Essay: News production and technology

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Have new technologies redefined the nature of news production, how information is gathered and
received?
The literature on the impact of converging technologies on a journalists’s practice is getting broader
day by day. Digital media and nowadays, multimedia newsrooms are transforming training and
education of journalism worldwide (Castaneda, 2003).
The multimedia convergence is considered to threaten a news culture that prefers individual expert
systems instead of sharing of knowledge and teamwork (Singer, 2004).
The combination of mastering newsgathering and storytelling techniques in all media formats (so-
called ‘multi-skilling’), and the integration of digital network technologies along with a redefining of
the news producer – consumer relationship tends to be seen as one of the biggest challenges facing
journalism today (Bardoel and Deuze, 2001; Pavlik et al., 2001; Teoh Kheng Yau and Al-Hawamdeh,
2001).
Such convergence leads to possible specialization of information services, where the existing unity of
production, content and distribution within each different mediums will really struggle to exist
(Bardoel, 1996).
A journalist now has to carefully plan out where and how he/she will use her news-piece as
nowadays, news production is now normally in convergent media.
But the reporters of Tampa Bay Online in America did not want to give up their established way of
doing things and disagreed to work with colleagues in other parts of their organization (Stevens,
2002).
A survey by multimedia consulting firmInnovation cited the biggest obstacle to media convergence as
‘the individualistic nature of journalists’. On the basis of such similar surveys, one may argue that the
shift from individualistic, journalism to team-based multimedia journalism creates particular tensions
in the industry and among journalists, and possesses a big threat to the conseravtive values in
journalism’s ideology (Bowman and Willis, 2003). I don\’t think technologies has redefined news
production but rather, the technologies has taken the definition of news production to a whole
different level. The code and ethics will always be there although the future of print media looks dim
due to the emeregence and convergence of different media. The ways in which Information is
gathered and received and drastically changed but core values of news production still remains intact.
Of course, the usage of raw footage from social media has had an impact but the crux of how news
must be produced, I think, still prevails to this date. Whether this will still be the case in future is hard
to predict but many media pundits have given their insight into what future may hold when it comes
to producing news.
Gone are those days when news was only broadcasted by a certain channel at a certain time, now ever
channel is forced to give out news every now and then at least, if not a news channel, because the
public nowadays have become active listeners. This is where the pull vs. push ideology comes in. In
early days, it was more like a “machine gun” approach where the media houses pushed out news to
the public and we simple consumed it passively. But now, we can like, dislike, comment, share and
even film videos, which could be used by a media company to produce news. There is now a constant
battle the media institutions and the public: there is between pull vs. push. And the rise in the
production hence the consumption of new technologies is making this battle even bigger than before.
We no more want to passively listen or/and watch and accept it as we are more educated, more aware,
well informed because literally everything is available in the click of a button. When popular
Bollywood director was filmed being confronted for sexually assaulting a struggling actress in
Bollywood, it was more than enough to be in indian news for weeks as Bolywood is a big part of
indian lifestyles. Not only was the video used to produce news, that newspiece gave rise to the
production of plenty of news. This might’ve accidentally touched the wrong chord of women,
especially feminists but when the picture of the dead Syrian baby in Turkish seashores was released, it
started a worldwide campaign to mobilise helpful people to help the refugees on compassionate
grounds. Although there were many pictures circulated at that time, that one picture, because it was
highly emotive, got many media houses around the world to produce news and increase the ratings of
their channels. But This is where ethics plays a crucial role. when is news not news anymore? Where
do we draw the line? Who decides which newspiece gets the chop and which lucky few ones get aired
or published? For this purose, it is essential to look at the NUJ code of ethics.
How old technologies defined the nature of news production?
Mcchesney (1995: 51) found the period after the second world war as the one where “the calibre of
professional journalism prospered and gradually built a stringent autonmy from the dictates of owners
and advertisers, and from the entire corporate sector.”
