Essay: Arts, crafts and culture wisdom of Madura

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Introduction of research

This research aims to provide an overview of the arts which are include crafts and culture wisdom of Madura, one of the ethnic that include in sub race of Malayan Mongoloid in Indonesia. The researcher conducted a qualitative study with a research focus on scene depicting local wisdom of Madurese arts, craft, and culture. In addition, the local knowledge of Madurese arts and culture has its own persuasive power such as cattle races, traditional costumes of Madurese, as well as their language and dialect.
Madura Island in East Java island region known as the island of salt, exotic, so well known nationally and internationally.
The researcher use two method of research which are primary and secondary data. The primary data that the researcher use is by interviewing the Madurese people in Kuala Lumpur as well as the makers of Madura’s batik. Besides that, the researcher is observing the material and types of Madura’s batik by herself. Then, the secondary data that researcher use is by journal in Google scholar, and book at UITM and UM library. There are a lot of information of Madurese that are provided.
So, hope this research will provide some more information for you to observe about the arts, culture and crafts in Madura Island.

Objective of research

The objective for this research and study is to:
i) To observe about the art, culture and craft in the sub race which is Malayan Mongoloid of Madurese in Indonesia.
ii) To understand in more detail about the Mongoloid race from Deutro Malay people that are derived from the Javanese, Madurese, Bali and Bugis ethnic tribe.
iii) To study about the geographical boundaries of Mongoloid race and Madurese in Indonesia.
v) To study about their unique traditional costumes, customs and culture.

Significance of study

This study will be beneficial to the students and community to understand much better about the Mongoloid sub race of Maduraneses and their culture in Indonesia. This is because the researcher sure, there is a lot of people that don’t understand about this race. By understand about their culture, race and customs, we get to know them very well. In addition, there are a lot of Mongoloid race in different place. But, in this study, the student will just concentrate to the Mongoloid race from Indonesia.
The student and community will able to classify the Mongoloid race that are divided into two people which are Proto and Deutro. In addition, the student are able to understand about the Indonesian people that are from Mongoloid race from Deutro people such as Suku Bugis, Madura, Jawa & Bali. This is because this study will only concentrate to Deutro people of Malayan Mongoloid in Indonesia.

Methodology

The researcher use two method of research which are primary and secondary data. The primary data that the researcher use is by interviewing the Madurese people in Kuala Lumpur as well as the makers of Madura’s batik. Besides that, the researcher is observing the material and types of Madura’s batik by herself. Then, the secondary data that researcher use is by journal in google scholar, and book at UITM and UM library. There are a lot of information of Madurese that are provided.
Primary Data
The primary data that have collected by researcher is by interviewing the person who made batik Madura from Indonesia. Batik Madura is one of the traditional costume from Mongoloid sub race which is from Suku Madura. So, from this observation, the researcher get the experience to touch and see batik Madura by herself.

Figure 1: observation of Madurese batik

Figure 2: observation on Madurese batik

4.2 Secondary Data
The secondary data that researcher has collected are from jurnal, all collection books of Madurese and Indonesia from UITM and UM library, internet, youtube and others.

a) Introduction of Malay

In the year 1972, UNESCO has defined the term “Malay” as a tribe in Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Filipina and Madagascar. On the other hand, there was a report about two types of definition in terms of law and anthropology regarding the “Malay”. According to constitution in case 160(2), Malays have been defined as a person who is Islam, speaks the Malay language, practices the Malay culture and tradition, born before independence day whether in official Malay Federation grounds or in Singapore or on the day of independence and he or she is a resident in the federation or in Singapore.
According to Wilkinson (1957), Winstedt (1920 and 1961), Noriah (1999), the Malay community build their culture gradually step by step, beginning from the earlier stone age (Paleolithic), the middle stone age (Mesolithic), the final stone (Neolithic), the agrarian, the metal, the construction of the government with the religion of Hinduism and Buddhism, age Islam and the modern era with the arrival of the Western powers.
Besides that, Burhanuddin al-Helmi said that, Malay race is a race of its own among the few great nation in the world that there are areas of the country. Their behavior, temperament and culture and the way of life of solitude and isolation annals of distinguishing with other people since thousands of years until today.

b) Division of Malays
(Geographical Boundaries of Malays)

