This chapter presented and described the introduction of research. It comprised of nine main sections starting with the background of the study, followed by statement of problem, research objective, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, limitations of the study, the definition of terms and summary of the chapter.
Background of the study
In recent years, the term employee engagement has been identified as a critical business driver that has the capability to impact an organization’s overall success. The concept of employee engagement is increase rapidly gaining popularity and used in the workplace it is also a task in itself. This is because employee deals with not one but a lot of different individuals. (Kahn, 1990) was developed the concept of employee engagement in his ethnographic work on summer camp employees and also employees at an architecture firm. According to his theory defined employee engagement known as the harnessing of organization members selves to their work roles. In addition, in engagement people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances (Kahn, 1990).
Next, previous researcher (Gatenby, Rees, Soane, & Truss, 2009) employee engagement is a critical issue and growing interest for organizational leaders. According to (Snell, 2009) engaged employees work beyond the job description and toward organizational objectives, while, (Gallup, 2010) state that engaged employees give contribute to organizational success as a link between stakeholder value and company reputation. According to the article Employee Engagement: Maximizing Organizational Performance had presented data pointing that from country to country are varies. Consider to India had the highest percentage at 45%, and Japan is about 11% that is the lowest in term of employee engagement (Right Management, 2009).
Employee engagement issues in Malaysia have received many times of attention in the last decade in the popular business press and among the practitioner community and consulting firms. They state that employee engagement as a new human resource practice so that business organizations can use in order to cope with the uncertainty of chaos industry conditions. However, in the academic community, the concept still new, and therefore, the concept need rigorous seminal studies to validate it (Yong, Mohamad, Shahida, Shahhar and Nik, 2013).
In order to develop better leaders in the future, it is important to know the competencies and qualities needed. Many research and studies have been done that analyze the competencies and qualities in leadership from different perspectives (McLagan, 1983), (Rothwell, 1996), (Smith, 2008). Previous the studies are done in domestic settings for example what the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) had done within the United States’ settings. It is important in order to see how this competency model can be adapted and adopted to different settings such as in Malaysia. Thus, commonly- accepted leadership theories from the west, and how it is thought to influence other organizational behaviour factors, may not be directly adapted to the Malaysian context (Yiing & Kamarul Zaman, 2009). Consequently, leaders need to embed the local culture that gear to the organization environment and make sure that employees can adjust their work climate. A good leader will take advantage and turn into a change agent to fully utilize the external environment and drive the organizations performance (Kahirol & NorLisa, 2013).
In organizations, leaders must play the role to create the ethical culture. The organizational leadership should be emphasizing the characteristics of integrity, honesty, and respect. According to (Verhezen, 2009) suggested that integrity adds societal value to the institution when it is strategically aligned with economic objectives and environmental goals. In essence, leaders who show integrity enables to transform their organizations by embedding an ethical culture based on principles (Verhezen, 2009).
As stated by (Ravichandran, 2011) emotional intelligence refers as the ability to control, perceive, and evaluate emotions. It is significant role in helping the employees and managers to cope with this dynamic change in the business environment. Employee should enhance their emotional intelligence skills, apart from technical skills, which in turn will develop their productivity on the job. Management of emotional intelligence by the team members will help in enhance interpersonal skills to work effectively in the organization (Ravichandran, 2011).
Leadership communication gives impact to internal communications, because person to person communication is the most efficient way to share information (Rissanen, 2011). Hence, personal interactive communications channels are essential, and from that perspective, the nearest supervisor is the key communicator in the organization. Besides, leadership communication has also an essential role when motivating employees. Communications professionals have to support leaders by developing their communication skills (Rissanen, 2011).
Even though no research to study with detail has been done looking at the relationship between tenure and work engagement, it is desirable to consider whether tenure moderates the relationship between the three dimensions of leadership competencies and employee engagement. While their tenure increases, they may become more autonomous and, although they remain engaged, their satisfaction with supervision and co-workers may diminish Rice (2009).
Therefore, this study was conducted to study relationship between leadership competences that includes leadership integrity, emotional intelligence and leadership communication with employee engagement and moderated by organizational tenure.
According the Society for Human Resource Management had presents a research report the results of the 2012 SHRM Employee Job Satisfaction and Engagement survey of U.S. employees, consider to employee engagement at work in 2012, overall, employees were only moderately engaged about 3.6, on a scale of 1 to 5, whereas 1 is highly disengaged, 3 is moderately engaged and 5 is highly engaged. Hence, about the two years employee engagement levels have not changed when SHRM has been collecting this metric.
In recent years, issues scandals involving CEOs in non-profit organizations have brought into question the actions and behaviours of top leaders (Godfrey, 2013). Consequently, this issue some of the factor resulted many employees lack of engagement in company. The lack of information is the problem in the leadership literature according followers’ perceptions according to the relationship between effective integrity and leadership behaviours. In organizations, the concept of integrity plays an important role (Gosling and Huang, 2009).