Hesmondhalgh, D. (2013) The cultural industries. 3rd Edition. London: Sage, p. 385
http://www.oxfordscholarship.com.ezproxy.lib.gla.ac.uk/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195370805.00
1.0001/acprof-9780195370805-chapter-1
http://reader.eblib.com/(S(10pfezhuuxx5cbuuujaszbs3))/Reader.aspx?p=1783877&o=78&u=nMn5TV
jdUu6jhx88nJcUPEjEZyI%3d&t=1447715244&h=D26630B900383C1DE2F216143BCCEC601A5C
0A2A&s=39963942&ut=172&pg=1&r=img&c=-1&pat=n&cms=-1&sd=2
But the the key question here is what must be done?
Journal of Business Ethics
March 1999, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 81-90
First online: Has Technology Introduced New Ethical Problems?
The is4profit team September 20, 2006
http://is4profit.com/production-technology/
Future of News: How will technology change news in the future?
28 January 2015 Last updated at 07:35 GMT
Technological developments are allowing journalists to find news content and giving them the space,
under strict time constraints, to change the ways in which newsstories are told.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-31013862
Changes in Technology in the Past Decade
Tue, 01/12/2009 – 08:00 — Michael Hall
New developments in technology has rapidly changed how information is gathered and received.
CITIZEN JOURNALISM:
Now, since majority of us have a phone, everyone can record, gather and receive videos,
which could be in the news in a click of a button, which means, the public, who were once
the passive “consumers” of news can become “producers,” in a much less difficult way than ever
before. Such kind of less inclusive journalism,” has both pros and cons. Since its not rehearsed,
scripted or staged by a professional, its raw
and more emotive. It also provides society with the opportunity to be creative and gain
“instant fame” through what they capture, upload and share with world. This can be images or video,
although raw video footages tends to attract more attention from the mainstream media, as a potential
news material. For instance, people can photograph images of their favourite bands and gain
recognition for it from the band themselves and fans.
The practices of online news production:
Four aspects of changes in journalistic practices have attracted most of the attention of
scholarly research on online news: modifications in editorial workflow, modifications in the way
news are gathered now, acceleration of temporal patterns of content production, and the
convergence in different platformas: print, broadcast, and online.
Many scholars have strongly argued that online news has dramatically increased the pressure on
journalists to cleverly combine news-gathering and story-telling techniques in different media formats
multiple tasks and at the same time, multi-task! (Cawley, 2008; Lawson-Borders, 2006; Ursell, 2001;
Zavoina and Reichert, 2000). This pressure blends long-standing workflows with huge demands and
‘multiskilling’ (Bromley, 1997). As a result, more and more journalists are being made redundant with
the expectation from the few working to multitask, which could not only jeopardise the quality of the
newspiece the reputation of the entire media company.
The existing technological capabilities and how journalists appropriate them contribute to shape
information-gathering practices (Millen and Dray, 2000; O’Sullivan and Heinonen, 2008; Pavlik,
2000; Salwen, 2005). However, use of the internet for information-seeking has not been homogenous
across national contexts. Nearly one-third of journalists in the United Kingdom surveyed in 2000 had
no access to the internet, only a handful used news groups, and ‘the idea that journalists spent their
time surfing the internet [looking for story ideas] was laughed at by more than one journalist’
(Nicholas et al. 2000: 104).
T’,Thus, jounalists then were not sure thus didn’t entirely depend on online information to produce
reliable news. Shin and Cameron conducted a survey of South Korean and American journalists and
found that, although journalists depend on the web for background information and story ideas, ‘the
majority of journalists remain skeptical about most websites’ (2003: 259). From this perspective, the
journalists followed ethics and norms more strictly then now because they were producing news first
hand, unlike now, where the first source of a piece of news is from a video, blog, and usually a raw
footage, status or comment from social media.
But now, news production has come a long way.