There are about 3 division of Malay such as Melanesia, Polynesia and Micronesia. The division of Melanesia, Polynesia and Micronesia became scientific knowledge invented by a famous French navigator and as early as 1840, they became common knowledge which went into French school textbooks. Common knowledge is supposedly innocuous.
Polynesian were seen as relatively recent arrivals from Island Southeast Asia who had largely bypassed western Melanesia and spread to the three points of the Polynesia triangle such as Hawai’I , Easter Island (Rapa Nui) and New Zealand and all the island within.
According to Cowman & Bellywood, 2013, regardless of where the exact boundaries are drawn, there is wide agreement that this region as the epicenter of marine biodiversity, and herein we refer to it as the Indo-Malay-Philippine biodiversity hotspot.
Though not geographically correct to include any part of a continent in an archipelago, it is necessary for our purpose to consider the Malay Peninsula as not only almost but quite an Island, since it cannot be physically separated from the region of which we are new treating.
Here are the location that are involved:
a) WEST – state of Surinam and Madagascar Island.

– Java Islands is the place where the state of Surinam is located. This islands are forced by Dutch Government.
– Malay, Indonesia, and French are language that is use in the state of Surinam.
– Sulawesi Island is the place where the Madagascar Islands located. The people are voluntary migrate and was built by Malay government Zafy Ramania Dynasty. Then it is destroy by French government. Marina Malays (rural/hill) and Malagasy Malay (coastal) are 2 groups of Madagascar.
b) EAST – Philippines Island
– There are a number of difference ethnic that is inhabited in the east of Philippines islands.
– There are about 2 groups which are Maras and Tousung who practice Islam and Malay culture in Mindance.
– The Austronesia group is about the group that are speaking Malay.
– In addition, there are 3 others ethnic which are Visayan, Tagalog, and Bicadana.
c) NORTH – South Vietnam & Indochina
– There are about 5 country or place that are came to North Indochina and South Vietnam which are Kelantan, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia & Malay Peninsular. Some of them ran from Dutch to survive their life.
d) SOUTH – Western Australia
– There are about four place in Australia that is related to the South which are Port Healand, Broome, Cocos Islands and Perth. Malaysia, English,and Australia are using the Ausie Malay language and they are going to Islamic study class to learn about Malay.
i) Malay Archipelago
The meaning of the archipelago is a group of islands. Extent of the Archipelago and Islands, the Malay Archipelago extends for more than 4,000 miles in length from east to west, and is about 1,300 in breadth from north to south.
According to Alfred Russel Wallace, it would stretch over an expanse equal to that of all Europe from the extreme west far into Central Asia or would cover the widest parts of South America, and extend far beyond the land into the pacific and Atlantic oceans. It includes three islands larger than Great Britain and in one of them, Borneo the whole of the British Isles might be set down and would surrounded by sea of forest.
The absolute extent of land in the archipelago is not greater than that contained by Western Europe from Hungary to Spain, but owing to the manner in which the lands is broken up & divided, the variety of its productions is rather in proportion to the immense surface over which the islands are spread, than to the quantity of land which they contain.
ii) Polynesian Malay
Polynesia is in eastern Oceania. The Polynesian are groups who lived and still life on the islands in the central Pacific Ocean. People of Hawaii, Samoa, Tahiti, Tonga, and the Maori of New Zealand is the largest group of Polynesian society. French in Polynesia consists of several islands namely, Australoid or Tubuai Islands, Gambier Island, Genootschapseilanden, Marguesase Island, Tahiti, and Tuamotu Island.
Tahiti is the largest country in French Polynesia that is located in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Papeete that is located on the northeast coast. Tahiti itself flanked by several continents, namely Asia, Australia, and America, that is located between Hawaii, USA, Chile, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea.
iii) Malay Diaspora
Malay diaspora began to emerge from the sixteenth century. The tracing of a Malay diaspora back to the traders who left Melaka after the conquest is a provocative thesis possessing wide implications, and will send other historians back to the source materials. Generally, Diasporas and their media use and representation within Southeast Asia and within the periphery has been a neglected field of study. In fact, the notion “diaspora” has hardly been deployed by local researchers to describe the three major ethnic communities such as Malays, Chinese, & Indians in peninsula Malaysia.
It is commonly assumed that peninsula Indians and Chinese, unlike the Malays are the colonial migrants & this appears a banalised discourse. According to S.Hall (1990:235) notes that diaspora identities are those which are constantly producing & reproducing themselves anew, through transformation & difference.
According to A.Brah (1996:196) expands on this idea by his explanation that diaspora identities are at once local & global. They are networks of trans-national identifications encompassing “imagined” & “encountered
communities.
In addition, diaspora is distinguished from, if not in opposition to, the old localizing strategies by bounded community, by organic culture, by region, by center & periphery said Clifford (1994:303). While, in Greek, the term “Diasporas” stems from “speiro” which means “to sow” and “dia” which means “over”. Thus, it is widely believed that the first usage of the term appeared in the Greek translation of Deutronomy in the Old Testament, which refer to the situation of the Jewish people, (Deut, 28, 25).

