Essay: Gender issues in Cinemalaya Gender films

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  • Gender issues in Cinemalaya Gender films
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In this study entitled “Content Analysis on the Presentation of Gender Issues in the Top 11 Cinemalaya Gender Films”, the Researchers compiled a number of different literatures which seeks to provide clarity to the study’s concern which is the Presentation of Gender Issues in 11 Cinemalaya Gender Films.


Based on a study conducted by The Gender Spectrum, an organization that promotes gender acceptance, most often people interchange or falsely use the terms “gender” and “sex”. This concept has become so collective, mainly in western societies, that it is rarely questioned. We are brought into this world, assigned with either male or female reproductive organs, then sent out into the world. For many people, this is the cause of misunderstandings and conflict. However biological sex and gender are two different things; gender is not inherently nor solely affiliated to one’s physical anatomy

Gender is the complex interrelationship between an individual’s sex (gender biology), one’s internal sense of may either be male, female, both or neither (gender identify) as well as one’s outward presentation and behaviors (gender expression) related to perception, including their gender role. As an outcome of these three dimensions intersecting lies one’s authentic sense of gender, both based on individual experiences of own gender and of different perceptions.
In addition, as defined by the Gender Booklet, Gender is how an individual considers himself to be identified as. These could either be in a masculine or feminine manner, neutral, androgynous, ambiguous, or in any combination. There are more than 20 types of gender combinations. Bostian (2011) Retrieved from:


In the society, media plays an influential role. From current events, interpretational frameworks, keeps the mass connected with various issues and topics, reproduces predominant culture and society, and entertains. As such, our promotional media has an impact on the presentation of gender issues both for men and women. The Role of the Media in the Construction of Public Belief and Social Change [PDF].

Social norms are greatly influenced by media forms particularly regarding gender, class, race, nationality, etc. Forming the standards of which is masculine and feminine. Is used to communicate general ideals to the public. Socio linguistic and gender (2014) Retrieved from:

For instance, in 2008, four Colt 45 commercials wherein men in different scenarios are situated to be “unmanly” or considered as not “man enough”. In this situation, men are not entitled to comment on women’s fashion, to show affection, to worry if his drinking glass is clean, or to wipe oil from his face.

Typical Filipino men are observed on how they act and labeled “unmanly” if their actions don’t display ideals that are commonly accepted by many even how normal it is for a guy. Male Roles, Masculinities and Violence [PDF].

A research conducted by the people of Restless Development in the rural areas of Eastern Cape, found that there is great pressure on men to prove their manhood. Men are commonly characterized with dominance and power.

Men are not entitled to be weak, it is true that women are more often affected by gender-based violence however, there is a need to appreciate that men can also be abused, emotionally, sexually and physically. Generally, it is difficult for men to voice out abuse of any form, a man should be tough and invulnerable, they are prohibited to be emotional or else it will show lack of manliness. Struggling to be a Man: Young People’s Perspective of Gender Inequality and Gender-Based Violence. Clarfelt (2015) Retrieved from:

In spite of the changes in gender roles that are portrayed in media, many are still caught up with the morals of the Spanish religious doctrine: that men should be overpowering women.
Another gender issue brought about by media is “Body Shaming”, wherein media envelops us to what should be seen as perfect and what is not. This excludes no one, both men and women are criticized on how they should look or their physical attributes. Men should be muscular while women should attain an hour-glass shaped body.
In addition, scholars, Frederickson and Roberts coined that the habit of culture body observation through objectifying sexuality reduces an individual’s quality of life. An example of the Relationship of Female Sexual Dysfunction [PDF]


According to Springer, gender issues is interdisciplinary and cross-national in scope focusing on gender and gender equity. Retrieved from
Remaining at the 7th position of the Gender Equal Countries stood the Philippines, amongst 144 countries, assessed by the Global Gender Gap Index 2016.