4hSocial Networks: In this day and age, journalists have the luxury of depending on social media to
search for new stories and contacts, or they can also use it as a pathway to promote and trail ahead to
stories or broadcasts on conventional platforms. And it’s the best time for journalists everywhere
because now, they are aware that have an instant access to a plethora of new materials coming up
every moment and a diverse range of voices from lietrally all over the world!.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/academy/journalism/skills/social-media/articlety/art20130702112133515
http://www.legalsecretaryjournal.com/?q=changes_in_technology_in_the_past_decade
Constant publication of new stories during the day has become an institutionalized norm among
leading online news sites of Argentina (Boczkowski and De Santos, 2007). But this constant pressure
to produce fresh news can severly affect the relationship between journalist and audience because the
move towards constant publication leads to ‘[news] agency dependent and “secondhand” journalism’
( Quandt, 2008b: 89), due to the lack of the time for research, cross-checking, and original writing.
Due to this loss of trust by the public, the tension between the established ways of producing news,
and the changes in journalistic practice that the online medium now affords to play out
in distinct ways in different social, political, and cultural settings (Deuze, 2008; Dimitrova et al.,
2005; Weber and Jia, 2007). For instance, citizens in Russia and Ukraine ‘turn to the online sources to
obtain more information than is available in offline media, and at the same time, “less censored,” as
some political observers call it, information about political developments in these societies.’ (Semetko
and Krasnoboka 2003: 94) Henceforth, the “online” medium of newsgathering is not all good news.
Few scholars examined the organizational integration among print, broadcast, and online operations,
usually under the “rubric of convergence” (Dennis, 2006; Deuze, 2007; Dupagne and Garrison, 2006;
Quinn, 2005). Convergence as ‘the realm of possibilities when there is a mutual cooperation occuring
between print and broadcast media for the delivery of multimedia content through the usage of the
internet and the computers.’ (Lawson-Borders 2006:4)
Therefore, it has its advantages and disadvantages. On one hand, it could be beneficial for society
(Deuze and Dimoudi, 2002; Pavlik, 2000). On the other hand, there can be some concerns about the
broader societal significance of these challenges (Salwen, 2005; Singer, 2001; Williams and Delli
Carpini, 2000). This, in turn, leads directly to issues of user-authored content.
The user as a content producer:
Other scholars have found coincidences between user-generated content and partisan news production
before journalism was established as an established occupation (Hendrickson, 2007; Lowrey, 2006;
Nerone and Barnhurst, 2001; Russell, 2001; Singer, 2006b).
Studies have also analyzed professional and organizational issues related to user-generated content.
Some researchers emphasize that users differ from journalists because their contributions are not
necessarily guided by traditional editorial norms, like objectivity and expertise (Carlson, 2007; Kim
and Hamilton, 2006; Rutigliano, 2007). jk
But sadly, there is still a strong inequality of access (Bustamante, 2004; Ghareeb, 2000; Tremayne,
2007).The fact that modern technologies are accessible to only a small fraction of the [world]
population, contributes to an electronic public sphere that is exclusive, elitist, and far from ideal. On;y
3 billion Internet users were expected by the end of 2014, meaning 60% of the world\’s population —
about 4.2 billion – would still remain unconnected by the United Nations.1
For example, the process of introducing specific technologies at the advertiser was modelled on the
progress made at Wapping, By simon cottle, which was, by the late 1990s, the largest newspaper
printing works in Europe (Marjoribanks 2000a; Tunstall 1996)
4. Have new technologies redefined the nature of news production, how information is gathered and
received?
Media convergence:
Bert’s evil images travelled from sesame street through photoshop to the online world, from the small
bedroom of Ignacio to a print shop in Bangladesh, from the posters held by anti-american protestors
shown by CNN into the living rooms of people around the world.
-henry jenkins, convergence culture.
Drones, also known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), performed aerial surveys to help gather and
receive information about the disaster area, after the earthquake on Nepal.
Sandra Swanson, p. 6, PM Netwrok, October 2015, volume 29, number 10, Quad graphics
THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF NEWS
More public and commercial systems of ownership mix and intertwine in a growing variety of ways
(Noam 1991). Research on the impact on news content of chain ownership in comparison to the
1 Global Internet access By Salvador Rodriguez May 7, 2014, 10:30 AM
60% of world\’s population still won\’t have Internet by the end of 2014
http://www.latimes.com/business/technology/la-fi-tn-60-world-population-3-billion-internet-2014-20140507-
story.html
independent ownership of newspapers in the US has been quite inconclusive (Demers 1996) so we do
not clearly know, as of yet, if chain ownership does have an effect – negative, positive or none – on
news production in american newspapers but in regards to that, british news companies, it’s quite a
different story.
