This chapter presents theoretical and empirical literature review related to film tourism activities. Specific focus was placed on Tanzanian cultural heritage tourism destinations cases. It also presents theoretical frameworks and theories related to film tourism. Other subtopics presented included literature on tourist visitations, income growth and film tourism impact on destination areas’ economy. Presented in this section is also a methodological review of related literature and research gap. It should be noted that, empirical review of literature comes later in this section deliberately for the following reasons: (i) Since this research triangulated a lot of data sources, it required a lengthy presentation various theories and theoretical framework suitable to respective data (ii) It was difficult to mix theoretical and empirical data in the same subsections.
2.1 Conceptual Review of Literature
This section reviews some theories applicable to this thesis. The theories were used for discussion of findings in chapter five and knowledge building through confirmation and falsification in chapter six. In this section, presented are also conceptual frameworks, which helped in guiding this research.
Despite the fact that, the issue of film tourist travel motivations and impact on toured sites has drawn a significant attention among film tourist and geographic researchers (Shepherd, 2003), there is no consensus among academicians and researchers that, a single theory can sufficiently address tourist travel motivations, Parinello (1996). The complexity of tourism industry and heterogeneous nature of human behaviour makes this a highly challenging academic field for investigation (Balon, 2010). This research used the AIDA theory along with theory travel motivations and semiotic theories as a theoretical base for hypothetical- deductive knowledge building in this thesis.
2.1.1 The AIDA Model
Modern marketing theory can be shown in the AIDA Model (Li and Yu, 2013). The model is used for describing hierarchy of events and can be used to explain stages that customers use starting with awareness to achieve their purchasing decisions (Hudson et al; 2010). A.I.D.A model is an acronym for Attention, Interest, and Action respectively. Li and Yu (2013) tried to explain the AIDA model components in detail:
184.108.40.206 Detailed Description of AIDA Model
(a) Attention refers to the art of attracting attention to customers. In film tourism various techniques in a movie like narration styles and placement of products in movies could draw the attention of customers on the merits of particular products or services.
(b) Interest-This is the practise raising interest of customers to particular products or services, by focusing and demonstrating on advantages instead of focusing o features alone as is for traditional advertising. In this thesis for example, demonstrating the formation of geographical features such as formation of stalactites and stalagmites on a movie, would give students/pupils the advantages of learning through seeing and store learning stimuli for a long time in their memory. This may trigger their teachers and students to create a desire to travel to Amboni caves.
(c) Desire- this is the act of convincing your customers that, the product or service you are trying to offer, will satisfy their needs. In our Oldupai Gorge portrayal, the narrator tried to convince his customers by telling them that, they will not regret to visit Oldupai which is a cradle of human evolution. That visiting of Odupai Gorge, will not only provide visitors with ritualistic satisfaction but also fulfil the desire to see wild animals surrounding the gorge.
(d) Action- After the customers are convinced of the satisfaction that they can get through purchasing a product or service, the next step is to take action to purchase the product or service. For example, actual action of visiting a cultural heritage tourist destination like Oldupai Gorge, Amboni caves or Kondoa Irangi historical sites.
According to Li and Yu (2013), as the customer passess through the AIDA steps till he takes action to purchase a product or service, each step has the tendency of decreasing customers in such that, at the end only few, the ones who make purchasing decisions remain. In this regard, the AIDA model becomes an inverted pyramid, as customers pass through each step. The main focus of marketing decision however is to make sure that, the lower end of the AIDA model pyramid becomes large (Ibid), meaning increasing potential customers who take action to make purchasing decisions.
Figure 2 THE AIDA MODEL
Source (Li& Yu, 2013)
220.127.116.11 Application of AIDA MODEL to Film Tourism Marketing
The AIDA Model has been used by some scholars in the study of film tourism and destination marketing (Hudson et al; 2010 & Hudson et al; 2013). AIDA model is the grand model in this thesis. It was used to evaluate the steps that, film tourists passed from creating interest to making a decision to travel (whether they heard about film tourism and Zamadamu programmes, if they watch or not, if they made interest to travel after watching and if they made a decision to travel because of watching the Zamadamu programme or not). This model was integrated with the travel motivations model Macionis (2004). In the latter, the researcher was interested to find out factors that motivated them to travel (Place, Performance or personality). Such factors asked were like research, touristic leisure and education among others.
