Essay: Fluids in our body

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To keep our bodies functioning properly they require water. The average male body roughly consists of 60% of water with the average female consisting of 50% of water. Every body part has some water. Below I have given a few examples of body parts which contain water:
• Lungs: 90%
• Blood: 82%
• Skin: 80%
• Muscle: 75%
• Brain: 70%
• Bones: 22%
The fluids in our body are made up of water mixed with solutes and electrolytes dissolved in them, this helps maintain a healthy body. Electrolytes are compounds or elements that break up into ions when they get dissolved in fluid. Body fluids can be separated into 2, intracellular fluid (ICF) which is found inside the cell and extracellular fluid (ECF) is found outside of the cell.
ICF consists of water that is found inside the cell, all the water that is found inside the cell makes up of around 42% of your body weight. Intracellular fluid consists of proteins and dissolved solutes. Electrolytes of high concentrations contain phosphate, magnesium and potassium. The water moves in and out of the cell by osmosis, osmosis is the movement of fluid from a high concentration to a low concentration.
Cells that come in contact with ECF rely on it for its wellbeing, however if the ECF changes it can then damage the cells. The ECF can be divided into 2, interstitial fluid which also known as tissue fluid, this is 16% of the weight of the body. This fluid surrounds the cells and fills the spaces between the cells. The other sub compartment that it is divided into is blood plasma, blood plasma is mainly water that is a pale yellow colour, this water contains nutrients and waste products such as urea. However blood plasma contains fewer protein as the big molecules of protein cannot escape out of the capillaries as easy as other substances.
Lymph is a liquid in the lymphatic system that is colourless and it contains white blood cells. This liquid is flowing back towards the veins in the chest as they need to then be returned back into the blood system. The colourless fluid bathes the tissues and then is removed from the lymphatic system and back into the blood stream.

The 3 solutions in ECF are hypotonic solution, isotonic solution and hypertonic solution.

The isotonic solution has no net movement, there is the same amount of water, electrolytes and solutes inside the cell and in the solution surrounding the cell therefore.
The hypertonic solution consists of a lot of electrolytes and solutes but very less water. The cell/balloon in the solution consists of a lot of water, therefore the water moves out of the cell into the surrounding solution by osmosis and this results in the cell shrinking.
The hypotonic solution contains a lot of water but not many solutes or electrolytes. The cell in the solution has very less water therefore the water from the solution will move into the cell causing the cell to burst.
Keeping the water pressure balanced is essential as the cell can either shrink or burst and this can cause death. When there is high hydrostatic pressure the water gets forced out of the capillary. The quantities of solutes and electrolytes need to be equal, anything that interrupts the concentrations of the electrolytes will then alter the concentration of water. The water loss needs to be equal to the water gain. Water can be lost through breathing, urine, faeces, menstruation and breast feeding and we can gain water from food and drink. Water can be aa waste product of cell respiration.

Electrolyte Why our body needs them Source from diet
Sodium We need sodium as is needed for muscle contractions. It helps maintain the pH balance, hydration and nerve transmissions. Too much sodium can lead to hyperthermia and less sodium can lead to hyponatremia and muscle spasms. ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) is used to maintain the sodium levels in our body. Salt
Chloride Chloride helps maintain the blood pressure, it is needed to keep the balance of the amount of fluid inside and outside of your cells. Vegetables such as lettuce, celery and olives. Chloride is also in grains.
Potassium Potassium helps the heart function, allows the bones and muscle to move and also helps build protein. If our bodies have less potassium it can lead to hypochloraemia and too much potassium in the body can lead to hypochloraemia. Found in meat, beans, potatoes, mushrooms, fish, yogurt and bananas.
Calcium Calcium is needed to grow and repair our bones, it helps our blood clot and needed for our nerve transmissions. Low calcium in our blood can cause kidney failure and too much calcium can cause abdominal pain and gritty eyes. Found in dairy products such as milk and cheese.
Phosphate Phosphate helps filter our waste and repairs cells and tissues. Low levels of phosphate in the body can cause hypophosphatemia and electrolyte deficiency. Too much phosphate will cause hyperphosphatemia. Phosphate is found in pumpkin seeds, cheese, fish, shellfish, nuts and beef.
Magnesium Magnesium helps keep the blood levels balanced, makes protein, bones and DNA. It helps keep the heart beating steadily. Magnesium is needed as it helps with over 30 reactions that take place in the body. Magnesium deficiency can lead to seizures and irregular heart rhythms and too much magnesium in the body can lead to slow breathing, or regular heart beats, coma and coma and even death, due to that its vital to keep a balance in the body. Magnesium is found in greens, nuts, beans, whole grains, yogurts, dried fruit and dark chocolate.

Aldosterone is a hormone used to maintain the sodium and potassium balance in the body.
Parathyroid is a hormone that regulates the calcium levels.

The pH in our blood has to be exactly 7.35, this means that its neutral, the reason why it has to be neutral is so that it can carry oxygen without any complications. If the pH is below 7.35 it is then acidic and if it is above 7.35 it is alkaline. If something that goes inside the body that changes the pH and makes it more acidic then it means that the blood contains more hydrogen ions, therefore to lower the pH level to make it neutral you will need to add phosphoric acid or lactic acid.
Buffer systems keeps the hydrogen ions concentration balance. It is used to help maintain the pH value as when a strong acid or base is added to it, it does not change as much.
There are 3 main buffer systems. There is bicarbonate buffer which is a mixture consisting of a weak acid and a conjugate base (salt), a hydrogen phosphate and proteins including haemoglobin.

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