Some scholars write as if corporate ownership and commercial organizations necessarily compromise
the democratic promise of public communication (McChesney 1997), but in Latin America “strong
control, censorship, and manipulation of the mass media during authoritarian and democratic regimes
have openly ignored statist models” (Waisbord 1995, p. 219).
In all cases, self-censorship rather than heavy-handed party control is the operating system
(Polumbaum 1997).
Mainstream media keep inforcing political understandings which in turn inforce the collective views
of leading political actors. In regards to news production about the 2016 presidential election
campaign, it is very timely and relevant. Although presidential hopeful Donald Trump says a lot of
controversial things, he is very much covered by different channels to up their ratings, which in turn
help him up his own ratings in the popularity poll, making more and more popular day after day.
What really matters is how unified the views of these political insiders actually are, (Hallin 1986) if
we were to observe the big media tv channels and newspapers.
holds that the media “serve to mobilize support for the special interests that dominate the state and the
private activity” Herman & Chomsky\’s Manufacturing Consent (1988, p. xi)
corporations in the early 1970s were so incensed by the coverage by the american media of politics,
the environment, and business (Dreier 1982).
Even during the Vietnam War, the press seems largely to have gone about its normal business of
citing official lem mkaders—but at a time when officials were not in good terms with one another
(Hallin 1986).
ggtJohn Simpson: British Media Is \’Grotesquely Selective\’ In Reporting Terror Attacks Posted:
20/11/2015 11:59 GMT Updated: 22/11/2015 22:59 GMT
foreign correspondents number has been drastically declining in recent years.
When it comes to covering foreign affairs, ======== newspaper ========= now just rewrite
stories from other people because nowadays, the mainstream media is too selective on its foreign
affairs reporting.
Although there maybe great things happening around the world, whether the incident will be covered
or not in news is decided by the number of people dying then.
Last year, —- people were killed in Syria — but none of the incidents were reported. When ===
people died in Paris during the terror attacks, the incident was instantly picked up most of the
mainstram media globally. The effect was as strong as the time when it had allowed the american
flafg in the profile picture’s foreground, facebook let its users do the same but with a french flag to
show solidarity.
So although it may seem like technology has changed news production for better when we look at it in
the surface level, deep inside, it has probably changed for worse. British media was recently criticised
for not reporting on recent incidents in Beirut, even when several outlets had already drawn attention
to the events.
Even to this date, there is almost no news organisation which has branches in Middle Eastern cities
like Iraq’s capital Baghdad. Not because, it is manually impossible set up a centre there or it is too
unsafe but surprisingly, because the western public is simple uniterested about those kind of important
matters. Why else do you think Kim Kardashain was the most searched person online last year?
The new media landscape is \’extremely herat-rending’.
.Newsnigh? how has it changed?
As for journalists trying to identify the “real” pressing issues of today, “it\’s a question of
differentiating between what is important and what is not important ( which does not necessarily mean
useless)
Why I have resigned from the Telegraph
Peter Oborne 17 February 2015
Simply relying on online poularity can has very negative effects on media companies!
Open for business?
The gradual plummetting of journalism standards has brought about a rather unfortunate change. It
has long been self-evident in quality British journalism that two departments: advertising and editorial
should be kept strictly apart. There is a great deal of evidence that, at the Telegraph, this distinction
has collapsed.
It generated five paragraphs in total on page 5 of the business section.
Cunard advertiser in the Telegraph aggressively contributing a lot of revenue to the paper.
The newpaper’s story on last year’s protests in Hong Kong seemed a bit odd.
When advertisers are allowed to affect the editorial, not only the quality of the newspiece but of the
entire paper is frowned upon by its dear readers, who help the newspaper running.
If advertising priorities are allowed to determine editorial judgments, what kind of effect can it have
on the faithful readers’ trust on the paper? TIt has been clearly gicing more importance to what it
perceives to be the interests of a huge international bank much more than its obligation to bring the
news to Telegraph readers.