However, there are still issues of inequality that concerns gender specially in its representation in media. Here are the issues gathered by the researchers:

Inequalities in political power (access to Decision-Making, Representation, etc.). Throughout the world, women are under-represented in most political processes. The importance of understanding and sighting gender differences in power over formal decision-making structures (such as community councils, governments, and policy-making institutions). Given the under-representation of women and the low visibility of women’s perspectives, the fact that women most of the time have various priorities, needs and interests than men is often not apparent. Equal Participation of Women and Men in Decision-Making Processes, with Particular Emphasis on Political Participation and Leadership [PDF]

Inequalities within households. Unequal approach in decision-making and negotiating potential and access to resources have been observed within households. Encouraging questions on both policy and research which is based on the assumption that households function as units where each member benefits equally.

Differences in legal status and entitlements. Considering the number of national constitutions and international instruments that proclaim equal privileges for men and women, there are a handful of situations wherein equal rights to personal status, land, inheritance, security and employment opportunities are denied to women by practice or law.

Violence against women. Gender discrimination also manifests in gender-based violence, either by a woman’s intimate partner (domestic violence), by an enemy army as a weapon of attempted ‘ethnic cleansing’ or in sexual exploitation through, for instance, human trafficking.

From the London film festival, Stacy Smith and Mark Choeiti wrote on their study Gender Inequality in Cinematic Content? A look at females on screen & behind the camera in top grossing 2008 films , “In the top 100 grossing films of 2008 young women were sexualized more often than men. 39.8% of women were wearing sexually revealing attire compared to 6.7% of men and 30.1% of women were shown partially naked compared to 10.3% of men.

This study is not a surprised at all: Women are viewed as sex objects. An article from National Review confirms this theory by stressing it out in an article entitled, Men see women as sex objects: it not misogynist, its reality.

Powerful and dominant, what a man should be, the pressure on men to be financially stable in relationships and families can also trigger violence. Facing the realities of unemployment and poverty, more often young men encounter feelings of frustration and disempowerment at the thought of not being able to provide, as a young man stated:

Men are not Entitled to be Weak

While true enough that women mostly are, the ones affected by gender-based violence, there should also be an understanding that men are prone to abuse, both emotionally, sexually and physically. Addressing Domestic Violence Against Women: An Unfinished Agenda. (2008) Retrieved from:
There are cases wherein boys are raped however, these are stigmatized, meaning that they are unreported and isolated from the public. Abused by their women partners, but this is not accepted to be real.

Ron Mattocks from The Good Man Project (A media-company which collects men’s stories about the defining moments in men’s lives and about what it means to be a good man in the 21st century) testified from his own experiences. His story entitled, When Men are the victims of abuse, earned not only about 156 more testimonies of abuse on men, but also criticism, from all over the world. His story, together with other testimonies, are proof on how society view men. His story tells of how his wife mentally abused him and how it ruined his social life, his career, and left him ready to commit suicide. Ron and his wife would fight frequently, but no matter how valid his arguments were, his anger was automatically seen as negative. He quoted,” During truces, we even joked about how I just needed to learn that timeless truth upon which every successful marriage is built: the husband is always wrong. But it was no laughing matter.”

As mentioned by Psychcentral, “Men usually are blamed for abuse because of modern gender stereotypes. Women are perceived as the weaker, gentler sex, whereas men are perceived as being stronger and having natural tendencies toward violence.”

Another relevant testimony comes from Chris Good, from the Thought Catalog. Still from his own experiences, Chris tells a significant account on how abuse on men are overlooked just because men are the known perpetrators of violence. In his blog entitled Men are not victims (because women say so), Chris said, “More recent and varied studies, such as the The Partner Abuse State of Knowledge Project, have indicated rates of female-perpetrated violence are higher than male-perpetrated violence (28.3% vs. 21.6%, respectively). Still, even most recent statistics have to be interpreted with the knowledge that our culture is one where women are encouraged to speak out about intimate partner violence and abuse, while men aren’t.”
Lastly, Lincoln Blades wrote in his article on The Good Men Project, “When a woman abuses a man, we laugh at his inability to actualize his alpha male hood, but when a man abuse a woman, we throw our hate to the man.” This states the society’s view on the non-existent abuse on men. Because men are supposed to be dominant and powerful.

Body shaming on both men and women. Both genders have their own ‘perfection’ blueprint attached. Men should be muscular, strong, emotionless. Told constantly to “Be a Man “and to “Man Up”. While women are supposed to be hot, sexy, flawless and ladylike. Thus, told to always be firm and proper.

