Relationships between coaches and athletes can be defined as an alliance or partnership through which guidance, instruction and support are provided to an athlete (Jowett & Lavallee, 2007). Major components that contribute to success and performance within these relationships are mutual trust; respect, belief, support, cooperation, communication and understanding (Jowett & Lavallee, 2007) and understanding the situation such as competition or training will assist in understanding their behavioural outcome (Weinberg & Gould, 2011).
Relationships within sport are inevitable, whether or not they are perceived as good or bad, and are influenced by many salient factors.
Coaches should approach relationships with athletes knowing that they are regarded as a significant other; where verbal information and actions can affect others self-perceptions, attitude, values, beliefs and behaviours (Gill & Williams, 2008). In contrast to these, relationships can become strained by tension caused from coach-athlete conflict, parental over-involvement, lack of support, depression and aggression to name but a few (Jowett & Lavallee, 2007). Numerous variables can impact the relationship between a coach and an athlete such as; age, gender, ethnic origin, religion and length of time the dyad has been working together (Cox, 2007).
1.2 Statement Of Problem
In a sport context there are many personal relationships (e.g. coach–parent, athlete–athlete, athlete–partner) that can impact on performance, but the coach–athlete relationship is considered to be particularly crucial (Jowett & Cockerill, 2002). The coach–athlete relationship is not an add-on to, or by-product of, the coaching process, nor is it based on the athlete’s performance, age or gender. Athlete with lack of self-efficacy doubts whether he is good enough whether he has qualities necessary for success (Plakona.et al,2014) .
The coach and the athlete intentionally develop a relationship, which is characterised by a growing appreciation and respect for each other as individuals. Overall, the coach–athlete relationship is embedded in the dynamic and complex coaching process and provides the means by which coaches’ and athletes’ needs are expressed and fulfilled (Jowett& Cockerill, 2002). Ineffective relationships are undermined by lack of interest and emotion, remoteness, even antagonism, deceit, exploitation and physical or sexual abuse (e.g. Brackenridge, 2001; Jowett, 2003).
Most of the prior research has conceptualized coach commitment to the team, (Casper et al.2007). It shows that the relationship between coach and team is efficient and give positive feedback to their performance or have another factor that cause their team perform in game. This the reason why this study choose silat, because silat sport involve the individual athlete during game. This study want to know, the relationship between coach and individual athlete get the same result like team performance. For instance, research has shown that athletes and coaches need to ‘get on’ with one another (e.g. Jowett & Meek, 2000); however, getting along is difficult if coaches fail to accurately understand the athlete’s intentions or feelings. Lastly, there is lack of studies about relationship between coach-athlete relation with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athletes.
1.3 Research Question
What is relationship between coach – athlete relation with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athletes.
1.4 Research Objective
1.4.1 To assess the coach-athlete relation towards individual athletes who participated in UPSI Silat Open.
1.4.2 To assess the self-efficacy towards individual athletes who participated in UPSI Silat Open.
1.4.3 To determine the relationship between coach-athlete relation with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athletes.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: There is no significant relationship between coach-athlete relation with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athletes.
Ha: There is significant relationship between coach-athlete relation with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athletes.
1.6 Significance Of Study
Relation between coach and athlete is the main purpose of this study. Every coach and athlete have difference relationship that help both coach and athlete maintain or enhance their performance. In this study, Silat athlete is the main subject. Maintain good relationship between coach and athlete may contribute a better result for athlete performance.
Relationship can affect a coach ability to impact their athlete and can certainly affect the performance of the athlete.
Another than that, this can enable the coaches to generate greater knowledge and ability when developing a sustainable working relationship that satisfying for both coach and athlete. It also allows both the coach and athlete to fulfill their performance goals and to build up successful working partnerships. It is not only for individual category, but it also important to implements coach and athlete relationship for team sports.
Besides that this study may help to others organization eye about the importance of relationship between coach and athlete for their athlete performance. They can highly improve interpersonal skills and motivate the athletes to commit and perform well. From this study, the sports associations will understand the physical, emotional and mental demands of the sport when preparing athletes for competition as well improving their quality live.
