2.1. The Importance of Vocabulary Instruction
Words are the means of transmission of concepts in the background. At the beginner level, communication is attempted by exploiting the cumulative usage effect of words. Scrivener, \”Go to Disco yesterday. And with friends. Dance \”expression, although it is totally distant from the grammatical content, can often give the message it wants to give.
This whole meaning can be given by words alone. On the other hand, good language knowledge may not be such a powerful tool.
Scrivener,this opinion,\”can you lend it to me?\” without the words in the blanks of the sentence, arguing that it supports and sometimes mean very little alone\”calculator! even that would be adequate to give the desired message of the statement believes.
A student who believed in the communicative power of vocabulary, many words will drive learning. How many words can I learn if I want to tell you as clearly as I can tell it what he will think. However, vocabulary learning is not an easy task.
Scrivener , “in some cases we want our use of the word we might hatirlasak even her own sentences. Therefore, in the classroom, the role of vocabulary is important and very much” alone is not enough information about the meaning of the word and the word emphasizes that it is also important that other information about.
Having vocabulary and vocabulary in English learning and teaching has great importance and should be considered on its own. Vocabulary teaching should not be added to classes related to grammar or other skills.
The task of the teacher is to help the student learn a new word when it is encountered, to allow it to be repeated and stored, and to be recalled and used as needed.
2.2 Grammar-Translation Method and Word Learning
From 1800\’s to 1940\’s, the most common language teaching method was the Grammar-Translation Method. This method gave great importance to vocabulary teaching and learning. The selected words to be taught were selected from the reading pieces to be used. Words were taught through bilingual vocabulary lists, dictionary exercises and memorization.
In those years, it was thought that the only way to learn and use language was to learn vocabulary. It was deemed sufficient for pupils to learn a certain number of word learnings and their corresponding responses in their native language. It was also important to know how they came together in the sentence as well as knowing the meaning and words of the English language.
In this way language learners produce natural speech and have difficulty understanding such speech.
Experts, in the 1950s, began to realize that word teaching was not as simple as it seemed. Teaching vocabulary was not just about teaching another word on the other. At the end of these years, it became clear that word learning is more than learning any other word in the mother tongue, the opposite of the target. Teachers were reminded that teaching vocabulary was very complicated and that it would be right to devote most of the time to teach grammar rather than vocabulary teaching.
2.3 Direct Method and Word Learning
From the middle of the nineteenth century, criticisms and reforms began to emerge in many European countries against the Grammar-Translation Method.
In these years, the attention of specialists has been turned into natural learning principles observed in acquiring the mother tongue. This trend led to the development of the Direct Method, a concept under the name of natural learning methods.
He was opposed to memorizing the rules of the English language or trying to learn the language through translation. Instead, he advocated learning by establishing a direct relationship between the learned language and life, without using the mother tongue.
This method was based on the principle of acquiring the language and words naturally through interaction. In this method, concrete words were tried to be taught by demonstration, by using real objects and pictures, and by using abstract words from associations.
2.4 Auditory-Linguistic Method and Word Learning
During World War II, a new method called the United States, \”Auditory-Linguistic Method\” emerged. The Auditory-Linguistic Method was the most effective method of the period until 1970\’s. In this method, language learning was based on the principle of making habit. The Auditory-Linguistic Method prioritises the verbal direction of the language (understanding and speaking), and aims to teach these skills in a particular order with reciprocal speech and oral exercises.
The Auditory-Linguistic Method, like the Grammar-Translation Method, left the grammar-related work in the shadows while highlighting the grammar. New words were spoken indirectly. The Auditory-Linguistic Method defended that grammar structures had to be taught first, and vocabulary learning had to be left later.
The words selected for teaching were selected according to the usage frequency criterion. Vocabulary teaching was limited. Lessons are taught in the classroom
And then expanded to words related to school, home, community and work life. In the later stages, the words about the country and nation should be taught. Finally, the goal should have turned into international communication.
2.5 Communicative Approach and Word Learning
In the 1970s and 1980s, the Communicative Approach began to emphasize the importance of learning from the natural path. Teachers have started using activities that involve students trying to understand the words of the piece through clue words.
