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Essay: How did communism succeeding in China affect U.S. Foreign Policy?

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  • Subject area(s): International Relations
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  • Published: February 6, 2019*
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  • How did communism succeeding in China affect U.S. Foreign Policy?
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China has been a communist nation for many years. Beginning there uprise in communism with the Chinese civil war. A war fought between the Communist and Nationalist of China . With the Communist-ledq by Mao Zedong and Nationalist led by Chiang Kai Shek. The war had originally began in the 1920’s under Sun Yat Sen the original founder of the Nationalist political party. Nationalist had worked towards defeating a vary of warlords ruling over China in efforts to consolidating the nation as one. Receiving no aid to the cause from Western Powers , Nationalist were able to receive both aid and support from the Soviet Union. Who had also been supporting growing Communist parties in China at the time. Also referred to as KMT (Kuomintang) the Nationalist political party had been taken over by Chiang Kai Shek a close Ally of Sun Yat Sen, after his death of in 1925. At this time Nationalist and Communist had joined forces to fight against the warlord invaders together. In 1926 the Chinese war had officially began with the Northern Expedition, a campaign of the Chinese Nationalist army. After defeating the warlords together the alliance between the Communist and Nationalist had deteriorated, and the rivalry continued long after the joint victory. In 1927 KMT leaders sought out a meeting discussing Communist activities occurring on there property. This meeting resulted in the Shanghai Massacre. A fight that would end in the execution of hundreds of CPC ( Communist people of China ) members and a split within the KMT party. The KMT had split into two the left wing and the right wing with Chiang Kai Shek leading the right wing. The CPC then made an effort in taking over cities in China , becoming successful with the takeover of Beijing. With China having three capitals it left territory for each party and for the next 10 years the CPC would have Bejing , the left party of the KMT would have Wuhan and the right wing would have Nanjing . In 1928 the KMT right wing had captured Beijing, later on making it so that all of the eastern party of China was controlled by Nanjing government. In order to preserve their own forces the KMT used Khampa Troops to fight the CPC “ red army” . In 1937-45 the beginning of the Second Sino – Japanese war had began and the civil war in China would be put on hold. The two sides would then join forces and fight the Japanese invaders as one. The war lasted for eight years eventually becoming part of World War II as the United States and Great Britain assisted china as the allied nations in order To defeat Japan. During the war the tension between Communist and Nationalist continued despite the invasion of Japan. As they came up with plans to attack one another after the Japanese were to leave their nation. At the end of World War II the Chinese civil war resumed, going on for another four years. With Mao Zedong and the Communist party in the end defeating the KMT Nationalist army. After the war Nationalist then fled to Taiwan establishing their nation also known as the Republic Of China. Meanwhile the Nation is china was taken over by Mao Zedong and the CPC “Red Army”. The Chinese nation was then renamed the People’s Republic Of China with Mao Zedong as Charming of the Communist party.China then officially became a Communist nation and to this day no peace treaty has been signed , Masking the war technically still ongoing. This war would become the underlying reason behind the success of China as a Communist nation. Nationalist failed with their use of dictatorship during the war. Communist knew exactly how to gain support from the people, expanding their military to over 1 million and becoming the popular party leading them to victory in the end. The environment of communism in the world began as a political economic philosophy founded by Karl Marx. Communism is defined as “A society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their ability and needs” eliminating the classism inspired by capitalism where one class does all the work and tthe other gets all of the profit. see after Karl Marx made his discovery this led to the rise of many more communist nations and leaders. Many communist nations back then and even today were/are not real communist but in fact nations under a socialist government versus a environment of communism in the United States however was much the different then the rest of the world . The United States fought against Communist and Communist nations all while joining forces with those who declared themselves anti communist. Americas support in the civil war Allied with the Nationalist in many different ways. With helping Taiwan in the fight against China and also their cooperation with china to fight against the Soviet Union. In the end with the success of communism in china this led to series Of event in history that would go on to affecting the United States foreign policy specifically.
America’s involvement in the Chinese Civil War begins after the defeat of Japan.