c) Definition of Malay

According to Timothy P.Barnard and Hendrik M.J.Maier, “Malays” live in Malaysia, where they are the major population group. “Malays” are found in Indonesia, in Sumatra and along the coast of Indonesian Borneo. At first glance, it all seems very straightforward, but for centuries definitions, boundaries and origin of this word in the world of Southeast Asia have proved elusive, and it seems unlikely that the word will acquire any greater precision in the future. This question lies at the core of the present collection, and while the reader will emerge knowing a great deal more about the term and the problems it generates, the authors are wise enough not to try to resolve the conundrum.
The word “Melayu” appears in seventh-century Chinese sources with reference to Sumatra, and as it has been wandering around Southeast Asia ever since, carrying with it notions of a culture, a people and a location. The term may have first been used in Kalimantan, or possibly around the Melayu River on Sumatra. But then origins are often vague in a world that is constantly undergoing transformation. The words “Malay” and “Maleis” begin to appear in British and Dutch writings in the seventeenth century, reflecting both local usage and tales by the Portuguese, Spanish and others who arrived earlier. These three words-Melayu,Malay,Maleis, have been used with reference to a confusing variety of configuration of human beings, locations, languages, customs, states and objects between Patani and Timor, Manila and Banda Aceh. Makassar and Bangkok, Pagarruyung and Batavia. As well as along the Melaka straits.
In one way or another, “Melayu” , “Malay” and “Maleis” refer to a loosely configured world. Official discussions about the meaning of the word have led to definitions that are embedded in various forms of nationalism and regionalism, and have been elaborated into awkward.
Origin of Malayness
According to Anthony Reid in “Understanding Melayu (Malay) as a source of Divers Modern identities”, the term “Melayu” is very ancient, in a sense which appears to apply to a place in Sumatra or possibly the Straits of Melaka region more generally. Ptolemy, the second-century (CE) Egyptian geographer, inserted the toponym “Melayu Kulon” (west Melayu, in Javanese) on the west coast of his Golden Chersonese, thus somewhere near the southern border of Burma today.
The twelfth-century Arab geographer Edrisi also reported “Malai” as a large island off southern Asia full of gold, spices, elephants and rhinoceros. In Chinsese records, beginning with Yijing in the sevent century, “Malayu” appears as a more specific kingdom to the north of Srivijaya, absorbed into the latter in the 680s.

d) Malay People

The Malays belong to the broader Malayo – Polynesian which are the group of races, and the origin of which have been traced to Yunnan in China. In addition, the Proto- Malays and Deutro-Malays is related to this group too.
Orang Asli (meaning original or indigenous people) are the early aboriginal groups that now collectively and consisting of some eighteen groups, but officially classified into Senoi, Proto Malay and Negrito, as well as Proto – Malay, the people who first reached the Peninsular around 2000 B.C.
Sub – groups of the Malayo – Polynesian race live in modern – day Southeast Asia and in the Polynesian Islands, linked by a common base language manifested in many sub – languages and dialects, as well as certain basic beliefs and ritual practices. Both the languages and the beliefs are shared with those of the aboriginal people of the region.
From earliest times diverse conditions in different localities as well as influences from the Indian sub – continent, the Middle East, China and the West have served to considerably shape and reshape their cultures, so that each group has developed its own religious and social identity. The Malays now constitute the largest group of people in the Malay Peninsula and in certain neighboring territories on and off the Island of Sumatera.
Groups, such as Buginese, the Achehnese, the Javanese or the Minangkabau are identified as Malays and it is same as Malays in Malaysia. Alternatively the Malays are the product of a mixture of Malays and one or more of these sub groups, many of which still maintain their racial identities as well as customs. The most prominent of these are the Minangkabau in Negeri Sembilan and the Javanese in Johore.
In conclusion, the term of Malay in such situations is no more than a convenient label to refer to such communities, and is not always acceptable to the communities themselves. Apart from the ethnic links the religion of Islam is a major qualifying factor for one to be considered a Malay.

