller, ‘An input queuing implementation for low-latency speculative optical switches,’ in Proc. 2007 Int. Conf.Parallel Processing Techniques and Applications (PDPTA’07), Las Vegas, NV, Jun. 2007, vol. 1, pp. 161’167.
[10] H. Takagi, Queueing Analysis, Volume 3: Discrete-Time Systems. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1993.

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