It should be noted that, through the travel motivations model was also used to see how how the Zamadamu created awareness of destinations and made decisions to travel, the AIDA model is grand marketing theory in this thesis. But the Travel Motivations theory plays a unique guide in this thesis namely, to find out the “influence of film tourism on destination growth” (visitations, revenue, infrastructure and other negative effects on the researched cultural heritage tourist destinations). Combination of AIDA and travel motivation model, were similarly, used by Hudson et al; 2010 & Hudson et al; 2013). They used the AIDA model to find out the impact of product placement through the hierarchy of effects. They then moved to using the travel motivations model, to find out factors that motivated them to travel (Place, Personality and Performance). Their findings indicated that, interest, adventure, natural state and inexpensiveness were positive factors that influenced them to travel while the opposite included climate, cultural similarity and lack of language barriers were negative factors.
2.2 Theories of Travel Motivations
The thesis uses the theory of travel motivations (Macionis, 2004) as subsidiary theory to AIDA theory. It is referred as a framework for understanding film tourism (Hudson and Ritchie (2005). Its presentation, herein has included ideas of different film tourism theorists including, Macionis, (2004) and Hudson and Ritchie (2005).
A number of researchers have used the push pull factor film tourism motivation theories on film tourism research (O’Connor, 2010). This theory does not apply to film tourism research alone as related to travel motivations. Researchers have shown that film tourism field started using it in film studies in the recent years. Butler (1990) put this connection in clear terms when he revealed that, nowadays tourists have put little significance on reading materials as their important sources about destination information and depend much on visual information there by making films and television as the most reliable and significant sources of destination information.
The model for understanding film tourism presented below (fig. 1), represents ‘pull-push factors for tourist travel motivations. The model is presented so that the discussion that follows after its presentation makes ease understanding of film tourism.
Macionis (2004) explained the concept of film induced tourist through “Push and Pull theory”. He posited that, tourists are motivated to travel through ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors (Also, O’Connor, 2010, Butler, 1990, Hudson & Ritchie, 2005). Push factors are those that induce a tourist to travel to certain destinations such as sunshine, sea, animals, scenery, mountains and rivers.
The second category of factors that may lead to a tourist making decision to travel is the ‘pull factors’ which according to Macionis (2004) and Hudson and Ritchie, 2006a) are divided into three categories which include (a) place (destination, destination attributes, landscape and scenery), (b) personality (cast, characters and celebrity and (c) performance (genre, plot and theme). Pull factors are those that predisposing tourist to travel (Macionis, 2004). In film tourism, “3 Ps-place, personality and performance represent pull factors where as its impacts on motivation; fantasy, escape, status, prestige, search for self identity, ego, enhancement, vicarious experience of the tourists represent the push factors (Ibid)
These travel motivations have also been well elaborated by Hudson and Ritchie (2005) model for understanding film tourism. Their model includes among other things film tourism marketing activities. Hudson and Ritchie (2005) found that, a film tourist is inspired by these factors (i) destination marketing activities (2) Film specific factors (iii) destination attributes. These factors result in pull-push motivations to film tourist (Smateera (2015). Film marketing activities are done when; the film is being premiered and distributed, as well as during each release window. Additional business activities can be created though film tourism can in turn encourage the extension and strengthening of a visitor reason (Hudson and Ritchie 2005). Film marketing activities are pull factors and are many ranging from support for film studios by destination marketers to encouraging tourist centres and governments to support or sponsor film studios in different forms such as offering tax grants, giving direct financial support to film makers or encouraging and allowing film makers to film in tourist destinations. Below is model for understanding film tourism.