The study delimited to 180 participants from University category and open category of Silat athlete and both male and female was selected. Participants involved in this study are Silat athlete age between 18 – 25 years old. All athletes were free from injury and healthy person. There are been provided with relevant questionnaire based on (CART-Q : Joweet & Ntoumanis,2004) and ( GSE : Schwarzer,R & Jerusalem,1995). The questionnaire contains with private information to be fill and 11 questions for CART-Q and 10 question for GSE that related to my research study. We are measured based on three relational construct which is closeness, commitment and complementarity for CART-Q. For the GSE, the total score ranges between 10 and 40, with a higher score indicating more self-efficacy.
1.8.1 Limitations of the study are not getting full attention and commitment from individual athletes.
1.8.2 Some of the subjects might need lengthy explanation in order to help them understand the terms and words used in the study.
1.8.3 The questionnaire may generally an unstated general knowledge and the subject might have a difference understanding to answer the question.
1.8.4 The researcher might fail to explain the fundamental reasons for the study outcome.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
1.9.1 Sports Coach
A person qualified to train athletes or a member of the teaching staff of a school, college, or university whose responsibility is the training of students in sports or sporting activities (Collins, 2017). The role of the coach will be diverse and varied, from demonstrator, instructor and friend to mentor, adviser, motivator, organizer, leader, planner, decision maker and the fountain of all knowledge, (Szabo, 2012).
1.9.2 Individual sports
Individual sports which are sport played alone without teammates.
There are thousands of individual sports and the skill requirements for each vary greatly and individual sports also allow athletes to aim for personal goals, (Adams, 2003).
1.9.3 Coach-athlete relation
As an alliance or partnership through which guidance, instruction and support are provided to an athlete (Jowett & Lavallee, 2007). According to the 3Cs conceptual model, the coach-athlete relationship is defined as a situational phenomenon in which coaches’ and athletes’ affective closeness, thoughts of commitment and complementary behaviors are interconnected (Jowett, 2005, 2009).
Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief that she/he has the necessary skills to produce the desired outcome (Ozan et al., 2012). People’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives. Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave ( Bandura, 1994).
Full body fighting form incorporating strikes, grappling and throwing in addition to weaponry. Every part of body is used and subject to attack. Pencak Silat was practiced not only for physical defense but also for psychological (Sheikh, 2005).
Pencak silat is a form of martial arts which originated from Indonesia. Its movement inspired by the animal movements such as monkey, snake, tiger and etc. (Shapie & Elias, 2016).
In this chapter, it will discuss about the scope of relationship between coach-athlete relation with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athletes. It is crucial to know and understand that relationship between coach and athlete give beneficial in silat athlete performance. According to previous study, there many studies have been proved that relationship between coach and athlete give positive effect to athlete performance. Basically relationship between coach and athlete has a significant effect on performance, self-efficiency or confident level (Jowett, 2000).
This study will focusing on relationship between coach-athlete relation with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athlete where it can be defined as an alliance or partners through which directory, instruction and support are provided to an athlete (Jowett & Lavallee, 2007). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between coach-athlete relation with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athletes.
2.2 Relationship Between Coach-Athlete Relation
Relationships between coaches and athletes can be defined as an alliance or partnership through which guidance, instruction and support are provided to an athlete (Jowett & Lavallee, 2007). Major components that contribute to success and performance within these relationships are mutual trust, respect, belief, support, cooperation, communication and understanding (Jowett & Lavallee, 2007). This method is called an interactional approach; where it is considered that the situation and the persons within the situation codetermine the behaviour (Weinberg & Gould, 2011).
An example of this is taking consideration to another’s psychological characteristics (e.g. frustration or patients) and understanding the situation (e.g. competition or training) will assist in understanding their behavioural outcome (Weinberg & Gould, 2011). Relationships within sport are inevitable, whether or not they are perceived as good or bad, and are influenced by many salient factors. Coaches should approach relationships with athletes knowing that they are regarded as a significant other, where verbal information and actions can affect others self-perceptions, attitude, values, beliefs and behaviours (Gill & Williams, 2008). In contrast to these, relationships can become strained by tension caused from coach-athlete conflict (power struggle), parental over-involvement, lack of support, depression and aggression to name but a few (Jowett & Lavallee, 2007).