Violence against the LGBT community. In 2012, over 2,000 incidents of anti-LGBT hate violence was recorded. In the past few months, news about Mark Carson, a gay man, being shot and a murder of a trans* woman named Islan Nettles. At least 7 attacks of anti-LGBT in New York City alone were reported in May. 12 Crimes that Changed the LGBT World (2012) Retrieved from:

The issue Violence against LGBT is a growing issue as the world accepts the existence of the LGBT society. But the freedom that the world promised to these genders, are not for everyone to accept. Several reports from all over the world, accounts for the crime that is inflicted towards LGBT members. On a recent news report from the Inquirer, a senior editor at the Bangladesh’s first LGBT magazine, and who was also an LGBT advocate was stabbed to death. Another report was from Singapore, where a man was arrested for his Facebook comment where he said he will start an open fire in Singapore.

Racial discrimination against LGBT. Most issues facing the general LGBT population is worst on people with different skin color. Almost twice is the probability to experience physical violence in cases of LGBT people of color, and 73.1% of all anti-LGBTQ homicide victims in 2012 were people of color. Islan Nettles and Mark Carson, two victims of anti-queer violence this summer, were people of color. 12 Crimes that Changed the LGBT World (2012) Retrieved from:
LGBT children suffering negative family reactions. Based on a research conducted by the Family Acceptance Project which shows that there’s a serious impact on young LGBT people ‘s health and mental health caused by family rejection. Young LGBT people rejected by their families due to their identity, is considered to acquire a much lower self-esteem and also less people to turn to for help. Experience less support and feel isolated than those who are accepted by their families. As LGBT teens are more likely to develop health and mental health risk specially in the presence of rejection by their parents and caregivers as they move to becoming young adults. 12 Crimes that Changed the LGBT World (2012) Retrieved from:
Workplace discrimination. Discriminating a LGBT person in the workplace shows a significant factor on differences of LGBT persons in the socioeconomic status. Direct job instability and high turnover, causing greater poverty rates and unemployment from discrimination of gay and transgender people, including the wage gap between straight and gay. 12 Crimes that Changed the LGBT World (2012) Retrieved from:


Based on a study headed by Dr. Stacy Smith of Geena Davis Institute regarding Gender in Media.
Studies, show that sexism is often invisible to most people. One form of sexism includes vis-a-vis media, this is how people overestimate the presence of women and their speech. It happens everywhere. It’s not that we think women are necessarily apparent or speaking as much as men, but that we expect them to be, relatively speaking, invisible and not speaking, so, by comparison, any appearance and speech is “too much.” This says a lot about status and mainstream cultural assumptions about social roles and of power.
Despite decades of research, it is apparent that we are, as a culture, so used to women being marginal that we don’t even notice. Women, as Davis points out, are only 17 percent of the people in movie crowd scenes, and yet viewers assume they are almost equally represented. That 17 percent number is super interesting, since it is also roughly the percentage of women found in leadership positions in government and business.
With very small changes, the ratio of men to women in film has remained fundamentally unchanged since 1946. As Davis put it, at this rate, “It will be 700 years before we reach parity” in U.S. media. And that parity is crucially important, not the least of which is because, as she explained, “Eighty percent of media we consume is made in the United States. We are responsible for exporting these images of girls and women to the world.” It is not a pretty picture.
Globally, there are 2.24 male characters for every 1 female character.
Out of a total of 5,799 speaking or named characters’ 30.9 percent were female, 69.1 percent male.


