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Essay: Dialects in the USA

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United States ; General.
The national language for The United States of America is English, though some also speak Spanish and multiple other languages that vary per region. Although all of these other languages are only spoken in small parts of The United states.
In American English they tend to spell words in a “lazy” way as it were. Some examples are; Usable instead of Useable or Color instead of Colour, though their neigbour Canada and the other countries around the world where English is their national language use the more formal formes of the English writing (UkE)
This happened after the American Revolution and the American English was being developed over time.
Throughout the country there are quite a few differences as well for example one part prefers to say Soda, and the other half prefers to say Pop. Those are the most common ones, but you also have a few other names too like Fizzy drinks.
History
We all heard of the traveler Christopher Columbus that wanted to reach India by going to the opposite direction and thus accidentally found America in 1492. The Indians as he would call them lived there for many centuries before he discovered it. Although there is more known around the sixteenhundred’s, when many more European colonists started to arive and built up their colonies, most came from England but there were also Spanish , Dutch and French colonies that set foot there. By around 1770, 13 British Colonies had about 2.5 Million people living along the Atlantic coast, east of the Appalachian Mountains. In the 1760s however, the British government imposed a series of new taxes without the people having any right of giving their opinions about them, which led to Tax resistance (Think of the Boston Tea Party from 1774, for example) which then led to punitive laws by Parliament to end self-government in Massachusetts. This is also meant for the American Patriots to develop the Rupublican ideology.
Then the thirteen colonies united in a Congress created an independent nation after armed conflict in Massachusetts and thus the United States of America was formed. Which led to Independence.
With load of financial and military support from France and General George Washington, the American Patriots won the Revolutionary War. The peace treaty of 1783 gave the nation land (Except Florida and Canada). By the Articles of Confederation it was proved being ineffective at providing stability, as they no longer had the authority to collect Taxed nor an executive officer. In 1787, Cogress had a secret meeting in Philadelphia to revise them. They wrote a new Constitution, which was adopted in 1789. In 1791, a Bill of Rights was added to guarantee these rights. With Washington as the Union’s first president and Alexander Hamilton as his chied political and financial adviser, a strong and central government was created. When Thomas Jefferson became president he purchased the Louisiana Territory from France, doubling the size of the US. A second and last war with Britain was fought in 1812.

United states ; California (West)
As there are 50 states I sized it down to 4 seperate categories per region; North, East, South and West. Starting with California.
California is the most popular state of the Country and it has about 38.8 Million people living there. Next to English (57.4 % and another 32,8 % is Multilangual) there are also people who speak Spanish, Chinese, Tagalog and Vietnamese.
Their variety of the American English is somewhat made more “cool-sounding”. That they are the best in a way. For example the word “And” could be pronounced as “Ai-end” instead of the basic form pronounced as “End” This way of pronouncing “And” is also common in Southern “Redneck” Accents, though the Ai and the End are a little bit more over pronounced there.
From The standard everyday American English, Californian English often merges words or small sentences. So instead of “There are a hell of a lot of people,” they use “There are a hella people there.”

United states; Texas (South)
As I mentioned in the previous paragraph The Redneck accent is pretty common in Texas. (It might even be the thing they’re known for) Redneck accent is like our “farmer” accent, but from America.
In speech you can definately notice by the following example sentence
“Packin uv pork in a meet house, which you should be keerful it don’t git hot at the bone, and prizin uv tobakker,which y’all’s Winstun nose how to do it, givs you a parshil idee, but only parshil’
Of course you also have “Ya’ll” (You all , Everyone) and “Fixing to” (Preparing, Intending to)
Multiple modals
for example;
May could, Might could, might supposed to
may can , might oughta, might’ve used to
may will, might can, might woulda had oughta
In standard english they have a certain order in which they put words, but Texan people use extra modals in sentences like; “I might could do that”
A-prefixing
Example; I know he wasn’t a-telling the truth
The construction is called a-prefixing, because the a is seen as a prefix placed before the ‘ing participle form.
Phonological restrictions of a-prefixing include that only verbs accented on the initial syllable can occur in the form of a plus verb-ing: a-f??llowin but not *a-disc??verin.Moreover, it cannot occur on ‘ing forms functioning as nouns or adjectives. Thus, sentences like *the movie was a-charmin’ are ungrammatical. A can only be a prefix of verbs or complements of verbs with ‘ing. As Frazer found out a-prefixing is more likely to be found in the speech of elderly people and might therefore disappear in a few years.
Plural verbal -s
example; Our father and mother sends you their blessings.
In folk’s speech they often use an s on the third person plural.
A few typical texan words and sayings;
howdy – Hello or any other greeting
pole cat – Skunk
(Over) Yonder – Over there
lariat (spanish; la reata) – rope or lasso
arroyo – a gulch, ravine, creek bed

United States; Minnesota (North)
The Minnesotan dialect region also includes North and South Dakota and Winsonsin, parts of Iowa , the upper peninsula of Michigan and eastern Montana.
The dialect has a lot of words that merge when pronounced.
example; cot and caught.
(note: find more !! this is unfinished as wikipedia doesn’t really provide much and I haven’t found much else where either so far although it covers quite some ground and about 12 million people speak it.. so WIP)
United States; New York (East)
Pronunciation
The pronunciation system of New York City English, popularly known as a New York accent, is heard in New York City, Long Island, and northern New Jersey.
Vowels
A chart of all vowels of New York City English
The low back chain shift: The vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, and coffee and the often homophonous in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American. The a in father and ar in car are backed. The result is that cart in New York sounds similar to cot in Boston or caught in linguistically conservative General American.
Pre-R distinctions: New York accents lack most of the mergers before medial r common in other varieties of North American English:
The vowels in marry , merry , and Mary
The vowels in furry and hurry are distinct.
Consonants
While the following consonantal features are central to the common stereotype of a “New York accent”, they are not entirely ubiquitous in New York. By contrast, the vocalic (vowel) variations in pronunciation as described above are far more typical of New York area speakers than the consonantal features listed below, which carry a much greater stigma than do the dialect’s vocalic variations:
Syntax
Indirect questions. Word order of the original question is preserved in indirect questions, at least those introduced by wh-words, for example: He wanted to know when will he come instead of He wanted to know when he will come; or, She asked why don’t you want any instead of the standard She asked why you don’t want any.
Lexicon
There are numerous words used mainly in New York, mostly associated with immigrant languages. For instance, a “stoop” (from the Dutch word “stoep”), is the front steps of a building entrance.
New Yorkers stand “on line”, whereas most other American-English speakers stand “in line”. Small convenience stores are called bodegas, from the Spanish term originally meaning “a wine storehouse” via the Puerto Rican Spanish term for “small store; corner store”, or delis, which is the short form for delicatessen.

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