Besides, when the concept of emotional intelligence was first introduced to scholars, some researchers argued that emotional intelligence is far more important than IQ in order to predicting career success (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997), (Goleman, 1995). However, their propositions were found refers to suppositions rather than scientific research (Hyuneung, 2010).
The minimal of research on the effect of leadership communication on human performance has left a potential gap in correcting human performances concerns. The general problem is the understanding how leadership communication affects human performance (Johnson, 2011).
The only research study that tenure was found examining a moderator of the relationship between dimensions of work engagement and satisfaction with co-workers and supervisor. It is important to determine the potential moderating role of tenure to help organizations clearly understand of how the amount of time spent in the current organization can potentially increase job performance. According to (Rice, 2010) state that tenure did not moderated the relationship between the dimensions of work engagement and job satisfaction Rice (2010). Thus, this study is important in order to reduce the gaps that happen in organization.
The specific objectives of this study were:
1. To determine the level of competency in organizational leadership.
2. To identify relationship leadership competency and employee engagement.
3. To find out if tenure moderates the relationship between leadership competency and employee engagement.
4. To investigate which of this leadership integrity, emotional intelligence, leadership communication, and tenure contribute to employee engagement.
In order to achieve the research objectives, this research will focus specifically on the main questions below:
1. What is the relationship between leadership integrity and employee engagement?
2. What is the relationship between emotional intelligence and employee engagement?
3. What is the relationship between leadership communication and employee engagement?
4. To what extent does tenure moderate with employee engagement?
5. Which of the dimension has the highest influence employee engagement?
HA1. There is relationship between leadership integrity and employee engagement
HA2. There is relationship between emotional intelligence and employee engagement
HA3. There is relationship between leadership communication and employee engagement
HA4. There is relationship between tenure and employee engagement.
HAo. Tenure does not moderate employee engagement.
Scope and limitations of the study
The scope of the study was focused on the multinational companies listed at private and government sector in Malaysia. The researchers studied the effect of leadership competency on employee engagement in organization. The researchers only focused on 3 types element involves leadership integrity, leadership emotional intelligence, and leadership communication, whereas employee engagement involves job characteristics and organization culture. Besides that, researchers also focused on tenure as moderator for relationship between leadership competency and employee engagement.
Significant of the study
1. To the researcher
By completing this report gives the researcher a lot of information. Through this study, the researcher will get a lot of knowledge and also experience on how to conduct the research project. It also helps the researcher in preparing the research report in the future.
2. To the organization
This study will help the company to identify what are the problems facing them and also provide useful finding, recommendation and conclusion for them. The company also can use the information in order to solve the problem via analysis and suggestion done from this research. The result of this research will help the company to improve the leadership competence in order to get employee engagement.
3. To the public
In the long run, this study may be used as a reference for evaluating leadership competency in the public sector. Likewise, this research should be conducted because in order to improve employee engagement, the leadership competency variables is very important because the leader can get close with their employees to give chance for them contribute ideas to company.
4. To the employee
This study will help employees to identify elements needed to encourage engagement whereas it will also help them.
Definition of term
1. Employee engagement
Employee engagement is a combination of feelings and behaviours associated with work and the organization. Feelings include energy and enthusiasm. Behaviours include accomplishing goals Schneider, Macey, Barbera, & Martin (2009).
Engagement is an opportunity for employees to connect with the organization Gatenby et al. (2009).
Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Leadership is a transactional event that occurs between the leader and the followers Northouse (2010).
4. Leadership communication style
A sophisticated communication process that is delivers results. Hackman and Johnson (2009) believe that the type of leadership is defined by the leadership communication style. They define leadership as a form of human communication that transitions attitudes and behaviours to focus on collective shared goals and needs Hackman and Johnson (2009)
A leader is responsible for solving complex problems, ethical decision making and supporting workers through organizational change Elster & Corral (2009).
6. Emotional Intelligence
The ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion, the ability to access and generate feelings when they facilitate thought, the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge, and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth Mayer & Salovey (1997).
Tenure is defined as the period of time someone has held employment (Bartelme, 2012)
This chapter introduced by the researcher and emphasized several topics related to the study which was the effect of leadership competency on employee engagement in private and government sector in Malaysia. The first section described the background of the study which described the issues of employee engagement in organization. The lack of leadership competency appears to be the reasons why that lead to disengagement of employees. Therefore, this study identifies the effect of leadership competency on employee engagement. This chapter also discussed four research objectives, five research questions and five research hypotheses for this study. In addition, this chapter also explained the significance of the study, its limitation and definition and terms used in this study.