This research “A Content Analysis on Gender Issues in Cinemalaya Gender Films” adapts The Semiotics Theory by Roland Barthes. (Griffin, 2011).
Roland Barthes, a French literary critic and semiologist, claims that for him Semiotics is an “adventure”.
This theory’s goal is to interpret verbal and non-verbal signs. Semiotics is mainly concerned on “anything that can stand for something else” – Barthes
Semiotics is the study of signs and symbols, what they mean, and how are they related to the things they refer to. It is concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign. It is used to refer to a potential science that might investigate the nature of signs, study their impact on society, and state the laws that govern them. (Littlejohn, 2002)
Barthes’ description of a sign as the correlation between the signifier and the signified came directly from Saussure. The Swiss linguist visualized a sign as a piece of paper with writing on both sides—the signifier on one side, the signified on the other. If you cut off part of one side, an equal amount of the other side automatically goes with it. Using a similar metaphor. Saussure insisted the relationship is arbitrary—one of correlation rather than cause and effect. Barthes wasn’t so sure. He was willing to grant the claim of Saussure that words have no inherent meaning.
In Pierce’s own words, “Reality can be known through signs”.
A Sign Does Not Stand on Its Own: It Is Part of a System. Semiotic is the theory of production and explanation of meanings. Its principle is that meaning is made by the organization of acts and objects which purposes as signs as associated with other signs. A structure of signs is created by the complex meaning of relations that can exist between signs.
Sign, the inseparable combination of the signifier and the signified.
Signifier, the physical form of the sign as we perceive it through our senses; an image.
Signified, the meaning we associate with the sign.
Semiotics is the study of every detail in a story and how spectators interpret these details.
This puts forward the researchers as it copes the Semiotic Theory model:
In application of the Semiotic Theory on the given topic “Content Analysis on the Presentation of Gender Issues in the Top 11 Cinemalaya Gender Films”:
The Researchers substituted the factors of the study with the three variables of the Semiotic Theory model: sign, signifier and signified.
With that in hand, the researchers identified the signified as Gender Issues, Cinemalaya Gender Films as the sign. The sign system is inevitable to the matter; in this way, the meaning of the signs is to be revealed through the viewers’ detailed observation, in this study the researcher’s serves as the viewers of this study.
The researches implied that the signifier is Gender, this is looked up as the image of the study. Signs which hold rational aspects and objectives give meaning and interpretation to the subject.
And to end this, with the use of signifier, the researchers point out that Gender within the Top 11 Cinemalaya Gender films and the parameters of it to be acknowledgeable as the presentation of Gender Issues is the signified.
It is the presentation and idealism the researchers aim to analyze; these are the dependent variables of the study.


A film festival competition here in the Philippines, exhibiting Independent films. It aims to enhance opportunities of new concepts and ideas by aspiring Filipino filmmakers – films enveloped in artistry without the limits of mainstream film standards.
Ten fresh faces each year are given the privilege of producing films that display unique concepts while aiming to achieve awards for certain categories; Balanghai Awards for the Full-Length Films and awards for Short Features and Director’s Showcase. July is the month of its festivity at the Cultural Center of the Philippines, and these films are also premiered worldwide.


Content analysis is the process in which data is gathered through keen observation and specific calculations, it is either through text, song or film. Content Analysis [PDF]
The content that is analyzed can be in any form to begin with, but is often converted into written words before it is analyzed. The original source can be printed publications, broadcast programs, other recordings, the internet, or live situations. All this content is something that people have created. You can’t do content analysis of (say) the weather – but if somebody writes a report predicting the weather, you can do a content analysis of that.
In a content analysis, you might be categorizing the content of a narrative or of a media, web, archival or aesthetic object. An example could be a content analysis of the frequency & quality of depictions of mental illness in popular culture, in film or television: you might wish to evaluate the accuracy of such depictions; the presence of violence in the character who is depicted as mentally ill; the SES, gender, culture & ethnic background of the character; the character\’s actions, & the outcome of the character\’s actions. Content analysis can also be done of art & of narratives. In past research, it has been done to classify & analyze the content of dreams, imagery, fiction & art. For example, researchers analyzed the depictions of female characters in children\’s literature, & noted female characters were less frequent than male characters, & were depicted with sex-role stereotyped characteristics (e.g. being emotional or nurturing) & in sex-role stereotyped occupations of relatively less power (e.g. as nurses or homemakers).


Based on testing the variables, measured numbers, and analyzation of statistical procedures that leads to human or social problem inquiry. (Creswell, 2005) In a much simpler statement, Quantitative Research is an empirical research where data is derived into the form of numbers. (Punch, 1998) Gay and Airasian quoted that “the collection of numerical data in order to explain, predict and/or control phenomena of interest” defines the Quantitative Research. (Creswell, 2012))
The data shall be gathered from the coding guide which the Researchers devised.


