Essay: ICTs adoption and use in University libraries in Kenya

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  • ICTs adoption and use in University libraries in Kenya
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The study focused on the assessment of factors influencing ICTs adoption and use in the University libraries in Kenya, and it was conducted at the University of Eldoret library. The University of Eldoret is one of the 22 public universities in Kenya and located approximately 9 km from Eldoret town, Uasin Gishu County. It was established in 1946 by the white settlers as a Large Scale Farmers Training Centre. In 1984, it was changed to a Teachers’ Training College and gives another name Moi Teachers’ Training College to deal with Diploma Science courses and Teachers Training College. Owing to the double intake predicament, the College was taken over by Moi University as a Campus in 1990, naming it Chepkoilel Campus. From 1990, the University made the campus of natural, basic and applied science programmes. In August 2010, through Legal Notice No. 125 of 13 August 2010, the President promoted the campus into a University College named Chepkoilel University College, a Constituent College of Moi University. Upon the grant of Charter by the President of Kenya in March 2013, the University College was renamed University of Eldoret.

3.3 Research Design

To get a good understanding of factors influencing ICTs adoption in University libraries in Kenya, the study adopted descriptive research. Descriptive survey research is used to obtained information concerning the present status of the phenomena to describe “what exists” with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. This method involved a range from the survey which describes the status quo, the correlation study which investigates the relationship between variables, to developmental studies which seek to determine changes over time. This design was significant to the study because it was assessing the factors influencing adoption and use of ICT in University libraries. A descriptive survey study research design was adopted because it was optimizing on the strengths of a mix of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies.

3.4 Target Population

A population is the entire group of persons who have at least one thing in common. The study population comprised of 20 library staff who includes university librarian and other staff working in the library and approximately 10,000 university students who are the users of ICTs in the library. The staff and students were chosen because they are the users of the ICTs in the library.

3.5 Sample and Sampling procedures

Sampling is the procedure a researcher uses to gather people to study. It is the process of selecting some individuals from a population in that the chosen group contains attributes representative of the characteristics found in the whole group.

Simple random sampling was used to sample university student, purposive sampling was used to sample the staff.

Since it was not possible to collect data from the entire university student an appropriate sample size was determined. University students sample size was determined using the formula adopted from Mugenda & Mugenda (2003)

Where nf stand for the desired sample size (when the population is less than 10,000) n stand for the desired sample size when the population is more than 10,000,

N stand for the estimate of the population size

Estimated population size of University students = 10,000

Desired sample size = 101

Therefore the final sample = =100

All 20 library staff was sampled using purposive sampling technique

The total sample was 120 respondents was selected to participate in the study, 100 of the respondents were students while 20 respondents were the library staff.

3.7 Instruments of data collection

The main data collection instruments that were used in the study were the questionnaires and the interview schedule. These were used for the purpose of collecting primary quantitative data and qualitative data. Chinnasamy et al (2012) believe that quantitative methods are used to explore and generate new understanding, opening the door for qualitative methods to dig deeper into the research area, as well as complement existing research. Qualitative research approach was used to assist the researcher determine the analytical techniques used to analyze data after data collection.

A questionnaire was designed for the students while the interview schedule was designed for university library staff and was organized according to the primary research objectives of the study.

3.7.1 Questionnaires

Questionnaire refers to a technique of data collection in which every respondent is asked to give answers to the same set of questions and statements in a preset order, in the absence of investigator. The study adopted questionnaire because they are usually inexpensive to administer compared to other research instruments, and they require very little training to develop and they can be easily and quickly be analyzed once completed. The questionnaire had four questions and adopted 5 likert scales; the questions composed of closed ended questions, and the target populations were the university students. It was administered to the students who are the users of the library.

3.7.2 Interview Schedule

The researcher also administered interviews. An interview is a discussion involving an interviewer and interviewee. It is an organized conversation aimed at gathering data on a particular topic. An interview is a method where a researcher interviews respondents to obtain information on the issue of interest. In this case, the interviews were designed and were individually administered to the staff of the University of Eldoret library. Interview’s was used in order to understand how the librarians perceive technology fitting within their libraries. It also allows the interviewee to the world as they experience it.

3.8 Validity of Instrument

A pilot study was conducted to test the validity of the research instruments. The researcher conducted a pilot study at Eldoret polytechnic, in order to test the validity of the research instruments. This institution was selected because its operations are similar to The University of Eldoret operations. The respondents that were taken for pilot study were not included in the main study. The subjects in the pilot study were requested to indicate their understanding of the questions, any questions with ambiguities and comment on the time required to complete a questionnaire. Recommendations and comments from the pilot study sample were used in drafting the final questionnaire that was used to collect data. Items that failed to measure the variables they were intended to measure were amended or removed thus enhancing the validity of the findings.