This chapter reviewed the studies conducted on the effect of leadership competency on employee engagement. This chapter begins with the definition of leader of competency and employee engagement. Following this section, it covered some of important topics that are model of employee engagement and theories related with leadership of competency. Next, finding a widely accepted definition of the concept is a significant challenge in dealing with the notion of leadership competency. According to (White’s, 1959) defined competences as an organism’s capacity that effectively interacts with environment, but this term never had been widely used related with leadership competence. This earliest of definition is an example of behaviouristic thinking.
According to (KahirolMohd Salleh and NorLisa Sulaiman, 2013) state that, Malaysia’s leadership has changed dramatically over the past ten years through the prescribed sequence of an industrial era and communication technology era and into the information. As Malaysia entered knowledge-based economic era, the trade and industry continued to develop whereas the leadership style also change concurrently. In order for an organization to excel, it needs its leader to take competencies of leadership and take on new styles that positively affect the type of quality shown by the leader (KahirolMohd Salleh and NorLisa Sulaiman, 2013).
Definition of Leadership of Competency
Leadership competency has been written many times in books and journal articles. However, in order to gain proper understanding of the intended the meaning and context of the authors care must be taken when they speak of leadership competence (Vetter, 2012). Consider to (Dai, De Meuse and Peterson, 2010) mention that a competency is a cluster of personal attributes that is required for successful performance based on a managerial or dimension of leadership performance.
Numerous studies have been conducted about this leadership competency and have produced an increasingly positive relationship between self-knowledge, self-confidence, leader effectiveness and leader effectiveness (Hassan, Dellow and Jackson, 2010). As stated by (Dai et al., 2010), it is believed that there is a great deal of similarity among competencies between various level of management and management functions across organizations. Thus, the term a definition of importance for leadership competencies are differ between industries.
Next, consider by (Molinsky, 2010) state that in order to be competent, an individual must requires sufficient awareness and knowledge. Molinsky further suggested increasing competence through increase an individual’s knowledge of skills and appropriate behaviours needed to handle different situations. Besides, (Miller, Watkins, and Webb, 2009) had done the study demonstrate the lack of information’s with regard to leadership, assessments, leadership competencies and the development of leadership when dealing with the law enforcement industry. They had found that it is need to solidify the concern that there is a gap in the literature to the knowledge of leadership competencies and leadership in the field of law (Miller, Watkins, and Webb, 2009).
According to (Hassan et al., 2010) had done a research, which study the views of community college presidents on characteristics and leadership competencies. In 2003, The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) created a project known as Leading Forward. Through this leadership program, about six areas that focused on organizational strategy, resource management, collaboration, communication, professionalism and community college advocacy. Apart from that, this findings further noted the importance of leadership competencies and self-knowledge for excellent within the organization (Hassan et al., 2010)
Leadership Competency Related To Leadership Integrity
Consider to (Dunn, 2009) state that the lack of a consistent use of integrity as the varied usage in common language and a normative descriptor have led to narrow create definitions that have thwarted broader theoretical development. According to (Stroud, 2009) examined the leadership competency in term of integrity correlated with employee engagement. This study had been conducted by involve 163 employees of a large, Fortune 500 multinational corporation, while target subjects were all leaders of the corporation above the management board hierarchical level that involve in the Leadership Competency Model 360 from 2005 until 2007. It can be concluded that during conducted the study, there is a significant between integrity with employee engagement that is r =.17. From this finding state that, the greater a leader’s competency in integrity, the greater the engagement of employees in organization (Stroud, 2009).
According to (Godfrey, 2013) state that it is quite misleading in the term of integrity and also have a mere possession to implies that integrity. The researcher agreed that in any organizations, the same reasoning can be applied to leader’s ethical decision making. Some organizations like United Way and American Red Cross are thought of as organizations that lacked integrity due to the actions of their leaders. Besides, organizations also need to take note of the importance of leader integrity relates to serious negative impacts leader dishonesty on the firm (Godfrey, 2013). Some study had been conducted by (Thomason, 2013) state that in recent years, interest in integrity has increased dramatically known as corporate scandals that have made the front page of the newspapers across the United States. In the ethical decision of leaders, a perceived lack of integrity has eroded the trust of the general public Thomason, 2013).
Furthermore, (Palanski and Yammarino, 2009) discovered that integrity is alignment between deed and word. They also agreed that authentic leadership normally aligns with the concept of integrity. They suggested that with leading ethically, then, it can influence the culture of an organization and able to create an environment that encourage integrity (Palanski and Yamarino, 2009). Besides, as mention by (Johnson, 2009) state that the trust of followers could be lost without integrity due to a leader’s moral foundation would be undermined. Hence, without the trust of followers also the direction of the organization subverted and the mission and vision of a leader could be questioned (Thomason, 2013).
