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Essay: Annotated Bibliography – Yugoslavia / communism

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  • Annotated Bibliography - Yugoslavia / communism
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Annotated Bibliography

Antic, Ana. “Heroes and Hysterics: ‘Partisan Hysteria’ and Communist State-Building in Yugoslavia after 1945.” Social History of Medicine, vol. 27, no. 2, May 2014, pp. 349-371. EBSCOhost.

This article largely discusses Hugo Klajn, a Vienna educated Belgrade psychoanalyst who is the main character in the researches about the ‘Partisan hysteria’ that tormented the region during the aftermath of war, and his studies. In one of the studies mentioned “War Neurosis of the Yugoslav”, fighters who are unable to adapt to the conditions of the new order, fall into a hysteria that has a form of empowerment, and leads to the soldiers being hospitalized and treated in psychiatric clinics. This article further discusses how the situation provoked the Communist Party and also resonated with their social mobility concerns. (WC: 100)

I found the article to be extremely interesting as it is following the consequences and neurosis of war among Communist resistance soldiers that resigned on the territories of Yugoslavia. The most resourceful information that I found in this article is on the trail of Hugo Klajn’s studies. This article should surely be observed when gathering information and trying to influence an opinion about the topic of Communism in Yugoslavia as it touches upon some very serious issues. Although the article will be a minor resource for the research paper I am conducting, it carries major and important information that affected larger masses. (WC: 102)

Avakumovic, Ivan. History of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. Vol. 1. Aberdeen University Press. 1964.

The History of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia book discusses the Yugoslav communism and its exceptional career in the countries of the union. This first volume of the book is mostly focused on the pre-1941 history of Communism in the region of the countries that Yugoslavia was consisted of. Another topic that the author discussed is the southern Slav social democracy before the war, which consequently influenced further events. The author goes into great detail about the founding of the Communist party in Yugoslavia, its connection with the Comintern, and the phases in some of which was legal and some illegal during the interwar years. (WC: 105)

Unlike most of the other resources available for the research paper in the making, this resource was not solely and mostly based on, so-called, Titoism. It makes for an extremely useful resource as it thoroughly explains the circumstances that led to the start of Communism and, also, focuses in much detail on the term itself and not just on the considered main persona of the ideology and the country at the time – Josip Broz/Marshal Tito. This book also indisputably shows that Communism was carrying a series of negative phenomena, wandering of failure, abuse, and human rights violations – all of which will be considered in the research paper when referring to the reign of the ideology. (WC: 116)

Bojkovic, Dusan. “National Politics of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia 1918-1928: The Montenegrin Question.” Historical Records, vol. 86, no.3/4, July 2013, pp. 185-198. EBSCOhost

This article analyzes the relationship between the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and the national issue of Montenegro in the time when the unified State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs is constituted. These cover the so-called interwar years between 1918 until 1928. It also briefly goes over the fact that in Yugoslavia, communism, or at least what was called communism, arrived virtually overnight. The Communists had such a desire to impose their ideology that they forgot the way of arrangement, organization, and plan of applying the ideology in the real situation they were found in concerning this issue especially. (WC: 98)

The paper supports the topic largely as it is facing a real-time problem with the Communist Party, as it was a hard issue to resolve with the Montenegrin without ‘sharpening’ the relations. This resource will be able to inform how the nations lost their identity and suddenly became an unconscious machine with all opposing attempts, different thoughts, or attitudes initially slaughtered and destroyed in the most brutal ways. This paper can help with arguing how it was important to maintain stability and continuity in oppressing everything that was worth, in order to eventually retain only the obedient mass that would follow orders, and would not pose any kind of danger to the party. (WC: 113)

Dobbs, Darrell. “Communism.” The Journal of Politics, vol. 62, no. 2, 2000, JSTOR.

This journal goes in depth about what Communism is in general, where and how it started, but also where it led to and how it was applied. It mentions Marx and Engels’ dream of a society in which there would be a free association of free people, where there would be no separation between private and general interests, and where these two interests would be identical to one another. Additionally, the author writes on the subject of Socratic Communism that supports an ethic of responsible detachment. (WC: 86)

Reading this journal and incorporating it in my research paper will help clear a huge doubt and misunderstanding that I had through doing research on this topic. This doubt has to do with the economic system in the years analyzed being socialist, which was conceived as a development process that would lead into communism through a political system in which there is an avant-garde party whose sole proclaimed purpose is to achieve communism. However, after reading this journal, the realization that came into mind is that it would be a mistake to think that communism is something strictly related to economy or is materialistic. Every alienation – whether ethical, physical or psychological, on an individual or social level – disappears by definition found from the information provided. (WC: 126)

Hinerfeld, Olivia. “The Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia.” Young Historians Conference. Paper 6. (May 2, 2013).

This academic paper describes, in detail, the situation Yugoslavia was in between the years of 1918 until 1980. Apart from introducing Josip Broz Tito into the ‘story’, it also goes in depth about governmental structures in Yugoslavia before his time. The paper describes the different constituencies, languages, alphabets, and religions that were all unified under the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. After briefly describing the country during the reign of Tito, the paper goes into Yugoslavia in the time of Slobodan Milosevic and explains when and why everything went toward an opposite direction. The paper finishes by discussing Tito’s legacy and his archetype of a leader. (WC: 106)
This academic paper will be extremely beneficial when providing the background of the situation in Yugoslavia, while communism was gaining its strength. The paper gives a comprehendible explanation of the events that were happening during the mentioned years and is, certainly, written in an understandable way that does not require much previous knowledge. Aside from describing and events and the political situation, the paper gives abrupt descriptions of the personas that shaped the country. While reading this paper, no ‘chosen side’ can be clearly noticed so providing a realistic picture is also one of the helpful and valuable ways it will be embedded in the final essay. (WC: 107)

Malesevic, Nebojsa. “Serbian Church Magazines About the Organization of Communism, Expansion, and Operation in the Kingdom of SHS / Yugoslavia (1920-1940).” Vol. 41, no. 2, Apr. 2017, pp. 407-423.EBSCOhost, doi: 10.22190/TEME1702407M.