In a democratic soceity, free press plays a vital role, especdially in proving that that democracy still
exists. Newspapers or tv channels or any media company, they have an obligation to inform the truth,
the fact to the public, not just educate them about the migration crisis or entertain them with the
Kardashians. In the eyes of the public, lies, fabrication, altercation, misrepressentation and the hiding
of the truth cannot be condoned.
In the last few years, new bosses have been determining what gets the chop or the green light in the
mainstream media. We are all familiar with how low News International newspapers went with the
phone hacking ultimately forcing them to liquidation. Even the rich and powerful Rupert murdoch had
to make a public apology.
NUJ code of conduct
A journalist:10. Does not by way of statement, voice or appearance endorse by advertisement any
commercial service or product save for the promotion of her/his own work or of the medium by which
she/he is employed.
the distinction between advertising and our award-winning editorial operation has always been
fundamental to our business.
Online
6.4.21
NUJ code of conduct
A journalist:
1. At all times upholds and defends the principle of media freedom, the right of freedom of
expression and the right of the public to be informed.
THE PUBLIC INTEREST
There may be exceptions to the clauses marked * where they can be demonstrated to be in the public
interest.
1. The public interest includes, but is not confined to:Detecting or exposing crime or serious
impropriety, Protecting public health and safety, Preventing the public from being misled by an action
or statement of an individual or organisation. BBC itself is misleading the public by giving itslef the
authority to create websites which are not connected to BBC, making us believe that they are
independent websites, when in fact, they’re created by the BBC, so they will either support or ignore
any issue related to BBC, but will never present news which conflict with BBC’s news or present any
news which will harm BBC in any way.
2. There is a public interest in freedom of expression itself.
3. Whenever the public interest is invoked, the PCC will be asking editors to demonstrate fully that
they reasonably believed that publication or any journalistic activity undertaken with a view to
publication, would be in the public interest and how, and with whom, that was established at the time.
Conclusion: Newsrooms in an Age of Digital Production:
Network television news programs, only gave 13.5 percent of their time to international news in 1995
compared to 45 percent in the 1970s (Hickey 1998). Since technology and travel is making the world
smaller, even if we may not know who our neighbours are, we now know what’s happening in a
different continent in a click of a button. And this shift has greatly influenced the interests of
corporate managers and advertisers who in turn influence the form and content of news to a great
level (Squires 1993; Downie and Kaiser 2001).
Some of the most notable examples of advertisers playing a part in editorial decision making include
the rise of service-oriented “news you can use,” entertainment, human interest, health, reporting and
of news beats such as “malls,” “shopping,” and “car culture” (Underwood 1993). But when advertisers
have a strong dominance over the paper, then news production becomes one big mess, so much so that
few notable employees have quit in the past, creating big public furore and concern. For instance,
*********************** example of the man who quit times, article by catherine.
As a matter of fact, when huge companies took over news organizations and entered the journalistic
field, they developed new strategies to increase the profitability, productivity and efficiency of news
businesses (Squires 1993; Underwood 1993; Dugger 2000; Downie and Kaiser 2001). As a result,
media executives and managerial-minded editors not only downsized their journalistic staffs, what
they ended up doing was inventing new regimes of production of convergence to expand their
offerings across media (Auletta 1998). But this could likely mean the extinctuion of print media
eventually as everything moves online. Is it so?
The digital age will not herald the end of print. Far from it. The managerial skills needed to run a top
newspaper company – strong editorial skills, the ability to build brands, read the market and the
creation of compelling and original content, – will be equally relevant in the 21st century just as it is
today. (Murdoch 1997)
Technological developments are still in its preliminary phase in majority of the news companies. It is,
henceforth, difficult to predict their future. However, politics, legislation and the culture governing the
news industry will play vital roles in figuring out how the ever-advancing technologies redefine news
production, as they did before massive technological advancements.
Page 1 of 11
4. Have new technologies redefined the nature of news production, how information is gathered and
received?