Leadership competency related to Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence in modern organizations also induces energetic and dedicated employees include people who are engaged with their work. These organizations expect proactive, initiative and responsibility for personal development from their employees (Ravichandran, 2011). According to (Heindel, 2009) had been done a research state that the construct of emotional intelligence emerged is useful due to it examined a more expansive view of intelligence that included in competencies that were strongly related to success in life and organizations. Next, the concept of emotional intelligence was agreed amongst researcher as a paradigm in order to understand how individuals’ develop, understand, perceive and manage emotions in an effort to be more personally effective (Heindel, 2009).
Furthermore, (Heindel, 2009) in his study examined the relationship between the emotional intelligence of leaders and critical employee engagement factors. The participants of the emotional intelligence assessment about 30 where as n=31 leaders in a large Fortune 100 high- tech firm, while all the participants all worked in the same department. Based on his finding, there was a small, but non-significant positive Spearman correlation between overall the leader’s emotional intelligence and employee engagement (r= 0.274, p= 0.14) (Heindel, 2009). This finding was further supported by a study of the relationship between emotional intelligence and work engagement in process improvements experts by (Thor, 2012). From his finding, there is a significance between emotional intelligence with work engagement when r (5185) = 0.523, p < 0.001 (Thor, 2012).
Another research study had been done about emotional intelligence in leadership by (Shatali, 2011) state that the leader’s emotional competencies have an overwhelming influence on the motivation of employees, on the climate of the company, and these skills can be improved. In the nature of leadership, the development of models of emotional intelligence, the detailing of emotional competencies, of how they can be self-inducted and the preparation of assessment tests of these competencies is an important issue. Emotional skills are crucial for those who occupy positions of responsibility because it is their task in order to get the maximum benefits from employees (Shatali, 2011).
According to (Goleman, 1995) as cited by (Shatali, 2011) shown example about a head hunter is responsible for South America region at Egon Zehnder International in Buenos Aires. Goleman had compared 277 outstanding managers with 26 who proved inefficient at their job concluding that service managers who failed were good specialists with a high IQ. The important fact was that they had major deficiencies in emotional intelligence include arrogance, over-appreciation, the inability to adapt for the changing economic environment, teamwork and contempt for collaborators (Shatali, 2011).
Leadership Competencies related to Leadership Communication
According to (Greenidge, 2010) in his study, a good leader communication is one important skill as a leader. This is because leaders able to communicate effectively to convey thoughts to others and accurately ideas in the organization. Organizational leaders are needed to motivate employees in the organization to prevent stagnation. Besides, leaders also should encourage employees to work together as a team and must themselves become a part of the team. Next, communication can be described as the connection made between self and others. In addition, connectivity at all levels of the organization can be form through communication and includes political, social, spiritual and functional factors. Consider to (Gelardini, 2009) mention that the social identity theorists emphasized that people identify and categorize themselves with specific groups to increase their self-esteem. When employees see themselves as team players, they are able to gain a sense of belonging and a positive social identity (Greenidge, 2010).
The focus of this finding was on leadership communication, culture and employee engagement in organization whereas the scope of this study was limited to private. While, only persons who were employed by companies in these categories were eligible. Next, thirty persons were choose from private organization, 33 from nonprofits companies and, 40 from public for the samples of 103 organizational members. Furthermore, based on Greenidge finding, he found that there was no statistically significant relationship between the communication style of the leaders and the level of employee engagement for non-profits and public. However, consider to private sector in his study, he found that there is a statistically significant relationship at the 0.05 level between the communication style of the leaders and the level of employee engagement. This is because the coefficient for this relationship was found to be 0.53 and the coefficient of determination was found to be 0.28. As a result, the more positive the leader’s communication style, the more engaged the employees are reported to be in the private sector (Greenidge, 2010).
Consider to (Hackman and Johnson, 2009) in their studies state that they believe the type of leadership is defined by the leadership communication style (p. 40). Leadership defined as a form of human communication which transactions behaviours and attitudes to focus on collective shared goals and needs (p. 11). Besides, leadership communication plays a major role in order to engaging the workforce in the corporate transformation process. This is because usually the communication style of leadership will play a major role in employee perception considering to the transformation effort. If a leaders is reluctance to change can often cause followers to look for inconsistency in the vision being presented. Therefore, it is important that leadership should share the same vision with frequent communication and consistent across the corporation (Thriller, 2011).
In past few decades of research, tenure has had limited attention as a significant variable (Bartelme, 2012). Although a lack of research consider to this variables, it is desirable to consider whether tenure moderates the relationship between the three dimensions of leadership competencies with employee engagement. According to (Rice, 2009), even new employees who are engaged in their work will be initially satisfied with co-workers and supervisor, while their tenure increases, they may become more autonomous. In addition, if they remain engaged, their satisfaction with co-workers and supervisor may diminish (Rice, 2009).