The use of monolingual dictionaries was suggested instead of the bilingual dictionaries. Literature books have begun to focus on the extraction of meaning from the context. In language learning, the effect of behavioral psychology was to leave its place in the sociolinguistic domain.
Although the communicator approach has given the necessary attention to grammar and vocabulary teaching, the main goal was to enable the student to use language effectively to communicate on the target language. This approach argues that words and their meanings are not taught directly because they can be learned more effectively indirectly through grammatical or communicative activities.
Larsen-Freeman (1986) \”did not mean that it would provide the best communication, knowing the most grammatical structure and the word, as he stated. As a result, learning language in language learning has lost its progress in becoming the most basic component of language learning once again with the prominence of communication skills in this period. Nonetheless, the Communicator Approach has made it possible for vocabulary teaching to be re-groomed.
2.6 Today\’s Word Teaching and Its Importance
In recent years, vocabulary teaching has been regarded as a very important part of language teaching and has taken its place in foreign language teaching. This has been due to the development of understanding-based approaches, applied linguists and computer-based vocabulary studies that hit the turn mark.
Advocates who have adopted a comprehension-based approach to language acquisition argue that in the early stages, common vocabulary learning will be effective in bringing out the abilities of students. In other words, if a student has extensive vocabulary, it will be possible to reach the main text in verbal or written texts without knowing the grammatical structures. (Richards and Renandya, 2002: 254).
And nowadays, in every environment where language learning is discussed, word teaching and learning have been mentioned, and this growing interest in this field has made word learning one of the most basic elements of language proficiency.
Carter (1987) and Laufer (1986) also support this view and emphasize the significance of the work in this area, as \”the fact that the vocabulary is small for those who want to learn a foreign language is an important shortcoming\”.
PART 3: WORD LEARNING IN ENGLISH
In English, word learning that should be addressed before moving on to another important
the subject is also \”the word\” concept. It is possible to see many different categories and different definitions of the word. Knowing that face us under the headings and categories of the word and the word which would be to have basic information about, to ensure the teaching of the word followed in the clearing of the roads is an important factor.
Then in Word, under the various headings based on the identification and classification these classifications a general classification for the purpose of determination of the top titles to talk of vocabulary and Word will be useful.
3.1 Word Information
In general, it is believed that knowing a word is equivalent to knowing the meaning of that word. However, word information is much more complex than that. That is to say, knowing the meaning of a word is not enough to know that word.Thornbury points out that, in the most general sense, the word structure and the semantic knowledge must begin with an examination of the word.
It is not enough to know the meaning of any word alone. At the same time, the meaning of the word must also be known. If the meaning of any word is known, there is a need for other information. For example, is the concept mentioned in the meaning of the word or is it action or is it both? Here comes the conclusion that knowing the meaning of a word means knowing the grammatical task of that word. In addition, the multiple meanings of a word and word phrases that have different meanings when combined with arrays that comprise the es. In other words, mean to know a word, the dictionary meaning of that Word\’s not to say that
just know, but also where other words are often used together so esdizim, yananlam, whether oral or written, belongs to language, and cultural background to know the properties belonging to it means.
3.1.1 Components Of Vocabulary
Vocabulary associated with the components of Richards (1976), 8 from context is referring to: in a word, to know when and where which words would come together; the word which is suitable for use in the environment to be able to make a decision; appropriate syntactic behavior of the word, the deep structure, deviation, Association networks,semantic properties and spatial egretilemel it is important to know the meanings.
Taylor also mentioned 7 subtitles, which can be listed as follows: the frequency of word encounter, the section of the word, the synonym, the morphology, the semantics, the semantics and the equivalent of the word.
In this way, the categories determined by various researchers in various forms, in fact, merge into almost common points. This commonality is that word knowledge means that the word can be used for communicative purposes in four basic skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking) on the target in a productive sense, as Oxford and Crookall (1990).
It is often assumed that the concept of word information consists of a simple word list. However, besides the words that have meaning alone, there are also groups of words that consist of more than one word and have a meaning on each side.
In fact, summer has proved to us that there is no universal definition of the word. For example, Folse (2004) defined the word as a building block that formed certain expressions, altered expressions, idioms, and spontaneous actions, whereas Thornbury (2002) referred to the word as a lexicon that has a single meaning and constitutes a word or group of words. Despite the difference in terminology, the above-mentioned classifications show us that the words need other neighbors to make their meaning clear.