Numerous variables can impact the relationship between a coach and an athlete such as, age, gender, ethnic origin, religion and length of time the dyad has been working together (Cox, 2007). Having a range of ways to interact will enhance the understanding when trying to transfer information (Cox, 2007). One area need to develop is positive reinforcement as acquiring the correct equilibrium could further enhance relationships’ with athletes. Compatible dyad’s can be characterized by coaches that consistently reward athletes in the form of verbal praise, acknowledgment of effort and recognition for outstanding performances, however, getting the balance right is a key element to accomplishing a successful relationship (Cox, 2007).
As well as building a good relationship it is essential to be cautious of welfare issues and ensure guidelines are not broken, because having an inherent influence over athletes provides many opportunities for coaches to exploit their position; particularly in youth sport (Taylor & Wilson, 2005). To further understand the interpersonal dynamic between the coach and the player, it is important to understand the perceptions of the players with respect to effective coaching behaviours and practices (Garland and Barry 1988).
It is important to understand how players interpret coaching practices and how those practices affect student-athlete performance (Shields et al. 1997). Coaching in sport has focused on developing athletes’ physical, technical and strategic skills by placing a great deal of time and energy on the technical and administrative aspects of coaching because these components were better defined and more controllable (Miller and Kerr 2002).
Coach-athlete research has often focused on interpersonal dynamics between the coach and the athletes from a relationship approach (Salminen and Liukkonen 1996). More recently, research has evolved to investigate the effect of coaching behaviours on the coach-athlete relationships and the impact on outcomes, such as satisfaction (Poczwardowski et al. 2006).This paper provides a conceptual framework for examining the impact of coach-athlete relationships on coaching outcomes of role behaviour and performance, and the influence of coaching practices on building and maintaining the relationships.
The use concept of commitment as the construct against which to evaluate coach-athlete relationships. In terms of coaching behaviors, we consider coaching roles of training and development, information sharing, and encouraging participative decision-making. We explore the relationship between these constructs and student-athlete role-behavior and performance.
2.3 Coach – Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (Cart – Q)
Results supported the multi-dimensional nature of the coach – athlete relationship. The latent structure of the CART – Q was underlined by the latent variables of coaches’ and athletes’ Closeness (emotions), Commitment (cognitions), and Complementarity (behaviors). The significance of the coach – athlete relationship in both athletes’ and coaches’ psychosocial development and athletic effectiveness. Despite the apparent significance of both intrapersonal and interpersonal factors in athletic performance, the interest of sport psychology researchers has been predominantly concentrated on the intrapersonal factors such as motivation (Biddle, 1997).
There is evidence to indicate that our relationships with others (more so those relationships which we perceive close and significant) affect our views about ourselves (Hinde, 1997). In
the sport context, and more specifically in the context of coaching, the relationship established between the coach and his/her athletes, plays a central role in athletes’ physical and psychosocial development (Jowett & Cockerill, 2002). The need for more research in the area of coach – athlete relationships has recently been identified (Vanden Auweele & Rzewnicki, 2000).
This evidence makes possible that coaches’ and athletes’ emotions, thoughts, and behaviors through the constructs of Closeness, Commitment, and Complementarity may also be associated with the variable of satisfaction. In fact, there is some evidence to indicate that coaches’ and athletes’ emotions, thoughts, and behaviors are associated with the variable of interpersonal satisfaction (Jowett & Ntoumanis).
Lack of Closeness, Commitment and Complementarity in the coach – athlete relationship was linked with interpersonal conflict (Jowett, in press; Jowett & Meek, 2002). The Coach – Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q). The refined 11-item CART – Q was employed1 . Of the 11 items, 3 items measured the construct of Commitment, 4 items measured the construct of Closeness, and 4 items measured the construct of Complementarity.