The literature on the impact of converging technologies on a journalists’s practice is getting broader
day by day. Digital media and nowadays, multimedia newsrooms are transforming training and
education of journalism worldwide (Castaneda, 2003).
The multimedia convergence is considered to threaten a news culture that prefers individual expert
systems instead of sharing of knowledge and teamwork (Singer, 2004).
The combination of mastering newsgathering and storytelling techniques in all media formats (so-
called ‘multi-skilling’), and the integration of digital network technologies along with a redefining of
the news producer – consumer relationship tends to be seen as one of the biggest challenges facing
journalism today (Bardoel and Deuze, 2001; Pavlik et al., 2001; Teoh Kheng Yau and Al-Hawamdeh,
2001).
Such convergence leads to possible specialization of information services, where the existing unity of
production, content and distribution within each different mediums will really struggle to exist
(Bardoel, 1996).
A journalist now has to carefully plan out where and how he/she will use her news-piece as
nowadays, news production is now normally in convergent media.
But the reporters of Tampa Bay Online in America did not want to give up their established way of
doing things and disagreed to work with colleagues in other parts of their organization (Stevens,
2002).
A survey by multimedia consulting firmInnovation cited the biggest obstacle to media convergence as
‘the individualistic nature of journalists’. On the basis of such similar surveys, one may argue that the
shift from individualistic, journalism to team-based multimedia journalism creates particular tensions
in the industry and among journalists, and possesses a big threat to the conseravtive values in
journalism’s ideology (Bowman and Willis, 2003). I don\’t think technologies has redefined news
production but rather, the technologies has taken the definition of news production to a whole
different level. The code and ethics will always be there although the future of print media looks dim
due to the emeregence and convergence of different media. The ways in which Information is
gathered and received and drastically changed but core values of news production still remains intact.
Of course, the usage of raw footage from social media has had an impact but the crux of how news
must be produced, I think, still prevails to this date. Whether this will still be the case in future is hard
to predict but many media pundits have given their insight into what future may hold when it comes
to producing news.
Page 2 of 11
Gone are those days when news was only broadcasted by a certain channel at a certain time, now ever
channel is forced to give out news every now and then at least, if not a news channel, because the
public nowadays have become active listeners. This is where the pull vs. push ideology comes in. In
early days, it was more like a “machine gun” approach where the media houses pushed out news to
the public and we simple consumed it passively. But now, we can like, dislike, comment, share and
even film videos, which could be used by a media company to produce news. There is now a constant
battle the media institutions and the public: there is between pull vs. push. And the rise in the
production hence the consumption of new technologies is making this battle even bigger than before.
We no more want to passively listen or/and watch and accept it as we are more educated, more aware,
well informed because literally everything is available in the click of a button. When popular
Bollywood director was filmed being confronted for sexually assaulting a struggling actress in
Bollywood, it was more than enough to be in indian news for weeks as Bolywood is a big part of
indian lifestyles. Not only was the video used to produce news, that newspiece gave rise to the
production of plenty of news. This might’ve accidentally touched the wrong chord of women,
especially feminists but when the picture of the dead Syrian baby in Turkish seashores was released, it
started a worldwide campaign to mobilise helpful people to help the refugees on compassionate
grounds. Although there were many pictures circulated at that time, that one picture, because it was
highly emotive, got many media houses around the world to produce news and increase the ratings of
their channels. But This is where ethics plays a crucial role. when is news not news anymore? Where
do we draw the line? Who decides which newspiece gets the chop and which lucky few ones get aired
or published? For this purose, it is essential to look at the NUJ code of ethics.
How old technologies defined the nature of news production?
Mcchesney (1995: 51) found the period after the second world war as the one where “the calibre of
professional journalism prospered and gradually built a stringent autonmy from the dictates of owners
and advertisers, and from the entire corporate sector.”