3.1.2 Word Grammar
It should be known that multi-word structures are also important for communicating naturally on the learned language. For example, students have to know their structure, meaning and use in order to learn about their actions. Thornbury (2002) notes that it is necessary to know whether such knowledge of gross behavior is transitive or intransitive, whether it is separable or indivisible, and what is the emphasis and knowledge of the reunion.
Knowing the meaning of a word means knowing its true meaning and its altered or multiple meanings. Finally, the use of the word is known whether it is used in official or informal speech, and whether it works according to the principle of dominance(Thornbury, 2002:13-15).
The word knowledge also requires knowing the synonym of that word. This information allows you to know your word, other words that will be found in the conversation or in the text. In other words, the synonym is the presence of words that are normal to the natural speaker. Knowing the obvious synonyms gives you the comfort and power to use the student language. This information reduces both the chances of the student making mistakes and ensures that the language is closer to the natural speaker.
Because the use of fluent and correct language requires the correct use of these structures. Another point to mention here is the accumulative nature of word learning. Researchers advocate that in order to fully learn and understand a word, it is necessary to provide many encounters.
3.2 Words of Memory Recall Place and Priority
One of the biggest problems facing a learner who learns a word will be difficult to remember the words he or she later learns. In the case of an effective learning, learning is equivalent to remembering. Learning a word is a cumulative process. For example, while learning a certain amount of rules during grammar learning, word learning can be perceived more as a memory process that requires the ability to hold words in memory.
So, the important thing to keep in mind about keeping the words in memory is to examine how the memory works and to decide how the results will be reflected in word teaching (Thornbury, 2002: 23).
3.3 Don\’t forget
Forgetting new words learned is very common and natural. Remember, at first it is fast but it tends to slow down over time. Remember, it can happen at the end of a whole period, as it can be after short learning (until a dersten elapses). According to calculations made, 80% of the learned knowledge is forgotten within the first 24 hours, but then this rate is decreasing.
The results of some studies on Spanish learners in English language show that during the first 3-4 years when there is no use of language, forgetting occurs but then forgetting is diminishing. There are two factors that determine the keeping of words in their minds. The easiest of these is the easier recall of words that are easy to learn. Another determinant is that words that have been spread over a long period of learning are learned more easily than words that are trying to be taught in a short time.
This is parallel to the principle of distrubuted practice (Thornbury, 2002: 26). Remember, it can be caused by later learning, by hitting the former, or by inadequate re-doing. One thing to mention about kicking is about overloading. During these surpluses, it may be that the old learned words are forgotten instead of old ones. This can happen, especially if the recently learned words show similarities to those learned previously.
Newly learned words also have features such as being based on the earlier ones (Thornbury, 2002: 26).
Repetition is the most important factor in remembering. Surveys show that repetition of learned information intermittently reduces the rate of forgetfulness.
This repetition mentioned is nothing more than vocalizing the words or re-reading the parts they pass through. Such a repetition should be in the form of reinforcement of the meaning of the word with more different examples, and therefore the meaning deepens in the mind of the learner. Researchers show that learning can be more effective if the student repeats the word he or she has learned in a different setting or environment than the one he first met (Thornbury, 2002: 26).
CHAPTER 4: DIFFERENT METHODS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING
Hunt and Begler (1998) refer to three different approaches to teaching and learning vocabulary. These are classified as coincidental learning, word learning through teaching, and word learning through strategy development. The American Heritage Dictionary of English Language describes incidental words of chance.
Random word learning occurs as a byproduct of the realization of other skills such as speech, reading and listening. The most basic source of coincidental word learning is widely read, and this technique is an activity that is recommended to be organized regularly as an out-of-class activity. On the other hand, vocabulary learning through instruction is a kind of learning that has been specially planned and determined and aimed at by the student and the teacher.
4.1. Direct and Indirect Learning
Studies of direct and indirect learning have emerged as a topic of cognitive psychology and these two types of learning try to explain the answer to the question whether information is stored in memory abstract form or in special form. In these two learnings, it is also being investigated whether knowledge is an outcome of an awareness of the process, or an outgrowth of the process. In defining these two concepts, whether conscious or not is a distinctive factor. Indirect learning is also defined as the acquisition of hidden information belonging to the underlying structure in a complex warning, without consciousness, in a natural and simple process.