Closeness refers to feeling emotionally close with one another in the coach – athlete relationship. The qualitative case studies indicated that feelings of being cared for, liked, and valued, as well as the ability to trust one another had an affirmative effect on coaches’ and athletes’ intrapersonal (e.g., creativity, determination) and interpersonal (e.g., compatibility, relationship maintenance) factors (Jowett & Meek, 2000; Jowett & Cockerill).
According to Jowett (2007) closeness refers to the relationship between members’ affective ties, such as interpersonal liking, respecting, trusting, and appreciating one another.
The literature on interpersonal relations and group processes has identified that a long-term orientation such as, “commitment” and “future expectation” in “close” relationship reflect the construct of Commitment (Wieselquist, Rusbult, Foster, & Agnew, 1999). According to Rosenblatt (1977) defined interpersonal commitment as the intention of a person to maintain an interpersonal relationship. Here, Commitment is defined as coaches’ and athletes’ intention to maintain their athletic relationship, and implies the athletic dyad’s cognitive orientations for the future.
Commitment refers to the relationship between members’ thoughts (i.e., intentions) about developing a close and lasting partnership (Jowett, 2007).
The construct The Coach – Athlete Relationship Questionnaire 6 of Complementarity reflects coaches’ and athletes’ complementary or co-operative interactions, especially during training. Complementary roles, tasks, and support were found to play a significant role in the relationship because it enabled both coaches and athletes to channel all their efforts towards accomplishing the goals set (Jowett & Meek, 2000; Jowett & Cockerill).
Complementarity (3Cs) model of the coach-athlete relationship (Jowett, 2007) has recently attracted a considerable amount of research in this area. Complementarity refers to the relationship between members’ behavioral transactions of cooperation that are willing, responsive, relaxed, and friendly.
Perceived self-efficacy concerned with people’s belief in their capabilities to exercise control over their own functioning and over events that affect their lives ( Bandura,1997). According to (Bandura, 1997) self-efficacy measures are usually constructed by listing a series of tasks, often varying in difficulty, complexity, stressfulness or some other dimension depending on the particular function being explored.
Based on research finding, relationship between coach and athlete with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athletes has different feedback for athlete. However, more studies are necessary to prove that relationship give positive impact to self-efficacy towards athlete on these three relational construct which is Closeness, Commitment, and Complementarity. In this study, it will look up the relationship between coach-athlete relation with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athletes. The combination of previous researchers will aid the information and evidence regarding this study to identify that the relationship between coach-athlete has impact to self-efficacy. Further research must be done to identify the relationship between coach-athlete relation to with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athletes.
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between coach-athlete relation with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athletes. This chapter discussed in details the research design and methodology utilized in this study. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the methodology of this study, the topic will be discussed in 5 section: (1) research design; (2) samplings; (3) instrumentation; (4) data collection procedures; and (5) data analysis technique. Additionally, the rationale of selecting the statistical procedure will be explained.
3.2 Research Design
The design of this study was using descriptive research which provides survey through questionnaire. The questionnaire may be administered to a group by the researcher for them to complete the questionnaire and give back to the researcher. Besides that, correlational design are to determine relationship between variables. The selected samples are from university category and open category silat athlete both male and female. The independent variable in this study is relationship between coach-athlete whether the dependent variable are the self-efficacy silat athlete. Purposive sampling method is use in this study because the subject need to full fill certain criteria of possess certain characteristics to be selected. The aim was to identify the relationship between coach-athlete relation with regards to self-efficacy towards individual athletes.
The sample size for this study is 180 total samples which are from the population from ‘Kejohanan Pencak Silat UPSI & Jemputan Antarabangsa ke -8, 2017’ (Piala Menteri Besar Perak). The purposive sampling is use in this study because the participant are need to fulfill certain criteria or have certain criteria characteristics to be selected. In this study, the selected samples are from university category and open category of silat athlete both male and female.
Participant for investigation purposes, the participant selection include a total of team in silat tournament that divide into two categories which is open category and university category. They were randomly assigned in a university and open silat athlete. Each of the participants will read and sign informed consent which include the introduction as well as purpose of the study. It was assumed that all participant are athlete age between 18-25 years old both male and female. To avoid any differences changes of the result, the participant that participated should foll
ow criteria of limitation as well as delimitation that have been state by the researcher in chapter 1.
