In HTTP Protocol we have to have what is called a network layer, this in simple terms is what links the HTTP request to the HTTP Daemon. But it does much more than that so take for example we have a website trying to communicate with a Daemon, but before it goes to the Daemon certain things have to happen. Firstly, the data that is trying to be sent to the daemon is put into segments and each segment is encapsulated into datagrams, the datagrams are then sent to a nearby router normally the one you are connected to. Then when the router receives the datagrams it extracts the transport-layer segments, and then from there it then moves the segments up to the transport layer, this then means it can then be transferred through the network. One of the primary roles for the router is to forward the datagrams from different types of requests from its input links up to the output links. But one of the primary roles of the network plane is to coordinate these local routers forwarding actions, this then allows the datagrams from requests to be transferred as an end-to-end transfer, this happens along different paths of routers between where the request came from in the first place and also where the request is going to.
Machine to Machine Illustration of Interactions using Protocol:
On the next page is an Illustration which shows the machine to machine illustration, this is based on what was previously said on the paragraphs previously about how datagrams are moved through the network and also what else is involved in the movement of these datagrams.
How HTTP fits into the internet hourglass?
The internet hourglass is a model that has been created which consist of six protocol and application layers that all originate from a single bubble which is called IPv4. Scientists understand this model which is called EvoArch as a process that gives conclusions as to why some protocols survive and others do not survive. This can then be used in future development so that the internet can continue to improve and also help develop new uses for the internet and overall better security.
Above is a diagram of the internet hourglass and as you can see from the diagram it consists of different layers which all contribute to the internet and how the internet works. As you can see from the model depending on various factors depends on the path that the internet takes to work. But how does HTTP fit in to this model, well HTTP is an application protocol which means this is what the websites and applications which use the internet are built on. So, HTTP is needed so that websites and applications can be built and from HTTP being the build this then allows the other layers around this to work and contributes to the working of the internet. So, with the use of HTTP in websites this then allows the transport protocols to work such as TCP (Transfer Control Protocol) which allows requests to be transferred through the network and display the requests that the user requests on their browser.
How is HTTP used for Web Communication?
HTTP is used widely across the whole of the internet and is one of the most common types of communication methods for the internet in today’s web developments. If you where to look in any address field at the top of your web browser, you are likely to see that at the start of the address it says something like “http://”. HTTP is the original “client-server” protocol. But how is HTTP used for web communication, well when users on their web browser click a link or type a website address into the address bar such as “www.google.co.uk” or when you click a link from a search result you may have done on Yahoo the browser then sends a request over the internet to a web server for that website. The web server houses the site that the user requests and deals with all traffic that comes to the website. The web server from that request then sends back to the user what it wants, this can be anything from text, images, video or files that are to be downloaded. This data that is sent back is then displayed in the users’ web browser for them to view. An advantage to HTTP is that we have expert knowledge on it and it is used widely and is compatible with nearly all computers and web browsers. But on the other hand, a disadvantage to HTTP is that it is unencrypted which means that the data being communicated can be intercepted by hackers or other third parties who may want your data.
Above is a diagram illustrating the way that HTTP communicates with a server and also how it sends the data back to the computer and to the web browser.
HTTP as a Stateless protocol and the impact this has:
HTTP is said to be a stateless protocol because each request which is made by the user is executed and performed independently and this happens without knowing what the requests beforehand where about or the details of them. A stateless protocol does not need the server to keep any information or know the status about each user for the time that is needed of the multiple requests. But some website may need to track the users as they go from one page to the next, an example of why a website may need to do this is when the website needs to be customized for a user as they go along. This problem can be fixed from one of the options given below:
• HTTP cookies
• Using a PHP website
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