Consider to (Rice, 2009), this study had been conducted at King Library employees in San Jose whereas about totally 308 of respondent involves in this study. It is about 54% (n= 167) for the overall response rate. At the end of the study, it can be concluded there is significant relationship between tenure with employee engagement and job satisfaction. This is due to tenure was significantly correlation which is dedication (r= 0.17, p < 0.05), absorption equal to (r = 0.20, p < < 0.5) (Rice, 2009).
Definition of Employee Engagement
First of all, according to The Institute of Employment Studies as cited in (Balain and Sparrow, 2009) defined engagement as,
‘A positive attitude held by the employees toward the organization and its values. An engaged employee is aware of business context, and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. The organization must work to develop and nurture engagement, which requires a two-way relationship between employer and employee’ (p 9)
Next, consider to (MacLeod and Clarke, 2009) state that,
‘We work hard to avoid falling into the trap that some other organizations make-assuming that doing a survey is doing engagement-it’s an important part of the process, but only part of it. There is a danger that you can spend too long looking at and analysing figures, rather than engaging with staff on how to improve’ (p 11)
As discovered by (Balain and Sparrow, 2009), they discussed the use of a top- down philosophy, so contends that the organization’s top level of leadership’s behaviour can influences engagement. Apart from that, this increasing engagement could flow out strategic leadership and organizational values. Based on the literature suggests that engage leaders can enhance employee engagement through influence organizational culture. In addition, the literature also suggests that these leaders clearly understand about their reliance on engaged employees to further integrate, communicate and implement organization’s vision (Balain and Sparrow, 2009).
Next, consider to (Macey, Scheinder, Barbera and Young, 2009) said that creating a culture of enhanced engagement needs attention to a wide range of human capital issues that is ranging from who gets hired to how they are brought on trained and board (Macey, Scheinder, Barbera and Young, 2009). Besides, according to (Hewitt Associates, 2009) suggested that engagement is reflected in the percentage of respondents who agree or strongly agree with the six core statements that relate with definitions of say, stay, and strive. There are linkages between increased productivity and financial performance with higher levels of engagement. However, even linkages can be made, it still remains unclear what empirical data confirm that there is a definite link between organizational and engagement (Hewitt Associates, 2009).
Furthermore, consider to (Kowske, Lundby, and Rasch, 2009) define employee engagement as the extent in which employees are motivated to contribute to organizational success. Employees also are willing to apply discretionary effort to accomplishing tasks important to the achievement of the organizational goals (Kowske, Lundby, and Rasch, 2009). Besides, through high engagement in organizations also reflects loyal, committed employees who invest their skills and talents in an effort to make the organization successful (Federman, 2009). Moreover, disengaged employees can have the adverse effect of contributing to the destruction of a company through absenteeism, non-participation, unethical conduct, brand image, providing poor customer service and in some instances, infecting others with a negative attitude (Carter, 2012). Consider to (Robinson, 2010b), disengaged employees actively seek to promote their non-interest or lack of alignment in terms of goals and with the company.
Job Characteristics related to Employee Engagement
This element had been introduced by (Hackman and Oldham, 1975) the Job Characteristics Theory. They presented the idea that the design of an employee’s job can measure through objective characteristics. Apart from that, it enables for motivate an employee internally to feel satisfied and perform better with the job. Then, if the job is more enrich, so that the high of the likelihood of that employee experiencing satisfaction and high motivation. Besides, when this theory had been introduced, they had two goals in mind that is to diagnose jobs to help better redesign them and also able to monitor how changes in job design include whether naturally occurring or otherwise and ultimately impacted employee outcomes (Hackman and Oldham, 1975).
After recent years, this study had been supported by (Reeves, 2010) to examine either job characteristics would be significantly correlated with employee engagement. This study involves 161 individual participated out of the 404 total respondents. Besides, the characteristics of participants’ were measured by using (Hackman and Oldham, 1975) that is Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS). The JDS contains a total of 15 items, with subscales for autonomy, task significance, task identity, skill variety, and feedback. In addition, after analyze for the effect of control variables, he founds that job characteristics on engagement was significant (??= 0.59, ??R?? = 0.30, p < 0.01). Thus it can be concluded that job characteristics have significant relation with employee engagement (Reeves, 2010).
Organizational Culture related to Employee Engagement
Consider to (Remo, 2012) organizational culture had been studied in association with work engagement at US military organization. During perform study there, organization where the influence through a wingman organizational culture was examined in relation to work engagement (Alarcon, Lyons, and Tartaglia, 2010). The wingman culture determine through creating a trusting work environment and supporting co-workers. These findings supported a strong relationship between work engagement and organizational culture. Hence, employees are more likely to experience social support from their co-workers and managers and in turn be more engaged with their work when an organizational culture supports team work (Remo, 2012).
