Essay: Antioxidant and Hepato-protective effect

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Antioxidant and Hepato-protective effect of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. ethanolic extract in Streptozotocin induced rat model of diabetes mellitus

Ethno-pharmacological relevance: Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC.(DG) is well explored and well documented traditional Indian medicinal plant used to treat various ailments like neurological imbalances, anti-diabetic, anti-leishmanial, anti-inflammatory etc. ,

Aim of the study: To evaluate the hepato-protective and antioxidant effects of whole plant ethanolic extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. (DGE) in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Materials and methods: The DGE was administered in diabetic rats at varied doses. Glibenclamide was used as positive control. The oxidative stress was measured in the liver by the level of antioxidant markers i.e. lipid peroxidation (indicated by MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and the hepatic enzyme marker levels i.e. serum glutamic pyruvic transaminases (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in diabetic control and treated rats.

Results: Oral administration of DGE at doses of 100,200,400 mg/kg, significantly (p˂0.05) increased CAT, GPx, GSH and SOD in hepatic tissues in diabetic rats. The increased level of MDA was found to get reverted back to near normal. DGE extract also showed reduction of SGPT, SGOT and ALP levels in diabetic rats.

Conclusion: The results clearly suggest that DGE exerted hepato-protective and antioxidant effects in the treated groups at dose dependent manner.

KEY WORDS: Desmodium gangeticum, Hepato-protective, antioxidant, antidiabetic , Streptozotocin.

Graphical abstract:

1. Introduction

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder that is getting transformed into a deadly disease as projected by the Recent World Health Organization (WHO) diabetes statistics. According to the statistics, worldwide, the number of people with diabetes has substantially increased between 1980 and 2014, rising from 108 million to 422 million that is nearly four times higher. (WHO REPORT)

DM occurs whenever there is damage /exhaustive deterioration of β-cell function wherein body is unable to produce or properly use insulin, as per the demand leading to prolonged and severe hyperglycemia (Gerich, 2003).Hyperglycemia which is regarded as the most significant attribute to diabetes is mainly due to body’s impaired ability to maintain glucose homeostasis and is indicated by elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels. (Elham Ghanbari, and Lezek 2011). DM involves multiple organs and multiple pathways. Hence uncontrolled diabetes ultimately results in end organ damage along with several micro and macro vascular complications like retinopathy, nephropathy, peripheral neuropathy, hypertension etc(Beckmann et al.,2002).

Substantial evidence in the literature indicates that among various pathways that contribute to DM and its complications, the main culprit is chronic hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress. This oxidative stress is due to overproduction of free radicals, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an inferior antioxidant defense, (Fatmah A Matough,et ,al.2012)(Liu 2017).via over activity of the hexosamine pathway (Brownlee, 2001)increased flux of glucose through the polyol pathway (Chung et al., 2003), increased production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (Prabakaran,D. Ashok kumar,N), and increased activation of protein kinase C (PKC) (Noh and King, 2007). An overdrive of the

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