ISSUES DISCUSSED

e) The Malays in Malaysia and Indonesia : a conceptual mapping
Definition of race and ethnicity
The term “race” in a Latin word which generally refers to a group of common origin. In 1795 the German scientist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach suggested that the concept of bangsa Melayu (or a Malay race) should constitute a subcategory of the Mongoloid race. In further defining the Malays, the Malaysian government used Blumenbach’s concept of the Malay race. Historical sources suggest that groups of people who eventually became “Malays” migrated from Taiwan or eastern China in 4000-3000 BC to Luzon or other Philippine islands, prior to moving further afield in 2500-1500 BC to Borneo, Sulawesi and Java.
Finally, in 1500 to 500 BC, they moved to Sumatera, Peninsular Malaysian and southern Vietnam (Andaya, 2001, p.2, Andaya 2004, p 57). The view of the Malays which was held by Stamford Raffles, the founder of modern day Singapore, had a profound influence on the Westerners. Stamford Raffles and Dr. John Leyden, a learned Scottish surgeon who became a good friend of Raffles when the latter was an Assistant Secretary to the Governor of Penang in 1805, were probably the most influential voices in the promotion of the idea of “Malay race” or “nation”, which they argued was not limited to the Malay ethic group, but embraced all the peoples of the Malay World (Reid, 2004, pp.10-11)
Ethnicity can generally be defined as constituting the common consciousness of being from the same origin and traditions. The English term “ethnic” is derived from the Greek word ethniKos meaning tribe or nation. An ethnic acquired its distinctive cultural characteristics from interaction with outsiders, rather than in isolation (Ali, 1984, p. 13). In this chapter, when “ethnic group” is mentioned, it means,
……. Those who conceive of themselves as being alike by virtue of their common ancestry, real or fictitious, and who are so regarded by others and that members of each group are often…united by emotional bonds and concerned with preservation of their type..they speak the same language…(and) share common cultural heritage (Ali,1984, p.13)
In terms of the relationship between ethnicity and race, just like the ethnic Serbs and Croats are from the same Slavic race, in Malaysia and Indonesia the ethnic just like Acehnese, Bugis, Javanese, Madurese, Minangkabau and Sundanese stem are from the Malay racial group. A broad understanding of ethnicity would suggest that “ethnicity is culture”. In the post-Cold War Era, Huntington (1993, p 22) has warned that the great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be culture.
Most scholars of International relations agree that Huntington has succeeded in opening the debate centred on cultural explanations of coorperation and conflict which has been neglected by the political philosophies of neo-realism and neo-liberalism (Shulman 1998, pp. 304-306). The concern about culture is also echoed by the constructivists, who believe that in the study of international relations, a greater emphasis should be given to the aspects of culture and ethnicity. With this in mind, this chapter endeavors to understand the complexity of culture and ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia through an analysis of Serumpun relations.

f) Geographical of Malay World
Malay Archipelago – Indonesian
In the researcher reading, she have found the fact that, as an archipelago country (world) with a cluster of more than 17,000 islands either big or small, Indonesia has cultural diversity from different ethnic groups with different regional languages that is spread over Indonesia which is characteristic of nature pluralistic Indonesia society.