Collaborating with Chiang Kai Shek the US demanded Japanese invaders to surrender only to Nationalist keeping land away from the communist party. “In 1970 the United States recognized the Republic of China on Taiwan as the legitimate government of mainland China and did not maintain diplomatic relations with the communist regime of the People’s Republic of China.-PRC”. So After the civil war it became the main goal for the US to stop their spread of communism around the world, and provide aid to the “central government” of china. As a capitalist country communism went against its social ideology for the United States,marking communist nation’s public enemy no. 1. During the chinese civil war the United States feared deep involvement with china, attempting to deal with more than one issue. All by negotiating between the Nationalist and the communist. This approach was deemed unrealistic, but more so undermined by an American “tilt” towards Nationalist. Worster made by the abandonment of US contact with the Communist provided in for example the 1944 “Dixie mission “. When the tide of the war became shifted towards the communist party Americas opinion on the war became increasingly concerned. After president Truman’s administration lost faith in the KMT Nationalist. He would no longer provide aid and support to their army ordering the United States to not follow the Nationalist to the Known republic of China (Taiwan), but to better establish contact with Communist. This went against the United States anti-communism foreign policy at the time and would continue to push barriers of the policy over the years.
When helping Taiwan against China during the Chinese Civil war. The main regimen was to establish diplomatic ties. When president Nixon visited China in 1972 that visit produced the shanghai communique, a recognition by Beijing and Washington D.C. That the two countries were facing obstinates on working towards normalizing their relationship when establishing “Diplomatic Relations “. A historian wrote “ that the principal obstacle to regular diplomatic relations, to ‘normalization’ with China, was not the American role in Vietnam but rather Taiwan.” With china claiming that there is only one china , meaning Taiwan is apart of china. This created controversy given both sides of china Taiwan and the PRC have legitimate central governments. The United States supported both governments meaning they’d believe there were two Chinas. While the
internal war between china and Taiwan continued within the country, The United States put out a peaceful claim that they did not challenge the idea that there is one china also agreeing to reduce U.S forces in Taiwan. In 1971 The United States decided to cut its ties with Taiwan establishing
there acknowledgement that there could only be one legitimate chinesse government. The Chinese republic ( Taiwan ) was not it. While Americans where upset about the supposed abandonment of Taiwan , and the diplomatic relations established with the PRC (Beijing). The Taiwan Relauons Act was passed. This act would give Tiwain the same privileges as sovereign nations While the U.S congress felt the need to make PRC promise not to use force against tiwain. Without that promise the U.S knew they had an obligation to help protect taiwan with protecting themselves. This created a problem between the U.S and PRC relations. In 1982 the United States and Taiwan signed the Second Shanghai Communique. This would make it so that the United States would not sell Taiwan an excessive amount of weapons. The United States then failed to commit to a date on which it would stop selling Taiwan weapons. While the Shanghai Communique would create the incentive of two China’s once again, the U.S did not agree with this. Continuing their sell if weapons to Taiwan. In the 1980’s the United States relationships began to flourish between both Taiwan and the PRC. While the PRC made a proposal to Taiwan to reunify the two as one nation with two systems (economically , socially and politically ) the Taiwanese people opposed this offer fearing the possibility of less security over the state. Starting in the 1980’s Taiwan would begin its transition into a Democracy these policies would not have much effect on the PRC and Mainland of China. Rather an affect on there relationship with the United States creating the Policy Of Deliberate Ambiguity of U.S foreign policy. Which is according to credible sources “ A policy of a country practice by a country of being intentionally ambiguous on certain aspects of its foreign policy or whether it possesses certain weapons of mass destruction” . With Taiwan becoming a democracy after its cut ties with America this had a great affect on the United States foreign policy at the time as well. Creating new challenges for the U.S at the time.
Americas cooperation with China to fight the Soviet Union during the Vietnam War was to establish better diplomatic relations. With the Communist world consisting of two main powers the Soviet Union and China. Given the long animosity between the two President Nixon and his advisor Henry Kissinger exploited the rivalry between the two nations. In order to win advantages for the United States. this became known as triangular diplomacy. With America pledging to support Chinese Nationalist at the time.

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