Figure 3 A Model for Understanding Film Tourism
Source: Hudson & Ritchie, (2005)
Film tourist success as explained by Hudson and Ritchie (2005) in their Model for “Understanding Film Tourism” will depend on film specific factors, destination attributes, film commissions and government efforts. These have been identified by Hudson and Ritchie (2006) as film tourism marketing opportunities (marketing activities inclusive), or success factors for film tourism in their model for “Understanding Film Tourism” (fig. 1). Though this research concentrates on how film marketing activities can promote tourism, it should be understood that, marketing activities market the film, which depict destination scenery and attributes and in particular circumstances destination marketers cooperate with film commission and government departments to encourage film studios perform film tourism marketing activities.
2.2.1 3 P’s Concepts
According to Macionis (2004) the 3 P’s concepts (Pull factors) involve three important attributes due to which film induced tourists decide on certain destinations:
• Seen on movie or TV
• Location-where the movie is shot (or a particular scene) which can be fictional or non fictional and due to tourists’ attraction it becomes a film location. Film location has the potential for attracting tourists
• Studios-sets of large proportions that are tourists’ attractions themselves (Hollywood, Bollywood, etc). The result here is creation of desire to visit a place to visit a place because was it was seen on a movie. Piano Film was also a first promoter of New Zealand beaches (Waitakare region, Kareakare Beaches etc (Ibid).
This is the act of visiting a particular country or regions where a movie or TV series are produced that provoke tourist’s curiosity at the level of a screen play, storyline customs and traditions. The impact of a storyline (performance) could be explained as an escape from the real world and living through a vicarious experience seen on a movie or need to be part of another storyline as part of tourist fantasy. The Steel Magnolias and Field of Dream movies fall under these categories of movies. Beeton (2005) defines it as a seek for landscapes, people, experiences and fantasies portrayed through films.
This is the need to visit places where famous actors or main characters played famous scenes (moment of identification). Said otherwise, film actors may motivate tourists to visit a place. For example, Brave heart is a movie that has brought tourist popularity owing to its main protagonist, the hero character William Wallace (O’Connor, 2010)
2.2.2 Types of Film Tourists
The extent to which a tourist is moved to travel by contents of a movie or TV series determine the types of tourists depicted in fig. 1and table 1 namely: Specific, general and serendipitous tourists. This classification of tourist suggests that, the more a tourist is moved to travel by viewing a film, the more he/she escapes from authenticity of destination decision making factors. The result of a tourist motivation is a decision to travel which consequently may have positive and negative impacts on a destination visited (Smateera (2015).
These types of film tourists are categorized in accordance to the extent a tourist is motivated to visit destinations by a tourist product featured in a television or cinema (Macionis, 2004). Thus the more the individual becomes specifically film induced tourist, the greater the need for self actualization (Binelli and Ylenia (2012). Thus, a tourist’s action of visiting a destination as a result of viewing a movie represents a personal reward (Ibid). In understanding film tourism motivations, Macionis (2004) developed a continuum of film induced motivations, which include: Serendipitous, general and specific film tourists (Table, 1). According to Macinois (2004) and O’Conner (2010) a film induced tourist unlike a traditional tourist is not much concerned with authenticity. When choosing a destination a tourist places much attention to authenticity since the scene, place, storyline and character remain in their memory as they have seen and experienced them. Thus, traditional tourists visit places for several reasons such as travel costs, beauty of scenery, infrastructures and story told by a friend, news heard on radio etc. All of these may not be related to a film seen, thus placing importance to authenticity of factors causing tourists to visit destinations.