Figure 3 : Map of Pulau Madura
Image sources :
https://www.google.co.id/search?q=geografi+madura+pdf&biw=1366&bih=667&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&v ed=0CAYQ_AUoAWoVChMImdLP9qWhyAIVWJGOCh1kKQeg#tbm=isch&q=Letak+geografis+pulau++madura&im
grc=Q_REaUkKwBCPhM%3

Madura Island is located in the northeast of the Island of Jawa, approximately 7 south of the equator between 112’ and 114’ east longitude. This island is separated from Java by Madura Strait, which is synchronize the Java Sea with the Sea of Bali.
According to Huub de Jonge, (1989:17), most of the Madurese is an agrarian society. Approximately ninety percent of the population lives scattered in remote areas, in villages, hamlets and groups of farmers housing. Besides that, Madura is a densely populated islands even land in the area is not fertile

g) History of Malayan Mongoloid

According to S.L. Kroeber, distribution and dissemination of the nations of the world largely as proposed by S.L. Kroeber (Horton, 1987), in this world there are races of the Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, Austroloid and other special races. But, here, I just want to focus on the Mongoloid race.
There are about three “subras” to the Mongoloid race. Firstly is Asiatic Mongoloid that are located in North Africa, Central Asia, and East Asia. Secondly is about the Malayan Mongoloid that are located in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and a native of Taiwan. Last but not least is about the American Mongoloid that are located in American Indian but, in this study, I just want to concentrate about the Malayan Mongoloid in Indonesia.
Based on the division race in the world according to Kroeber, the nation of Indonesia, including the Mongoloid race and Malayan Mongoloid “subras”, those who live in the area or areas that have many physical similarities, but from the social reality, they are different. Those who live in Malaysia and Indonesia are often put in Malay “rumpun”.

h) Introduction of Malayan Mongoloid

The Javanese are the major ethnic group living in Java, Indonesia, and are considered to be the descendants of the southern branch of the Mongoloid group. In Indonesia, there are Mongoloid race and Caucasoid Europe race where these racial differences shows that Indonesia has a diverse racial traits although traits bordering racial differences dividing itself are blurred and indistinct again for their assimilation process that has been lasted centuries.
Besides that, there are about 4 different races in Indonesia. The first race is the Malayan Mongoloid race which is the largest owned by the Indonesian nation. This race is usually derived from the Javanese, Toraja, Dayak, Madurese and Banjar ethnic tribe, etc. Apart from that, this Malayan Mongoloid racial groups divided into two categories which are firstly is about proto Malays including Suku Batak, Suku Toraja & Suku Dayak and secondly is about Deutro Malays including Suku Bugis, Madura, Jawa & Bali. This is the most important issues that I want to study. This is because I am more interested to study about their culture. The second race is about the Wedoid race which is a race coming from Kubu that are living in Jambi, Sakai people who live in Siak as well as people living on the Islands and Enggaro Mentawa. Thirdly is about the Negroid race. This race is about the people who live in the Malay Peninsula and the Andaman Islands. Last but not least is about the Papua Melanesoid race which is a race that came from people that are living in Papua, including those in the Kai and Aru Islands.

According to Geertz (1981), the concept of plurality existing in the Indonesia nation, that was actually illustrates the differences in the terms of relations kinship, race, and place of origin, religion and language.
Furthermore, Geertz (1967), also states that the race is one factor of pluralistic nation in which the race is physical characteristics such as skin color, hair color, body posture and so forth, owned by a person who sets it apart from others. Other thing which is characteristic of the area of origin where diversity is someone was born.

i) Division of Mongoloid
There are three division of Mongoloid which are classical Mongoloid or Central Mongoloid, the Artic or Eskimoid, and lastly is Indonesian-Malay Mongoloid.
The representative groups are Buriat, Koryak, Goldi, Gilyak, etc. The Tibetans and some other Northen Chinese also present this racial element. In addition, the physical features of this people is their skin colour is yellow or yellowish brown, their hair is the straight, texture is coarse and colour is black. The hair is sparsely distributed on the body and face. Their head is usually brachycephalic with a cephalic index of 85, but mesocephalic and dolichocephalic heads are not uncommon. All forms show a projected occiput region. Their face is very broad with square jaws. Forehead is rounded and medium is heigh. The cheek bones are strongly developed and they are projected laterally as well as forwadly.