According to (Hartnell, Ou, and Kinicki, 2011) state that organizational culture is an important social characteristic that influences group, organizational and individual behaviour are the impetus behind much of this research. Next, adhocracy is offers more flexibility and externally oriented as well. This culture normally promotes adaptability, risk taking and fosters creativity that lead to innovation. In addition, adhocracy cultures tend to have a positive effect on cumulative employee attitudes as the autonomy related to the culture type. So, it is directly enhances associative employee’s attitudes towards the organization (Hartnell et al, 2011).
Consider to (Young, 2012) examine this study about organizational culture related to employee engagement levels involves about 127 employees to answer the survey. At the end of this study, it had been analyzed that there is a relationship between organizational culture with employee engagement which is r = 0.701. Therefore, this finding can be accepted since that there is significant relationship between this variable.
Theory of Leadership Competency
American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) model
The ASTD leadership competency model concept is one of the ways to ensure the leadership qualities are improved and enhanced. In recent years, this model had developed and used the competency model in United States as a rule in hiring employees and to provide better delivery in training and development. This model defines what people need to know and must do in order to be successful in the organization, in term of learning and performance, and tries to balance the financial, strategic and business goals of organizations.
Leaders should have a sense of vision under the personal leadership competencies. This is due to with this vision, it will benefit an organization in the long orientation. The leader should expressive the vision and take full responsibility towards achieving the vision. In order to ensure it is achievable, the leader can come out with several approaches to monitor the progress, such as strategic planning, gap analysis, SWAT analysis and other tools. In Malaysia, even though most of the leaders have a vision but they still not get conveyed to their subordinates. This because, this situations happens because of the organizations bureaucracies, so it becomes worse when it becomes a written vision for an organization and is published only just to please the employees. Apart from that, it will affect the organizations performance, employee’s disengagement and in the long run will impact the leadership competencies (KahirolMohd Salleh and NorLisa Sulaiman, 2013)
This dimensions noted that to how competent the leader is to solve any given problem in any situation. The good leaders must use their critical thinking to overcome problems and conduct good solutions. In order to solve problems or come out with good interventions, the leaders should take an analytical thinking approach. It is benefit if the leader can view problems with logical conceptualizing and design the solution based on desired outcomes.
In organizational settings, leaders are the one become a problem solver and navigate the organization. They need to endeavour the approach of thinking outside the box and enhance their thinking skills. It is a trendy now that employees are trained to have a critical thinking as a soft skill because it is a good approach to teach future leaders. The leadership style of Malaysia had an influence from the elder person and the heritage of the culture. The future leader needs to change the way they think and start to polish their technique on perceiving problems so that it is not a barrier when they become a leader (KahirolMohd Salleh and NorLisa Sulaiman, 2013)
Self Confidence and Assertiveness
This dimension defined as leader self confidence is a fundamental basis in leadership and it will influence employees in their every decision and task given. Next, it is important to show high level of confidence as a leader because it will motivate the employees to achieve an organization’s goal. Besides, assertiveness it is about an integral part of effective leadership in communication. Both of this attributes are important to leaders due to it will build the rapport between employees and management (KahirolMohd Salleh and NorLisa Sulaiman, 2013)
Leaders need to be trained to look confident in front of their subordinates so that they have courage to listen and they will be respected. There is only a solution and a leader with self-confident can convince the subordinates, whereas there is no right or wrong answer when it comes to decision making (KahirolMohd Salleh and NorLisa Sulaiman, 2013)
Effective communications happens only when the receiver understands what the message sender is trying to communicate. In an organization’s case, the sender would be the leader and the receivers are subordinates or employees. The leaders should understand that the communication is not only verbal, it covers almost all aspect including the organization’s mission and vision, memos, letters and other variables that make communication happen. According leadership style in Malaysian, the leaders are more on talking than listening. Next, the leader should understand that effective communication involves both giving and receiving. This is because, in order to be a good speaker, leaders should be good listeners first. Apart from that, if the leader was trained to process the information first before giving any feedback, it would polish a leadership quality (KahirolMohd Salleh and NorLisa Sulaiman, 2013).