Table (1) below represents the kind of film tourist and type of motivation to travel as developed by Macionis, (2004a) The classification of a film tourist in fig. 1 has been used by many film tourism researchers and Macionis (2004a) defends this classification as a perfect one for examining film tourism motivations because it emphasizes on specific media representations and attributes that are crucial for tourists to make decisions to travel; it is fit for film tourism travel motivations because it answers such questions as: what is the tourist experience as it relates to a motivation to visit site specific destinations? What do the tourists desire to perform when they arrive at a film destination? And what is important to tourists in fulfilling a given motivation? (O’Connor, 2010, Macionis, 2004).O’ Connor (2010) justifies this by saying, it is the beauty and attraction of place that motivates people to travel to a well known destination or performance that induces a tourist to travel to fulfil a desire for escape or romance through vicarious experience. Lastly, it may be that a film star or personality has been showcased on a TV or film that has moved a tourist to travel to a tourist destination
The result of film tourism marketing activities as explained in Macionis, (2004) is an increased motivation to a tourist (Hudson and Ritchie, 2005). Many theories have been written on tourists’ motivation to travel as shown in model for understanding film tourism in figure (1), by Hudson and Ritchie, (2005).
Table 1 Travel Motivations and Kinds of Film Tourists
Source: O’Connor (2010)
However, the push and pull factors framework as represented in figure 1and table 1 that attempts to explain tourist motivations to visit a particular place has been criticized as being inefficient to explain motivations triggering tourist behaviour (O’Connor, 2010), on grounds that people may travel because they have been motivated by their own behaviour (hobby) or because they have been pulled by other external forces such as education and research.
2.2.3 Film Marketing Activities
The result of film tourism marketing activities as explained in Macionis, (2004) is an increased motivation to a tourist (Hudson and Ritchie, 2005). These marketing activities have been included in the model for understanding film tourism (Hudson and Ritchie, (2005), and Macionis, (2004), but they are explained in detail in this sub-section to better understand film tourism and theory of travel motivations in particular.
Sometimes called destination marketing activities Hudson and Ritchie (2005, 2006), film tourism marketing activities have a bearing impact on growth of tourism sectors. Research has found that, there is success of some destinations that have encouraged film producers in order to PR their regions or countries (Smateera, 2015). Such activities are carried out by destination marketing officers by collaborating with various tourism stakeholders (Hudson and Ritchie 2011). In some countries, Ministry of Tourism has made collaboration with industry stakeholders (Smateera, 2015). Such institutions can be film studios, film commissions, tourist destinations themselves or government ministries. A review of secondary research related to film tourism suggest that, some destinations have benefited by showing a significant rise in visitor numbers following a release of a film ( Hudsonand Ritchie 2006)
According to Hudson and Ritchie, (2006) there are 31 marketing activities marketers can engage in promoting film tourism. Given flexibility of marketing efforts as influenced by marketing environment and practice in a given marketing territory, it is the researcher’s belief that film tourism marketing activities can be more or less than those identified by Hudson and Ritchie (2006). Since this research deals partly with film tourism marketing activities and their influence on increasing tourist numbers in Tanzania, findings of this thesis are expected prove or disprove this assumption. Film tourism marketing activities according to Hudson and Ritchie (2006) can be executed before and after release of films (Hudson and Ritchie 2005, 2006, 2011).
18.104.22.168 Film Tourism Marketing Activities before Release
Some destination marketers encourage marketers to film in their locations for reasons not only of short term but long-term economic impacts (Hudson and Ritchie 2006). Support and sponsorship for film marketing activities is done by film commissions, film boards and tourism ministries using huge sums of dollars around the globe. An important strategy is having a certain segment of customers as a target. Britain targets Bollywood films to place Britain tourist destinations in their films (Hudson and Ritchie 2006)
Another important strategy is to hire public relations firms to market films. PR firms can be used to ensure maximum exposure in film stations and televisions. In this regard, product placement experts can be used to place destinations in films. This for example has been done by Chicago’s Office of films and entertainment (The Economist 2008)
Other preproduction activities done by DMO’s in promoting tourist destinations include location scouting, negotiation of credits for being used in films and destination guides in which DMO’s take the advantage of increasing number of consumers having interest in the marking of films ( Hudson and Ritchie 2006). Table 2, gives evidence of the number of preproduction marketing activities done by DMO’s around the globe:
22.214.171.124 Marketing Activities during Production of Film
Publicity is an important strategy during filming. It could be around many film marketing activities such as announcement of location being shot or publicity of film stars on world stations there by revealing and publicizing locations around which the film was shot (Hudson and Ritchie 2006). This strategy can create desire, eager and interest to visit tourist destinations even before release of films. Probably an important strategy in ensuring constant messaging about film locations is by being in touch with film producers ( Ibid) Management experts posit that “something planed is half done” (O’Connor, 2010). DMO’s may partner with film studios to produce marketing materials even before release of films.