Hesmondhalgh, D. (2013) The cultural industries. 3rd Edition. London: Sage, p. 385
http://www.oxfordscholarship.com.ezproxy.lib.gla.ac.uk/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195370805.00
1.0001/acprof-9780195370805-chapter-1
http://reader.eblib.com/(S(10pfezhuuxx5cbuuujaszbs3))/Reader.aspx?p=1783877&o=78&u=nMn5TV
jdUu6jhx88nJcUPEjEZyI%3d&t=1447715244&h=D26630B900383C1DE2F216143BCCEC601A5C
0A2A&s=39963942&ut=172&pg=1&r=img&c=-1&pat=n&cms=-1&sd=2
Page 3 of 11
But the the key question here is what must be done?
Journal of Business Ethics
March 1999, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 81-90
First online: Has Technology Introduced New Ethical Problems?
The is4profit team September 20, 2006
http://is4profit.com/production-technology/
Future of News: How will technology change news in the future?
28 January 2015 Last updated at 07:35 GMT
Technological developments are allowing journalists to find news content and giving them the space,
under strict time constraints, to change the ways in which newsstories are told.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-31013862
Changes in Technology in the Past Decade
Tue, 01/12/2009 – 08:00 — Michael Hall
New developments in technology has rapidly changed how information is gathered and received.
CITIZEN JOURNALISM:
Now, since majority of us have a phone, everyone can record, gather and receive videos,
which could be in the news in a click of a button, which means, the public, who were once
the passive “consumers” of news can become “producers,” in a much less difficult way than ever
before. Such kind of less inclusive journalism,” has both pros and cons. Since its not rehearsed,
scripted or staged by a professional, its raw
and more emotive. It also provides society with the opportunity to be creative and gain
“instant fame” through what they capture, upload and share with world. This can be images or video,
although raw video footages tends to attract more attention from the mainstream media, as a potential
Page 4 of 11
news material. For instance, people can photograph images of their favourite bands and gain
recognition for it from the band themselves and fans.
The practices of online news production:
Four aspects of changes in journalistic practices have attracted most of the attention of
scholarly research on online news: modifications in editorial workflow, modifications in the way
news are gathered now, acceleration of temporal patterns of content production, and the
convergence in different platformas: print, broadcast, and online.
Many scholars have strongly argued that online news has dramatically increased the pressure on
journalists to cleverly combine news-gathering and story-telling techniques in different media formats
multiple tasks and at the same time, multi-task! (Cawley, 2008; Lawson-Borders, 2006; Ursell, 2001;
Zavoina and Reichert, 2000). This pressure blends long-standing workflows with huge demands and
‘multiskilling’ (Bromley, 1997). As a result, more and more journalists are being made redundant with
the expectation from the few working to multitask, which could not only jeopardise the quality of the
newspiece the reputation of the entire media company.
The existing technological capabilities and how journalists appropriate them contribute to shape
information-gathering practices (Millen and Dray, 2000; O’Sullivan and Heinonen, 2008; Pavlik,
2000; Salwen, 2005). However, use of the internet for information-seeking has not been homogenous
across national contexts. Nearly one-third of journalists in the United Kingdom surveyed in 2000 had
no access to the internet, only a handful used news groups, and ‘the idea that journalists spent their
time surfing the internet [looking for story ideas] was laughed at by more than one journalist’
(Nicholas et al. 2000: 104).
T’,Thus, jounalists then were not sure thus didn’t entirely depend on online information to produce
reliable news. Shin and Cameron conducted a survey of South Korean and American journalists and
found that, although journalists depend on the web for background information and story ideas, ‘the
majority of journalists remain skeptical about most websites’ (2003: 259). From this perspective, the
journalists followed ethics and norms more strictly then now because they were producing news first
hand, unlike now, where the first source of a piece of news is from a video, blog, and usually a raw
footage, status or comment from social media.
But now, news production has come a long way.