Figure 2.1 Leader Competency Model (ASTD, 2005)
Kohlberg’s Cognitive Moral Development Theory
Ethics in educational organizations may have both micro and macro reflect or features with different perceptions (Blum, 1990; Nozick, 1981). According to (Kohlberg’s, 1969) this theory stated that individuals at advanced levels of moral development can be planned to do the right when encountering through an ethical dilemma. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Judgement, (1981, 1984) afforded a structure for ethical education. During stage 1, it is distinguished through total obedience to authority and rules and a fear of punishment. Next, stage 2 can be differ through searching to follow one’s tangible interest, an active approach to decision making and being aware that others need to do the same. At stage 3, it is distinguished through trying to live up to the expectations of others for good behaviour by nurturing close relationship and by having good intentions. Stage 4 is determined by a concern for sustaining the social system to encourage well being and social order. Besides, stage 5 is determine through judging the moral merit of societal values and rules in as much as they are continuous with elemental values. Lastly stage 6 is distinguished by respect and universal principles of justice for human autonomy. As mention by (Barna, 2009) through the stages of Cognitive Moral Development, moral reasoning becomes progressively more complicated as an individual advances (Barna, 2009).
Emotional Intelligence Models (Mixed models)
This model had been introduced by (Daniel Goleman, 1995) focuses on emotional intelligence as a wide array of skills and competencies that drive leadership performance. He states that about four elements emotional intelligence constructs:
1. Self-awareness ‘ it is about the ability recognize their impact and read one’s emotions while using their feelings to guide decisions.
2. Self-management (Self Regulation and Self Motivation) ‘ it is involves controlling impulses and one emotions and adapting to changing circumstances.
3. Social awareness ‘ involves the ability to understands, sense and reacts to others’ emotions while comprehending social networks.
4. Relationship management (Social Skills) ‘ involves the ability to influences, inspires, and develops others while managing conflict.
Measurement of the Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model:
1. The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI), which has been created in 1999, and the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI), which was created in 2007.
2. The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal: The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, which was created in 2001 and it is can be taken as a 360 degree assessment or a self-report.
Figure (2.2): Daniel Goleman Domains of Emotional Intelligence
Source: Oliver Serrat 2009, Page 3, Understanding and developing Emotional Intelligence.
According to (Gidden’s, 1979) introduce concept of structuration provides a framework in order to understand how leader-member communication shapes. Next, it is important to better understand the relationships among the concepts of leadership, communication and trust. Consider to organizational communication scholars’ about structuration theory by (Bisel, 2009) an organization can be thought of as a structure that is constituted by member’s agency or talk. Next, structure refers to those forces and factors that influence what organizational interpret or say, while agency refers to each individual’s free will, innovativeness, and creativity in the moment of communicating. Gidden’s theories reminds scholars that deterministic theories can ignore that structures come into being and ignore individual’s free will through individuals’ agency (Putnam and Nicotera, 2010).
From an organizational communication application of structuration theory can be thought as the discourse of the organization (Bisel and Barge, 2011). While, agency refers to the action of organizational members and it is accomplished through discourse or the actual talking of organizational members. Rules are recipes or practices for action that is important for indicate how organizational members should conduct themselves. Resources represent organizational member and organizational materials characteristics that can be used to control and influence the actions of others (Bisel and Barge, 2011).
Besides, time in structuration is important consider to (Giddens, 1979) that sees the mutual influence of agency and structure evolving over time (Putnam and Nicotera, 2009). Furthermore, structure implies the instrumental dynamics of the past which is his notion of agency implies individual’s ability in the present to make choices in opposition to structure (Bisel, 2009).
The structuration of trust in leader-member communication
As leaders and members function within an organization fulfilling their job responsibilities. They engage in the talk or discourse of organizational members can in turn, influence, overtime and become the origin of the collective’s discourse. Structuration theory explains that structure and agency are mutually constitutive in the sense that the structure enables, prescribes, and constraints organizational member’s agency, and as members enact their agency, their actions alter or confirm the organization structure (Kelley, 2011).
Next, leaders and members function in this duality of structure. Hierarchy is definitive of the supervisor-subordinate relationship which is represents institutional attempts at codifying leader-member relationship (Bisel, 2009). This hierarchical structure influences and prescribes communication between leaders and members and supplies resources and rules for communicating. The discourse of an organization structures the expectations and responsibilities of those in both leader and member roles. How leaders communicate to their members will influence how members give back respond to their leaders (Kelley, 2011).
Theory related to Employee Engagement
Self-Determination Theory (SDT)
Self-determination theory (SDT) is a theory of motivation that focuses on both the psychological needs necessary for the conditions and growth that foster their fulfilment. Consider to this theory, the fulfilment of these needs will lead to achieve levels of self-motivation. Next, this theory emphasizes two keys of motivation that is includes controlled motivation (similar to extrinsic motivation) and autonomous motivation (similar to intrinsic motivation). From the finding had been done by (Gagne and Deci, 2005) state that autonomy normally involves acting with having the experience of choice and a sense of volition that being controlled involves acting with a sense of having to engage in the actions and a sense of pressure (Bethencourt, 2012).