Figure 4:
Image source: https://sites.google.com/site/thecatholicchurchonrace/_/rsrc/1461214147264/home/on-the-origins-of-the-mongoloid-race/Mongoloid%20raced%20people%20with%20blonde%20and%20red%20hair.PNG?height=236&width=400
In Northen Asia we can found the Arctic or Eskimoid people, the Arctic coast of North America, Greenland, Labrador and Western Alaska. There are about five country that representative populations which are Chukchis, Kamtchadales, Samoyedes, Yakuts and last but not least is Eskimos.
Their physical features is different with Classical Mongoloid because their skin colour is dark yellow to brownish. Their head form is variable, ranging from brachycephalic to mesocephalic. Then their face is large, broad and flat with prominent cheek bones.
The population is comprised of a large number of Mongoloid peoples who show a considerable admixture of Caucasoid and Negroid elements.

Figure 5:
Image Source: http://www.pidipedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/ras-mongoloid.jpg

There are about eight country that have this Malay type which are Japan, Malay Peninsula, Dutch East Indies, Philippines, Indo-China, Southern China, Thailand and Burma.
The Japanese mostly belong to this Malayan type of racial sub group (the Mongoloid features appear to be stronger in the Malay than in the Indonesian type). Their skin color and face is light yellow brown to dark yellow brown. The head form is brachycephalic with a cephalic index of 85. Their face is short and broad with prominent cheek bones. Their eye color usually ranges from medium brown to dark brown, and it is occasionally black.
Then, Indonesian type which is called as Nesiot is found in Southern China, Indo-China, Burma, Thailand, etc. The physical features are as follows. Their skin colour is varies from light red brown to medium brown. Their head is mesocephalic, the cephalic index is 78.5. Dolichocephals are not totally absent. Then their eye color is black with occasional reddish tint. The internal epicanthic fold is less frequent. Their lips are thick.

j) Definition and history of Madurese

Madurese, as other Indonesian ethic groups, that can be found in the various regions of the country. Not too many people in Indonesia who love to travel to others country. There are three example of ethnic that love to travel to others country such as Minangkabau, Batak, and Java especially those people in Wonogiri and Gunung Kidul.
The pangeran of Madura which is Chakra Deningrat, a man of selfish and haughty character, consider himself, in consequence of the part he had taken, so far exalted above the other chiefs that he neglected to make his annual appearance at court. Of this the Sus’unan complained to the Dutch, who interfered, but without effect. The Pangeran who as before stated, had taken possession of the provinces of Sidayu Tuban, Jipang and Lamung’an, now refused to restore them either to the Sus’unan or the Dutch, to whom they had been ceded, claiming them, as well as all the plunder he had obtained at Ke’rta S’ura, as conquered property. Determined to keep them by force, he engaged in his service a number of men from Bali, and fortified the island Mendri, so as to command under the harbor of Surabaya.
He now commenced open hostilities by attacking a Dutch vessel and putting to death several European seamen. Two thousand Madurese entered the district of Surabaya, burnt some villages, and laid the country waste, and five thousand Balians were posted on the frontiers of Pamakasan. After having been twice or thrice defeated, the Pangeran made a sudden attack upon S’umenap and Pamakasan and gained a complete victory over the natives fighting under a Dutch commander, who lost six thousand men on the occasion, the chief being obliged to fly the country
It was not long before the Dutch regained possesian of Su’menap and Pamakasan, on which occasion a brother in law of the Pang’eran, with two chiefs, submitted to them, but the Dutch troops were no sooner withdrawn, then those provinces again fell under the authority of the Pangeran, who laid them waste with fire and sword. The Dutch tried in vain to disloage him. R’embang was now besieged by an army of five thousand Mad’urese and Javanese.L’asem, Pa’jang-kungfung, and all the villages as far as parade’sa, were in possession of the Pange’ran, who made himself master also of the fort of R’embang, and of the building-yard established there, but his fortune suddenly changed. The prince was in his turns , defeated in several engagements, and at length compelled to fly from Java, and the Dutch forces landing on Madura, took the capital, Sdmpang, by storm, and in a short time made themselves masters of the whole island.
Last but not least, in this extremity, the prince of Madura still refused to come to terms, and went with his sons, Sa’sra and R’ana Deningrat , to Banjermasin on Borneo, where he engaged his passage on board an English ship bound to Bencoolen, to which place he had previously ,on his affair taking an unfavorable turn, sent his son, R’aden Tumu’ng’gung Wira Deningrat, to request assistance from the English, and procure men and warlike stores.

k) Language of Madurese
Literature and Dialect
Indonesia’s population is made up of a variety of ethnic groups with different cultures, between one tribe and another tribe. Culture of each tribe as a feature of the race is concerned, especially its social features such as language, social structure, political system and other.