Page 5 of 11
4hSocial Networks: In this day and age, journalists have the luxury of depending on social media to
search for new stories and contacts, or they can also use it as a pathway to promote and trail ahead to
stories or broadcasts on conventional platforms. And it’s the best time for journalists everywhere
because now, they are aware that have an instant access to a plethora of new materials coming up
every moment and a diverse range of voices from lietrally all over the world!.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/academy/journalism/skills/social-media/articlety/art20130702112133515
http://www.legalsecretaryjournal.com/?q=changes_in_technology_in_the_past_decade
Constant publication of new stories during the day has become an institutionalized norm among
leading online news sites of Argentina (Boczkowski and De Santos, 2007). But this constant pressure
to produce fresh news can severly affect the relationship between journalist and audience because the
move towards constant publication leads to ‘[news] agency dependent and “secondhand” journalism’
( Quandt, 2008b: 89), due to the lack of the time for research, cross-checking, and original writing.
Due to this loss of trust by the public, the tension between the established ways of producing news,
and the changes in journalistic practice that the online medium now affords to play out
in distinct ways in different social, political, and cultural settings (Deuze, 2008; Dimitrova et al.,
2005; Weber and Jia, 2007). For instance, citizens in Russia and Ukraine ‘turn to the online sources to
obtain more information than is available in offline media, and at the same time, “less censored,” as
some political observers call it, information about political developments in these societies.’ (Semetko
and Krasnoboka 2003: 94) Henceforth, the “online” medium of newsgathering is not all good news.
Few scholars examined the organizational integration among print, broadcast, and online operations,
usually under the “rubric of convergence” (Dennis, 2006; Deuze, 2007; Dupagne and Garrison, 2006;
Quinn, 2005). Convergence as ‘the realm of possibilities when there is a mutual cooperation occuring
between print and broadcast media for the delivery of multimedia content through the usage of the
internet and the computers.’ (Lawson-Borders 2006:4)
Therefore, it has its advantages and disadvantages. On one hand, it could be beneficial for society
(Deuze and Dimoudi, 2002; Pavlik, 2000). On the other hand, there can be some concerns about the
broader societal significance of these challenges (Salwen, 2005; Singer, 2001; Williams and Delli
Carpini, 2000). This, in turn, leads directly to issues of user-authored content.
The user as a content producer:
Page 6 of 11
Other scholars have found coincidences between user-generated content and partisan news production
before journalism was established as an established occupation (Hendrickson, 2007; Lowrey, 2006;
Nerone and Barnhurst, 2001; Russell, 2001; Singer, 2006b).
Studies have also analyzed professional and organizational issues related to user-generated content.
Some researchers emphasize that users differ from journalists because their contributions are not
necessarily guided by traditional editorial norms, like objectivity and expertise (Carlson, 2007; Kim
and Hamilton, 2006; Rutigliano, 2007). jk
But sadly, there is still a strong inequality of access (Bustamante, 2004; Ghareeb, 2000; Tremayne,
2007).The fact that modern technologies are accessible to only a small fraction of the [world]
population, contributes to an electronic public sphere that is exclusive, elitist, and far from ideal. On;y
3 billion Internet users were expected by the end of 2014, meaning 60% of the world\’s population —
about 4.2 billion – would still remain unconnected by the United Nations.1
For example, the process of introducing specific technologies at the advertiser was modelled on the
progress made at Wapping, By simon cottle, which was, by the late 1990s, the largest newspaper
printing works in Europe (Marjoribanks 2000a; Tunstall 1996)
4. Have new technologies redefined the nature of news production, how information is gathered and
received?
Media convergence:
Bert’s evil images travelled from sesame street through photoshop to the online world, from the small
bedroom of Ignacio to a print shop in Bangladesh, from the posters held by anti-american protestors
shown by CNN into the living rooms of people around the world.
-henry jenkins, convergence culture.
Drones, also known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), performed aerial surveys to help gather and
receive information about the disaster area, after the earthquake on Nepal.
Sandra Swanson, p. 6, PM Netwrok, October 2015, volume 29, number 10, Quad graphics
THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF NEWS
More public and commercial systems of ownership mix and intertwine in a growing variety of ways
(Noam 1991). Research on the impact on news content of chain ownership in comparison to the
1 Global Internet access By Salvador Rodriguez May 7, 2014, 10:30 AM
60% of world\’s population still won\’t have Internet by the end of 2014
http://www.latimes.com/business/technology/la-fi-tn-60-world-population-3-billion-internet-2014-20140507-
story.html
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
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