Furthermore, this theory differs from other theories of motivation in that it presents motivation as a continuum between controlled and autonomous. Intrinsic motivated behaviour known as autonomous due to it is purely driven by the person’s interest in the behaviour itself. Next, externally regulated behaviour would fall at the opposite at the end of the spectrum due to fully controlled, whereas behaviours that is entirely maintained and initiated by external pressures. For example, introjected regulation consider to the situation in which an individual has adapted regulation, even has adapted regulation also this individual not taking ownership of it. By the individual’s core values, the most autonomous controlled regulations occur when the regulation is integrated. This type of motivation is virtually interchangeable from autonomous regulation except that the origins of the motivation were not internal to the person (Bethencourt, 2012).
Additional studies have also shown greater enthusiasm for autonomously controlled tasks consider to when it is translates into greater performance, in comparison to externally controlled tasks (Ryan and Deci, 2000). These findings show that employees whose behaviour is externally controlled will be less likely to carry out that beyond the bounds of that external control. The point of behavioural engagement is to increase the discretionary attitudes and behaviours. Thus, it follows that employee engagement reflects more autonomous attitudes and behaviours (Bethencourt, 2012).
In addition, this theory shows that there are three key psychological needs, fulfilment of which is necessary for humans to be autonomously which is intrinsically motivated. However, consider to (Ryan and Deci, 2000) state that they do not explore the antecedents of these needs since that they are innate to the human species. From finding had been done by (Gagne and Deci, 2005) state that the key needs include autonomy, competence and relatedness. The focus of self-determination theory is not on any individual differences in need strength but on the universality of these needs. According to (Koestner and Losier, 1996) state that competence consider to the individuals’ perception that they are able to control the outcome of their actions. Next, relatedness defines as individuals’ need to hold authentic relationships meaning that they care for others and others care for them. Autonomy can be defined as the individuals’ need to feel that they are in control of their own decisions and actions (Koestner and Losier, 1996).
According to (Kahn, 1990) first suggested the concept of employee engagement, he suggested that it was engendered by need fulfilment, specifically meaningfulness, availability and safety. This bears a direct correlation to the currently proposed link between employee engagement and SDT. He defend that meaningfulness occurs when the work is clearly delineated, challenging, varied, autonomous and creative, which reflects the needs posited by self-determination theory. Next, psychological safety refers to characterized by trusting and supporting interpersonal relationships, again directly reflecting this theory. He also state that final precursor is very different and reflects the temporary and personal nature of his conceptualization of engagement. In Kahn’s model, psychological availability refers to necessary for engagement. This represents the sense of having the emotional, physical or psychological resources to personally engage at a particular moment (Bethencourt, 2012).
Figure 2.3: Self-determination theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
In the 1943 theory introduced by (Maslow, 1943) had identified 5 levels of human needs and labelled them physiological needs, safety needs, esteem needs, social needs and self actualization. During that year also, he would refine his original theory by indicating that when the lower needs were met the individual will be satisfied until the next level needs to be achieved through placing a higher level of need for satisfaction for the next level of the hierarchy (Abbott, 2012).
The physiological needs as explained by (Hayhoe, 2004) include the basic necessities that human beings require such as water, air, food, and shelter. This need has been existed since the creation of man. Thus, if these needs are not met, it is impossible for the next level of needs to be achieved, as the basic necessities of life must first be met (Abbott, 2012).
The safety needs are around security and well being not only for one’s self but also for those we care and love about in our daily lives. This also lends itself to the home life that is the sense emotional and physical harm should be satisfied in order to achieve the next level of well being (Abbott, 2012).
According to (Skemp-Arlt and Toupence, 2007) state that safety needs in today’s standards are constantly changing in both home life and work place scenarios and such as, this changing world of feeling is potentially imperfect (Skemp-Arlt and Toupence, 2007).
Esteem needs regard as to reflect ones desire to obtain from other people and also as a step to maintain a level of self respect. These needs can be viewed as satisfied by a number of factors including accomplishment, self respect, recognition, social status, perhaps attention of other people for a job well done which goes back to recognition (Crumpacker and Crumpacker, 2007). The sense of accomplishment allows for a cohort or person to feel empowered or engaged (Abbott, 2012).
Self-actualization as mentioned by (Greene and Burke, 2007) is the ultimate sense of who an individual is and how one maintains this sense had done achieve complete well being. In addition, they describe that the desire to become more in order to be capable of more, is visible across generations. Further, a leader may look upon another leader and want what they have whether it is follower loyalty, dedication or commitment. Thus, before leaders are able to achieve self-actualization, the leader should meet the needs of safety, love, physiological, and esteem (Geene and Burke, 2007).
Figure 2.4 a replication of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs pyramid identifying the ranking of lower to higher order of needs (Maslow, 1943)
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Conceptual framework on between Leadership Competence with Employee Engagement moderated by Tenure.
Population of the study
Unit of analysis
Data Collection Procedure
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