Figure 6 : The comparison of genetic & linguistic trees (originally in Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1988:6002-6)
Indonesia is interesting not only in that its national territory is home to such a large number of languages, but also because these languages come from not one, but two of the seventeen major world language families. While the majority of the 726 languages are classified in the SIL (2001) data as “non-Austronesian”.
Madura language is the language used as a means of communication for daily life by Madura ethnic communities. Both residing on the island of Madura and the surrounding small islands and overseas. In addition according to (Alan M.Stevens, 1965), the language of Madurese is like some of its neighboring languages which are Sundanese, Javanese, Balinese and Sasak, that has socially determined choices of words depending on the relations between speaker and addresses. .Then according to Lauder which is Akhmad Sofyan, 2010:207), Madura language occupies the fourth position of the thirteen major regional languages in Indonesia with the largest number of speakers about 13,7 soul.
Based on linguistic standpoint, Madura grouped into four main dialects which are Sumenep, Pamekasan, Bangkalan, and Kangean dialects as well as two additional dialects which are Pinggirmas and Bawean dialects.
From the standpoint of the language of Madura sociolinguistic that grouped into two dialects or language which are the language of Madura from east and west. While Bawean and Kangean regarded as different of Madura language. Madura language is same language as Indonesia language. This language is belong to the Austronesian west family.
l) The Influence of Islam
Suku Madura
According to Huub de Jonge, (1989), all of the the villagers’s religion from Madura are Muslims. The spread of Islam took place in line with the expansion of trade. In addition, the first spreader is Muslim traders from India (Gujarat), Malacca, and Sumatra (Palembang). Then, according to De Graaf and Pigeaud, (1989), it is followed by followers of Sunan Ampel and Sunan Giri, one of the guardian of the Islamic holy that is located near the state-government small trade in Surabaya and Gresik.
Islamisation has long been part of the history of Sumenep. With a majority of population Muslim, Sumenep is known as a town of santri that has pesantren among the prominent social institutions, (de Jonge, 1989, Kuntowijoya, 2002, Mansoornoor, 1990, Rozaki 2004, Van Dijk 1995, Wiyata, 2002). In light of social and political influence, pesantren in Sumenep can be categorized in three clusters based on territorialities : the Guluk-Guluk cluster, the Kota cluster, and the smaller Ambunten cluster.
By looking at the map, one can see that these territorial cluster form an imaginary triangle. Some main issues in the political recruitment relate to how this triangle takes and changes its shape in an ongoing trade-off amongst the clusters. Guluk-guluk cluster is the biggest group, centred on the biggest and one of the oldest pesantren in Sumenep, An Nuqayah, which is located in a village called Guluk-guluk. The pesantren was founded in 1887 by Kiai Syarqawi, and is now run by the third and fourth generation of the founder (Arsyi et al 2000, Effendy 1990, Hasan 1995).Both Syarqawi’s descendants and santris of An Nuqayah have spread and found their own pesantren, creating a strong network of pesantrens and kiais.
m) Madurese’s Poem

i) Abantal omba’ assapo’ angen

In Malay, Abantal omba’ assapo’ angen mean “berbantal ombak berselimut angin. This expression reflects the ambition, strength and unyielding attitude to how hard the waves of the sea raging. If we look at a map of Indonesia, the Island will be seen at the bottom like a hen who followed not less than 70 cubs are small islands which includes the island of Madura.
Since time immemorial appear many animals who are willing to wade across the sea to the sea in the archipelago. To help them cross the sea, they took the initiative to make a boat. In addition, to show that the Madurese have marine ethos, Sulaiman was around to all the islands including the island of Madura.
ii) Abantal syahadat asapo’ iman
In Malay, Abantal syahadat asapo’ iman mean “berbantal syahadat berselimut iman”. This expression reflects about the Madurese who are fanatical about their religion which is Islam. This can be seen in general that, in Madura traditional home appliances are placed in a building with a courtyard which is facing west to east is called a hit, as a place for prayer.
Their children were handed over to the religious teacher or “kiai” to study about the religion from the age of 5 years. Kian has emerged as the driver values are usually more appreciated than the formal leaders in rural society. Kiai not only as a teacher of religion, but more than that is, as a consultant to solve the problems of life.
Besides that, during the colonial period, there are many scholars that are purposely avoid living in the city with some even in rural and remote in the mountains because they generally refused to cooperate with the Dutch government. So it is not impossible that at that time many scholars banning the wearing of neckties, pants, and do not pay taxes as a sign of not happy to the colonizers.
Madurese with the religious ties are so strong, a Madura who daily does not implement the tenets of religion, would be angry if called them as non-religious people of Islam. The attitude to love the religion just like that could actually be a step towards the capital for the practice of religion from its original source as a manifestation of belief in God.
iii) Pote mata pote tolang, ango’ poteya tolang
In Malay, Pote mata pote tolang, ango’ poteya tolang mean putih mata putih tulang, lebih baik putih tulang”. This expression reflects about, the Madurese are willingly to die rather than bear the shame. The phrase described the importance of maintaining the dignity of the Madurese. But is often misunderstood that it could trigger carok.