According to NEDARC (2012), a Descriptive Research design’s primary goal is to assess a sample at one specific point in time without having to imply inferences or casual statements and putting the Quantitative approach into account; The sample to assess will be in numeric data and shall produce viable information answering the question “what exists?” without personal implications.


Inner communication or intrapersonal communication (Man Vs. Himself) is a critical foundation of an individual. Not only does it develop one’s sense of self but also helps identify an individual’s way of communicating with others.
The connection between self-perception closely interferes with the way a person acts among others. Who you see yourself as is different from who others see you as.
Self-concept is an introspection of who you think you are, with that comes in different discernments.
According to William James, a psychologist, in various situations we look at ourselves differently, for him there are 3 dimensions of self:
Material Self, Social Self and Spiritual Self. (Brewster,2012)
These struggles occur within the inner thoughts, doubts, and values of the character in other words “conscience”. It is affected by both internal and external aspects leaving it as a critical part of deciding what should be done.
The first Greek philosophers to systematically study speech and record it were Plato and Aristotle.
While Interpersonal communication on the other hand is stated to be the most human-engaged communication form. We tend to likely be more engaged with external factors than with our inner self; building, maintaining and putting an end to various types of relationships with others.
Interpersonal communication may be intentional or not, however since it’s interactive, social expectations and beliefs structures this communication form. The impact of external factors is more prominent than of intrapersonal. Dealing directly with personal affairs, instances of miscommunication and communication conflicts are more frequent. (Bucket,2012)
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th US President, once said, ‘When I’m getting ready to reason with a man, I spend one-third of my time thinking about myself and what I’m going to say and two-thirds about him and what he is going to say. Abraham Lincoln posts Retrieved from:


Issues are treated negatively due to the reality that an issue will only be present when there is an argument or disagreement.
Discrimination is often constituted with gender issues. Discrimination is the peculiarity of a person and is traditionally or generally unaccepted. Wherein disrespect and abuse takes place, there are certain laws that prohibit this kind of malice. Under the Gender Equality Law of 2011, any type of discrimination is to not be tolerated in any way by anyone one regardless of whether it was on purpose or not.
According to a news article that establishes gender neutrality, our era takes one step at a time to cater and promote gender neutral environments starting from parents to schools removing binary uniform rules and freely letting the students choose whatever gender they prefer.


The Genderlect Styles by Deborah Tannen is a linguistics professor at Georgetown University, and her research specialty is conversational style—not what people say but the way they say it.
Tannen introduces this sociolinguistic study with a quote from E. M. Forster’s novel A Passage to India: “A pause in the wrong place, an intonation misunderstood, and a whole conversation went awry.”
Forster’s novel illustrates how people of goodwill from different cultures can grossly misunderstand each other’s intentions. Tannen is convinced that the same thing happens between women and men, miscommunication. This leads to rather disastrous results however, both parties usually don’t realize that they are engaged in a cross-cultural encounter. Unlike when crossing geographical borders, we at least anticipate the need to bridge a communication gap.
For both girls and women, it is crucial to be liked by their peers, a form of involvement which focuses on symmetrical connection while for boys and men the need to be respected by their peers is more important, a form of involvement that focuses on asymmetrical status.
According to Tannen’s Genderlect Theory, there are five observations that supports this idea:
The first would be how men and women have different ways/ styles of engaging in both private and public speaking. Second, how each gender executes a joke. The way of listening to each other also differs same goes for asking questions. Lastly, resolving conflicts hence, both have different interpretations which leads them to respond accordingly and uniquely from each other.
In addition, based on John Gray’s book Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus, stating that men are more straightforward and women tend to use metaphors in communicating. Both parties differ in interpreting life and how they reciprocate it towards others.
As dramatic as it could be, women were not allowed to be part of any live theater nor any form of entertainment until 1660, due to the belief that women are not suited for such. Dating centuries back, discrimination has been part of our history. ( Discrimination is usually affiliated with women and how suppressed they are treated.
Sexuality and gender are both linked to each other in every way however, they have different attributes that separates them from one another.
Gender is your sense of self as to whether you feel more masculine, feminine or even both, some opposing to their biological sex.
While the essence of sexuality is to whom you are attracted to sexually and romantically. Heterosexuals are drawn to the opposite-sex and some are captivated by the same-sex, also known as lesbian or gay. And some prefer to be involved with all types of gender. Sex, sexuality and Gender explained. Retrieved from:


According to Amanda Kane from Story Progress, “One of the worst things an author can do is to leave the audience hanging at the climax.”
A resolution that leaves questions unanswered and decisions not made. Vocabulary. Retrieved from:


This chapter is consisted of seven (7) books, and eighteen (18) web articles totaling to 25 literatures used. Formulating Seven (7) Themes. These themes are supported by the Relevant Literatures that shall serve as the background for the study. The themes are: The Presentation of Gender in the Film, the relationship between Media and Gender, Gender Issues within the Film, the Objectives, Cinemalaya, the Approach of the Issues in the Film and Content Analysis.
The literature served as both a basis for deeper analyzation and further knowledge on the topic. These literatures that the Researchers have presented gave them a stronger urge to pursue this study, for it gave them a better understanding that made the process of content analysis easier to cope up with. By going through various books, and web articles which is interconnected with the study at hand, it provided a broader vocabulary and background to support the topic and also the Researchers as they move through every part of the paper in completion to this thesis.
The literature from respective authors, bloggers, editors, and everyone who took part in contributing to these chapter, gave the Researchers’ a broader perspective on the study together with the aspects which builds up the idea.
This chapter tackles on the relation between each theme and how they coincide with one another in order to support the idea. Arranged in themes to be organized and easy to follow on the selections of literature. Going from broad narrowing down to the specified study at hand.
The first theme tackles the complexity of Gender, this will help the Researchers in understanding the various gender identities and how they are different from each other. Thus, having a clear perspective on this matter shall make the study much easier to cope. Gender and Sex are two different concepts; gender being the state you see yourself as while sex is the sexual organ you are born with.
Without deeper knowledge of these concepts in would prove hard to understand the distinctiveness of each therefore, putting the Researchers in confusion.
Media interconnected with Gender is the second theme. The media is a tool for info dissemination, it carves the image of gender whether it will be in the right or wrong form, exhibiting the truth or patching lies, either way leaving those affected in total distress. Men, women, gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual and other sexual identities are often taken for granted, abused and ridiculed due to misrepresentation. This study aims to be an eye-opener to the representation of these issues and how a film could build-up or wreck the image of a whole sexuality or let’s say community. How others do not understand for they are taught to not understand.
The Philippines being able to be part of the 10 highest country’s exhibiting gender equality, does this index prove to be realistic in modern setting or are all these just numbers we’re seeing?
The third theme will be the Gender Issues within the film, this is the core of the study. Pin-pointing where the issue is present, whom did it affect and the factors that made it in-line with the film. Without having a concrete foundation on these issues there would be nothing to content analyze within the film. These gender issues set aside the main concept and how the film revolve around these issues that are often present yet neglected by society.
This part showed the Researchers’ how gender issues are determined and how these issues are distinguishable among the movie.
Cinemalaya is the fourth theme. The Researchers chose the Independent Film Festival in order to avoid the restrictions of mainstream standards, giving the film the authenticity and more realistic with the society’s flaws.
With this perspective, the Researchers’ aim to analyze those films built without boundaries, making the study more accurate.
The fifth and sixth theme, Content Analyzing the films in order to meet the Objectives’ demand. Content analysis is the process of analyzing a film’s content to gather data and interpreted into the needed information.
Content analysis in the Quantitative approach with the Descriptive interpretation, would prove useful to this type of study regarding that it deals with numbers coded from the coding guide the Researchers’ made. Interpreting the numeric data into descriptive information which builds-up this study.
Lastly, the approach of the Issues in the film through content analysis extracted the needed info for further understanding of the study. These are considered as the theme of the film, treatment and tone of the issues, and the given resolution for the gender issues.
How issues on gender surfaces and lead to discrimination resulting to gender inequality. The Researchers therefore conclude that gender issues may be present in Cinemalaya Gender films which could be acquired through content analysis, the study of interpretations and the corresponding image it has. The Researchers believed that this study will contribute to gender sensitivity issues or gender equality issues within the film industry.

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