126.96.36.199 the participants are university and open silat athlete
188.8.131.52 participants age between 18 – 25 years old
184.108.40.206 the participants not university and open silat athlete
220.127.116.11 participants age above or below than 18 – 25 years old
The questionnaire are use in order to collect data from the participants. In order to get effective result in the test, the specific questions are used to smooth the process.
3.5.1 Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q; Jowett & Ntoumanis,2004)
The refined 11-item CART – Q was employed. Of the 11 items, 3 items measured the construct of Commitment, 4 items measured the construct of Closeness, and 4 items measured the construct of Complementarity. The 11 items were all formulated as statements (e.g., “I trust my coach”; “When I am coached by my coach, I am ready to do my best”). Two further items were added on the CART – Q in order to measure interpersonal satisfaction.
Interpersonal satisfaction was incorporated in the investigation in order to provide additional evidence of the predictive validity of the CART – Q. All items were measured on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7 (Strongly Agree). The Cronbach’s alpha for the direct-perspective constructs with this sample ranged from 0.83 to 0.93 and the meta-perspective alpha values fell between 0.78 and 0.92.
3.5.2 General Self-Efficacy
This scale is a self-report measure of self-efficacy. It has 10 item of question. The general self-efficacy scale is correlated to emotion, optimism, work satisfaction. Negative coefficients were found for depression, stress, health complaints, burnout and anxiety. All items were measured on 4 point scale ranging from 1 ( Not at All True ) to 4 (Exactly True). Internal reliability for GSE = Cronbach’s alpha between 0.76 and 0.90.
Section A: Demographic Profile
For this section the questions will be ask on demographic background of the respondent such as age, gender and marital status.
Section B: Coach-Athlete Relationship
The questions in this section that will be ask to the respondents are about relation between respondents and their coach.
Section C: General Self-Efficacy
The questions that will be asked to the respondents are about self-efficacy according to their relation with the coach.
3.6 Pilot Study
Table 3.6.1: Reliability Item CART-Q and GSE
Item Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
Coach-athlete Relationship .948 11
General Self-efficacy .892 10
Table 3.6.1 showed the case processing summary and reliability statistic for the pilot study. The content of the questionnaire showed that the confession for CART-Q is 0.948 and 0.892 for GSE. The researcher carried out the pilot study to measure the validity and the reliability of the questionnaire.
Questionnaire has dual language are English and Bahasa Melayu that provide in the pilot study. The pilot study was conducted at ‘Nottingham Taekwondo Open Championship’ Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan. The pilot study respondents were the athletes that participated in the tournament. The respondents were 30 taekwondo athletes that participated in the tournament.
The data was carried out to ensure that the questionnaire for the actual research. Cronbach’s Alpha test is used to measure the reliability and validity which are all above 0.80. From the pilot study conducted, there were no items was discarded. All of the items in the questionnaire had high Cronbach’s Alpha. So the items in the questionnaire were reliable and available.
3.7 Data Collection
All procedures in this data collection have been followed which the researcher got an approval letter from the Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation (FSR), as a proof that the researcher is a student from UiTM Campus Seremban 3 and the research is conducted for academic purpose. After the approvals were settled, the researcher needs to run a pilot study which is conducted for checking reliability and validity of the questionnaire.
At the first meeting, the researcher was briefly explained about the study objective and flow how to do this and the process. All participant need to fill the ethical form to proceed the study. After finish fill the ethical form, all participant will be given the questionnaire, the Coach-Athletes Relationship Questionnaire, (CART-Q; Jowett & Ntoumanis, 2004) and General Self-Efficacy, (GSE; Schwarzer, R & Jerusalem, M, 1995) before they start the warm up session.
Next, the researcher will collect the questionnaire immediately after they finish answer all the questions. After that, the athlete proceed to the coaches instructional guided for their game. Finally, interpretation data and result will be made by the researcher. The researcher will use Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 to analyze the data that has been collected.
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