3.8.1 Results from Pilot Study

The pilot study was represented in the table below:

Table 1: Availability of ICT


I can easily access the available technology in the Library when I need it. F 3 8 0 5 2 18 3.28

% 16.70% 44.40% 0.00% 27.80% 11.10% 100% 65.60%

I am aware of the resources available at library that can help me learn how search for the online journals F 0 3 8 7 0 18 2.78

% 0.00% 16.70% 44.40% 38.90% 0.00% 100% 55.60%

I am familiar with technology is available in the library F 1 13 1 1 2 18 3.56

% 5.60% 72.20% 5.60% 5.60% 11.10% 100% 71.20%

I feel confident in my ability to integrate multiple technologies into my instruction F 2 6 1 2 7 18 2.67

% 11.10% 33.30% 5.60% 11.10% 38.90% 100% 53.40%

ICT has improved the quality of services offered in the library F 4 12 0 2 0 18 4

% 22.20% 66.70% 0.00% 11.10% 0.00% 100% 80.00%

During the pilot study six 18 respondents were issued with the questionnaires and their responses were as follows:

Findings indicate that 65.6% of the respondents said that they can easily access the available technology in the Library when they need it, 55.6% of the respondents said that they are aware of the resources available at library that can help me learn how search for the online journals, 71.2% of the respondents said that they are familiar with technology is available in the library, 53.4% of the respondents said that they are confident in their ability to integrate multiple technologies into my instruction, while 80% of the respondents were in agreement with the statement that ICT has improved the quality of services offered in the library.

3.8.2 Perceive Benefits of ICTs

The respondents were asked to rate the given statements regarding perceived benefits and their contribution to ICT adoption. Their responses were as represented in table .2

Table 2: Perceived benefits of ICTS


Easy to locate the book on the shelves F 3 2 6 6 1 18 3

% 16.70% 11.10% 33.30% 33.30% 5.60% 100% 60%

The data needed is available F 10 4 0 4 0 18 4.11

% 55.60% 22.20% 0.00% 22.20% 0.00% 100% 82.20%

Internet availability has improve information sharing F 2 4 1 10 1 18 2.78

% 11.10% 22.20% 5.60% 55.60% 5.60% 100% 54%

Information available in the internet is up to date F 2 5 1 10 0 18 2.84

% 11.10% 27.80% 5.60% 55.60% 0.00% 100% 56.80%

With use of the ICT resource one is able to check the status of the book i.e if it’s on the shelve or has been lend out F 4 9 3 2 0 18 3.83

% 22.20% 50.00% 16.70% 11.10% 0.00% 100% 76.60%

Online journal has made it possible to easily available F 4 8 0 5 1 18 3.5

% 22.20% 44.40% 0.00% 27.80% 5.60% 100% 70.00%

Improvement in information storage and retrieval F 4 8 4 2 0 18 3.78

% 22.20% 44.40% 22.20% 11.10% 0.00% 100% 75.60%

Improved customer service F 2 5 0 8 3 18 2.72

% 11.10% 27.80% 0.00% 44.40% 16.70% 100% 54.40%

Reduction in manpower F 3 5 1 9 0 18 3.11

% 16.70% 27.80% 5.60% 50.00% 0.00% 100% 62.20%

Results revealed that 60% of the respondents said that they find it easy to locate the book on the shelves, 82.2% of the respondents said that the data needed is available, 54% of the respondents said that Internet availability has improve information sharing, 56.8% of the respondents said that Information available in the internet is up to date, 76.6% of the respondents said that With use of the ICT resource one is able to check the status of the book i.e. if it’s on the shelve or has been lend out, 70% of the respondents said that Online journal has made it possible to easily available, 75.6% of the respondents said that there is an improvement in information storage and retrieval, 54.4% of the respondents said that there is Improved customer service, while 62.2% of the respondents said that there is reduction in manpower.

3.8.3 Comments from the Results of the Pilot Study

While conducting the pilot study, the following comments were made:

• Some of the questions in the questionnaire were ambiguous; others were too brief and hence not able to clearly meet the objectives.

• Some of the questions were not framed well such that the respondents found it hard respond to them.

• The questions in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd objective were not systematic this may have interfere with the analysis of data.

• The questionnaire did not have a set of question that would capture the dependent variable (ICT adoption)

Following the above comments, the researcher made the following adjustments:

• Some of the questions that were hard for the respondents to respond to were edited and others were completely removed as it were not relevant to the research.

• Designed another set of questions to capture objective3 so that it can be systematic with the previous objectives, this made it to be easily understood when it comes to the testing of the hypothesis.