126.96.36.199 Marketing Activities after Release of Films
The period following release of films is when many DMO’s get involved in marketing activities of film tourism. At this time it’s when many DMO’ capitalize on creation of interest for many tourists to visit destinations there by creating additional sites for visitations. Marketing activities for film tourism are created after every release window for all various sorts of film tourism genres like Cinema, video, DVD rentals and purchase, pay per view TVs and free television (Hudson and Ritchie, 2006).Research suggests that in typically successful film marketing opportunities film tourism success may exist for a period more than 25 years following release of a film (Ibid).
However, it is uncommon, even for a moderately successful film, to have a shelf life in access of 25 years (Hudson and Ritchie, 2006). A town of Claytown Georgia, continues to enjoy great attention from adaptation of James Dickey’s celebrated movie Deliverance (Hudson and Ritchie, 2016). According to Hudson and Ritchie (2006) some marketing techniques, which can be adopted after release of a film are include: (table 3).
(a) Collaborative Efforts with Media Companies
Destination marketers and film commissions have been noted to forge relationships to promote film tourism during production and after film release (Hudson and Ritchie 2006). Visit Britain for example, collaborates with film studios a year before release of a film (Hudson and Ritchie 2006). In some countries ministries of tourism act as soon as they receive a script. This is a case of Bahamas where film commissions are under the auspices of Ministry of Tourism. Bahamas which invests heavily in film tourism, invested $ 16 million after the release of a film The Sun Set.
Table 2 Marketing Activities before release of a Film
S/N Type of preproduction marketing activity Supporting Evidence Explanation
1 Announcement of grants to attract film tourists to film in tourist destinations Singapore Tourism Board announced a 3-year $7 million grant This was intentionally done to attract broadcasters and film makers to produce their work in Singapore
2 Appointment of PR specialists to place destinations in films Canada and Bahamas have employed Weber Shandwick, one of the biggest PR firms
PR specialists are employed to ensure maximum exposure of tourist destinations in films driven by role of film tourism as a marketing opportunity
3 Negotiation of credits to be used in films In 2005, Yukon and Culture Partnered with Italian and French distributer of the film Dernier Traupper This made it clear that the film was made in Yukon. Together with Industry partners, more than CDN $ 60,000 were invested to co-brand Yukon and Canadian travel destinations with Film distribution in Europe
4 Working with producers’ publicity throughout the film (i) The Lord of Rings
(ii) Visit Britain worked harder to get endorsement of Bollywood actors act in Britain destinations (i)During filming of the film media clippings indicated the film was being shot in New Zealand providing important early linkages between the film and the location
(ii)Aim was to make most Indians travel to Britain
5 Do publicity around activities of actors on location Captain Korellis’ Mondolin During the making of the film, publicity shots featuring 2 stars Nicolas Cage and Penelope Cruz were flashed throughout the world raising publicity of Cephalonia the location of the film considerably
6 Preparing marketing materials in advance of release of the film through collaborative efforts Collaboration between Sony Pictures and Colombia Pictures before release of film closer in UK starring Jude Lee, Julie Roberts and Clare Owen Such marketing materials were for example movie maps in which prospective visitors downloaded knowing many destinations of the UK
Source: Hudson and and Ritchie (2006)
Table 3 some marketing techniques After Release of a Film
a) Collaborative campaigns with film industry Development of movie maps
b) Guided tours and film walks
c) Promotion of hotels, guest houses, attractions and museums used in films
d) Having a dedicated website linking films and film locations Promoting destination during screening of the film
e) Having efforts dedicated to having media attention dedicated to film attention
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