CHAPTER 1
Malay Archipelago
(Alfred Russel Wallace)

The Malay Archipelago attracted many reviews, with interest from scientific, geographic, and general periodicals. Reviewers noted and sometimes disagreed with several of his (Alfred Russel Wallace) theories, especially the division of fauna and flora along what soon became known as Wallace line, natural selection and uniformitarianism.
According to Alfred Russel Wallace, the Malay Archipelago is the vast chain of islands stretching eastward from Sumatra for more than 6,000 kilometers.
ISSUES DISCUSSED
1.0) Malay in Indonesia (West Javanese)
1.1 Java
Java is the cultural core of the world’s largest archipelago, Indonesia. There is very little that is accurately known of its ancient history and even its legends antedate the first century A.D. Thus, history for most Indonesia scholars begins with the introduction of the Hindu culture to their lands by Adji Saka.
Adji Saka is a Brahman teacher, came from India to deliver the Javanese from the cannibalistic King Mendang Kamulan whose daily habit it was to feast on one of his subjects chosen at random. Adji Saka rid the country of the monstrous ruler, the grateful Javanese urged him to stay and rule as king. Then Adji accepted it, but first had to obtain his holy sword which he had to left back in India in the safekeeping of a trusted retainer.
Adji dispatched another retainer to fetch the wonderful sword, but in a quarrel between the two retainers over the matter of releading the sword, both were slain. The retainer holding the holy blade that had been ordered by Adji not to deliver it to anyone but his master, which is the retainer that was sent to bring the sword to Adji.
Adji Saka is a symbol of cultural advancement in terms of Hindu standards. Some of the world’s oldest human remains have been identified on the Island of Java.
In addition, David Sopher has shown that the Riouw-Lingga Archipelago, which nestles in the straits between mainlain Asia (Malay Peninsula) and the northeastern coast of Sumatra, was a collection point for forest primitives, river-bank dwellers and strand collectors. Later, with the soutward movement of Mongoloid proto-Malays, great mixing of strand folk and the newly arrived immigrants took place, especially in Sumatra. The Riouw-Lingga Archipelago’s importance to Indonesian combatives is of the highest order.

Image Source: https://mochamadrizal19.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/jatim.jpg
Figure 7:
The contribution of the so-called sea-nomads, the racially heterogeneous, wandering maritime primitives, to the combative culture of Indonesia is indefinable. These nomads, with their great mobility, had at one time or another come in contact with many different cultures such as Chinese, Burmese, Thai, Malay, Bugis, Madurese, Dayak, Sulu, Semang, Sakai, Toradja, Alefuru, Moluccan and others. Their wanderings were distinct from the movements of the coastal Malays who also undertook great dispersions. The area in which the sea-nomads plied their crafts extends for more than two thousand miles in a west-east direction. From Tenasserim to the Moluccas. It also extend some sixteen hundred miles in a south-north direction from the northern shores of the Lesser Sunda Islands into the Philippine area.

Image Source: https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-je5bLoI1LaI/V47NQRBIClI/AAAAAAAAA8A/NOO-P0lN6uEzzEm_bOwVWVEMIrXYYCkOQCLcB/s640/Baju%2Badat%2BJawa%2BTimur.JPG
Figure 8:

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