• The researcher added one question to captured information on the dependent variable (ICT adoption) which enabled the researcher to test the hypothesis.

The questionnaire for the pilot study and the final thesis is attached to confirm the adjustments that were made in the phrasing and the designing of the data collection tool.

3.9 Reliability of Instrument

It was necessary to ascertain the validity and reliability of the instruments that were used to assemble data so that the research results could be reliable. Reliability is measure of internal consistency. The level of an instrument’s reliability is dependent on its ability to produce the same score when used repeatedly. A panel of experts designed the questionnaires that were used for the purposes of this study. Test retest reliability technique was also employed where questionnaires were issued to five (15) respondents. After 5 days, the questionnaires were administered to the same group. Minor corrections to the wording of some questions were made following the feedback from this trial. Cronbach’s alpha technique of measuring internal consistency or reliability was used .The reliability of the scales used was assessed for reliability with a target reliability alpha of 0.7. All scales had reliability between 0.82 and 0.86 which was above the 0.7 required. This therefore indicated that the items in the questionnaire were reliable.

3.10 Data Collection Procedures

The researcher obtained a letter from the university to be used to process the research permit from National Commission for Science Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI) and to identify her as a student carrying out a research. The researcher also sought permission from the librarian introducing herself and explaining the purpose of the study. After the grant of authority, the researcher self-administered questionnaires to the students and it was done on1st to 5th December 2014. The interview was schedule with the librarian and library staff was done on 8th to 10th December 2014 at normal working hours from 8.00am to 5.00 pm at the University of Eldoret Library.

3.11 Methods of data analysis

The data collected was transcribed, organized, coded and statistical tests run and interpreted in line with the objectives of the study. Qualitative data from interview schedule was analyzed using analyzed using content analysis and thematic summary analysis where the information was put into themes and discussed .Quantitative data from questionnaire were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics were used to present the distributional properties of the data and explain the respondents’ characteristics while inferential statistical tests were performed to investigate the nature, direction and strength of relationship between the variables. The analyzed data was presented tables.

Data was also analysed using multiple linear regression analysis. Regression analysis was used to relate a dependent variable to a set of independent variables.

The beta (β) coefficients for each independent variable were generated from the model. The regression model that was used to test is shown below:

Y= α+β1X1+ β2X2+ β3X3+ ε


Y is Adoption and Use of ICTs

α is Model Intercept

β is Regression coefficient

X1 is Students and Staff perception and attitude towards ICT

X2is Perceive benefits of ICTs

X3 is Availability of Technology

ε is Error Term

All the above statistical tests were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20.All tests were two-tailed. Significant levels were measured at 95% confidence level with significant differences recorded at p < 0.05

Data from interviews was in note form which is in line with what Robertson, (2012 had observed. This was analyzed using content analysis and thematic summary analysis where the information was put into themes and discussed. Data was arranged into themes and then gave a discussion and interpretation of the data. Analysis of data in an interview environment is a continuous process that progresses as the interview progresses. Data analysis was done through content analysis (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2003). This data analysis technique involved five steps according to Taylor-Powell & Renner (2003.

Step one involved careful reading of the notes and clearly understanding them, then wrote down any interpretations and impressions that the researcher might have had as she went through the data. In this study, this step involved arranging the different responses into the three major categories which include perceived benefits of ICTs in libraries, User and staff perception and attitude towards ICT. Availability of technologies

The second step involves focusing the analysis to the ability of the data in answering the research questions. Data analysis was in this case be focused and arranged according to the research hypothesis. The third step involved categorizing the information. This entailed identifying the themes and organizing the themes in distinct categories, this involved reading and re-reading the narrative data and identifying the categories that the data relate to.

Step 4 involved identifying patterns within and between different categories

The data was organized by research hypothesis of the study. Then identified similarities and differences both within and outside the hypothesis and assessed the relative importance of different responses, then highlighted the variations in responses from the different respondents. The information pertaining to every research hypothesis was then summarized.

Step five involves interpretation. The themes, similarities and dissimilarities were used to explain the findings, this step brings out the major lessons learnt, and the new things that are brought out, what findings concur with findings from other studies and synthesizing the information and getting its meaning. In this section, direct quotes from the interview were provided to give credence to the data.

3.12 Ethical considerations

The study adhered to ethics in research the first issue being consent; this is the procedure by which research subjects choose whether or not they wish to participate in a research study. Every person was given an opportunity to decide if he/she wanted to participate in the study. The respondents were informed that the information provided was for the academic purpose. Respondents who wish not participate in the interview was also respected. With regard to privacy and confidentiality, the participants had the right to keep from the public certain information about themselves and that all data collected were used for the purposes of the study.

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