Direct learning is more aware and conscious thought on the structure (Rieder, 2003: 25). Seger (1994) explains indirect learning as a complex process in which the learning process takes place without being spoken of and not for teaching. Indirect learning is a more passive process than direct learning. In the form of this learning, the person is exposed to the knowledge and the knowledge reaches the end of this exposure. Many psychologists state that a person\’s knowledge over the course of his life has a lot of indirect learning.
Learning to ride a bicycle and learning a language are some of the skills learned mostly indirectly, and they learn that people know how to do it but can not easily explain how it is done. Direct learning, on the other hand, is a form of learning that is consciously thought out on the structure (Ellis, 1994b: 1).
Indirect learning is independent of age and intelligence and is not affected by disorders such as memory loss. In contrast, direct learning is affected by such diseases. In indirect learning, the age of the learner is not important, but age is important in direct learning (Reber, 1993: 237).
4.1.1 The Relationship Between Word Learning and Direct-Indirect Learning Through Randomized Teaching
Direct and indirect learning, the first times it emerged, was interested in the acquisition of grammatical structures. Reber (1967) became the first researcher to do studies on this field, with the theory that the results of his experiments investigating the learning of grammar were the result. In his work,
Reber proved that grammar structures were learned without conscious intervention and abstracted. Since Reber\’s work, studies on direct and indirect learning have begun to increase significantly (Rieder, 2003: 24).
The difference between these two forms of learning has been a topic of discussion and controversy in word learning. Krashen (1985), as a natural learning advocate, has emerged as an advocate of indirect learning. By contrast, West\’s General Service List Compilation leads to the emergence and interest of the vocabulary advocates for this point of view. For the last 15 years, researchers have been working on teaching strategies through teaching (West, 1953).
The distinction between direct and indirect learning is a topic that is often discussed in the field of foreign language teaching, in the context of grammar learning and vocabulary learning. There is a great deal of discussion about learning the word and whether it should be done in the natural way or through learning through teaching. At the end of these discussions, the direct and indirect learning headings in word learning have changed, and instead, the terms of word learning have been used instead of random learning and teaching.
Especially coincidental word learning has been a field of research on foreign language teaching, and psychology has begun to separate this learning from direct and indirect learning. While learning vocabulary through teaching, on vocabulary and vocabulary, emphasizing the purpose of teaching, coincidental vocabulary learning is the unawareness of the learner when he gives the attention of the learner to the use of language (Rieder, 2003: 45).
4.2 Learning Random Word
Language emerges and evolves as a result or byproduct of the individual\’s socialization process (Wode, 1999). Children learn the language used in their surroundings by discovering the world around them. Socialization is an ongoing process and people, even in adulthood, have to adapt to the changes in their environment. Language acquisition and development, if the language being taught is a native language or a foreign language, it will develop with this harmony.
This means that learning in the natural environment or the classroom environment is mostly natural because the language is not learning the language during this integration process. Language is learned naturally in this process.
Students are considered to be \”coincidental learning\” (Celce-Murcia, 2001: 288) to learn any word without direct instruction, only by reading extensively, or by \”unaware\” activities such as communicative activities or television watching.
The phrase \”unaware\” used in the definition of coincidental learning can be understood in two different ways.
4.2.1 Awareness in Language Acquisition
Upon acceptance of the judiciary without knowledge of coincidental word learning, the concept of awareness in language acquisition has become a subject of interest to various researchers.
It will be appropriate to begin with the four distinctive features of the concept of awareness in language acquisition. These can be listed as: – intentional, intentional, – careful, – within the control, – directive or directive.
While there is a clear linguistic awareness of learning through teaching, coincidental learning is often known as an automatic process that occurs during learning without the knowledge of the acquisition process and the resulting knowledge. For this reason, it is suggested that there is a learning process in which there is no conscious word learning awareness. In contrast, attention to the realization of learning is also a prerequisite (Schmit, 2001).
Attention and awareness, although seemingly synonymous, are known to be a precondition for awareness. In learning coincidental words, the concept of attention must be found in the first stage to notice the stimulus, but not all of the process is mentioned in awareness.
4.2.2 Input Hypothesis
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