This paper, as mentioned in the abstract, has an intention of explaining the Communism organization, its expansion, and operation in Yugoslavia. Communism, in this paper, is followed and logged by Serbian Church magazines, which still found the strength and courage in difficult post-war times to contribute to modern society by documenting the process of Communism in the years between 1920 and 1940. Malesevic, the author of the paper, also introduces Communism as the new philosophy of that time and explains its development through socialism. Additionally, the paper introduces the continuous use of “intellectual immaturity” from the side of the party. (WC:100)
The information in this paper will be exceedingly helpful as a way of representing the press’ view on the ideology that shaped Yugoslavia. It certainly is one of the sources that has the ability to change the way of thinking about this topic because of its strong opinionated author, who also bases each of his statements with a durable argument. The paper will help shape the argument in the research paper in making from a broader point of view and will serve as a major resource, with all its details, primary sources, and explanations of the main sources of communist propaganda in Yugoslavia. (WC: 102)

“Marshal Tito.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. Gale, 1998. Biography In Context,

This biographical text states facts about Josip Broz Tito, from his personal life events to his political views, ideologies, and choices. The text relates historical events to Tito’s influence across the country and goes through all the stages of his reign upon Yugoslavia as the most influential person in the Kingdom. The text also goes over the peacetime period in Yugoslavia, during the time of Tito, who, as a member of the Anti-Fascist Coalition, had the credibility of a fighter against Nazism and Fascism. The text is of biographical nature and, aside from the general history it facts upon, it follows Tito’s marriages, life, and death. (WC: 106)

The biographical nature of this academic text will help with constructing a fact-based research paper and introduce the most important persona of the century in Yugoslavia, and the one who led the main topic of the research being conducted. The details about Marshal Tito will be beneficial and helpful in learning about the ways that Communism was introduced in the region as a totalitarian modernization ideology that tried to create a society on collective foundations. This resource is fairly different and more simple than any other resource, but not any less fundamental for acquiring knowledge about the topic of Communism in Yugoslavia. (WC: 101)

Sumanovic, Vladimir. “The Question of the Authenticity of the letter by Josip Broz Tito and Aleksandar Rankovic Marko to the Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia for Serbia.” Magazine of History. Vol. 47, no.1, Jan. 2015. EBSCOhost.

This paper discusses, in depth, the authenticity of one of the most important and most cited documents in the official historiography of the socialist Yugoslavia. It is a document that Josip Broz Tito and Aleksandar Rankovic Marko sent to the Provincial Committee of the Yugoslav Communist Party for Serbia on December 14th, 1941. Apart from analyzing and evaluating the document, the paper explains how the Communist Party of Yugoslavia took over power of the area by the end of World War II. It talks about how the party’s based its own image off of a close-knit wartime and made that legitimate. (WC: 101)

This paper will be extremely useful and interesting to reference to while writing the research paper because of its argumentative nature when explaining whether the document mentioned was authentic or not. Another interesting component is that in addition to official literature and memoirs of prominent party officials, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, through its publishing houses, published war documents, which served as the basis for the knowledge of the Second World War in the territory of the former Yugoslavia. The paper shows abundant of information and the feel of Communist Yugoslavia can be read about and felt in every line. (WC: 100)

“The Breakup of Yugoslavia, 1990-1992.” Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs. United States Department of State.

This text introduces the last years of the reign of Communism and Yugoslavia in existence. The text mentions that during those years the Yugoslavian countries stepped away from communism while simultaneously and consequently losing support from other Communist nations and countries. It further explains how with each individual nation of Yugoslavia turning toward free elections left Yugoslavia as a general country to a near collapse and urgent financial support. This resource introduces the various and many reasons why the country as well as the ideology came to an obvious and, by the end of 1980s, expected end. (WC: 97)

This text will be a major resource of information concerning the last few years of Yugoslavia in existence and the final fall of Communism in the countries that it was consisted of. The resource will help shape and put an end to my argument and it will not necessarily be there for the purpose of changing ways of thinking about the topic, but it will cover the historical facts needed to finish the story on the rise and reign of Communism in Yugoslavia. As it covers the history after the death of Josip Broz Tito, it provides a fully finished ‘story’/discussion. (WC: 101)

Warner Neal, Fred. Titoism in Action. Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1958.

This book is devoted to and follows up-to-date developments in Yugoslavia during the years between 1948 to 1957, after which it was published in 1958. Fred Warner Neal, the author, had visited the country of Yugoslavia while acquiring knowledge about the topic and had actually met Tito and Djilas in person. The author incorporates discussions on the role of Communist League of Yugoslavia, governmental reforms at all levels during the ages, the control of the economy and agriculture and the totalitarian regime that follows it. Additionally, the author portraits a line between Communist Yugoslavia and the USSR. (WC: 102)

This book is a major resource that will help me with painting the picture of the communist rule in the countries of former Yugoslavia. Its knowledgeable and opinionated author certainly provides a wide range of fact-based information and also challenges the opposing to think. It provides explanation about how, in communist countries, nothing close to a crime happened by itself and was organized on the Bolshevik principle of a strict hierarchy, the so-called democratic centralism, a term that was introduced in the book. This book will help me comprehend the magnitude of the reign of Communism in Yugoslavia and also the deliberate project of eliminating real and potential political opponents. (WC: 110)

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