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Essay: Rational Choice Theory, Grounded Theory, and Their Applicability to analysis Islamic State (ISIS)

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Abstract
This study seeks to analyse the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. By using theoretical and analytical pointers from Rational Choice theory, this theory will analyse this material to indicate a general comprehension on it. Rational Actor theory in most cases establishes the structures, tactics and strategies which are important to help us to understand the Islamic State as a political actor. The study Islamic State is complex and multifaceted. Debate surrounding the rationality behind terrorism has made Rational Choice. Rational Choice Theory and Game Theory can be entirely useful in explaining and comprehending the meaning of Islamic State. The essay starts with analysing the Islamic State as new phenomena and explains the main aspects of emerging ISIS. Then, analyze the ISIS identity and Islamic state strategy. The other purposes that essay wants to know it can be possible to make a negotiation with ISIS as a political actor in according to rational theory.
Introduction
Since Islamic State (ISIS) has appeared as a global terrorism in June 2014, the international community has watched it as a big trauma. This is because, Islamic State has developed during a short time and it has become a big organization threat on the world. Islamic State has strong military capabilities, resources and an essential effect on the Syrian and Iraqi population. This group has terrorised against a human being and human rights. Islamic State has controlled an expansion area in Iraq and Syria which was carry out a violence and genocide against people in Shangal, killed innocent people, mass killing, violence against women and children. Islamic state was officially established in 2006 by the number of terrorism groups in Iraq. Then, Abubkr Al Bakdadi has officially become a leader (caliph) of Islamic State in 2013. Islamic State is a global terrorist organization which includes jihadist in every continent of the world.
The aim of this essay is that the analysis of Islamic state (ISIS) as a political actor. It considers that how individual and people participate in the Islamic State? Dose Islamic State believes the political peas process. Shall it be possible to make a negotiation with Islamic state or not. The rational choice adherent might answer these questions by explaining events and an individual’s decision making. This essay attempt to resolve some of the main misconceptions held about ISIS. In order to better understand the case of Islamic state.
The Definition of Islamic state (ISIS)
What is ISIS? Why is it there? Who are terrorists? What are the ways to deal with it? In a formal recognition, ISIS has become an influence fighting to force. But it has become a brutal organization, carried out massacres, violence, genocide, beheadings and other atrocities. It has engaged in religious and ethnic cleansing against Yazidis and Kurds as well as Shia people. ISIS it seems such barbarity and meaningless, but for ISIS it appears to be a rational choice. ISIS is a new form of terrorism which is different from other previous terrorism groups. ISIS adheres to a doctrine of total war; it has announced war against any stats, community even Muslim people if they don’t implement Islamic law. It has ideology of Salafi jihadism, (Gerges, F: 2014).
According to CIA report, Islamic state was born in a central of Al Qieda organization. It is fight against American Military and Western country in the world for instance the tactics that ISIS are using today stem from Zarqawi’s strategy. Most of these Islamic State leaders come from Al Qieda organization, (CIA report: 2014). A Kurdish formal newspaper explains that ISIS terrorism is a regional ideology which is supported by some countries for example Turkey country. In term of this newspaper, it brings a speech of German deputy speaker claimed that NATO must be stopping Turkey support for ISIS, (Rudaw: 2014).
The United Nation is also quite sceptical on the matter and defined Islamic State (ISIS) as a dangerous organization in the world. In the way Security Council has dramatically escalated the case of Islamic State by passing UN Resolution 2170 in August 2014. Then, the use military action against Islamic State and any political power associated with Islamic State, (Khatteeb, L: 2014). In the same way, Islamic state recognized in according to Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions and customary international law ISIS has contravened against human rights. Islamic State has systematically denied basic human rights and freedoms for instance, prevent others religion, individual freedom and natural freedom. However, ISIS carried out genocide against the innocent cavilling in many places in Iraq and Syria, (UN report: 2014).
Islamic state (ISIS) strategy
According to (Rayan, M: 2014) illustrate that the main Islamic State strategy is synonymous with the caliph state. The selection of above a statement is meant to demonstrate that there is not any expectable programme to life of people except Islamic Sharia (law) which is focus on the Islamic programme at the period of (prophet) Muhammad. One of the other strategies is to return dignity to oppressed and humiliated Muslims a theme consistently used by al-Qaeda’s media propaganda as well. This is a highly polarizing call for all Muslims to come and fight for the Islamic State, which claims to be the best path to liberating Mecca and Madinah from the Saudi government and Jerusalem from the Jews.
Jessica D. Lewis (2014) also highlights the ISIS political proposes that provides insight into the forming of the ISIS strategy. There are for important strategy: first, breaking down state boundaries and generating conditions for civil war are described as ‘Destabilizing Taghut” or idolatry. Highlighting the consistency of the ISIS approach from the historical precedent set by AQI, Dabiq credits Zarqawi. Second, the foundation Islamic State in Iraq and al-Sham as an Islamic Emirate which is the important face to control others places. Third, encourage people to fight and live within the Emirate corresponds with the phase of Hijrah, or emigration, which is described as the first phase. Fourth, ISIS has expressed its expansive intent and vision for how it will interact with the rest of the Muslim world by declaring the Khalifa, or caliphate, which ISIS describes as the final phased objective.
Rational Choice Theory
Lindauer Lance (2013) asserts that rational Choice Theory is one of the important theories to analyze the issue of terrorism in a framework of political communication. Rational theory has used in a variety of filed. It has affected on individual behaviour and individual choice. This approach use often mathematically calculable in an experimental framework and through precise interpretation is explainable. Using rational choice Theory as such enables theorists to understand the rationality behind terrorism.
Victoroff, J (2005) pointed out rational choice escalated the question about explanatory power which is taken by terrorist action. This action constructs from a conscious mind, rational and calculated decision to take this particular kind of action as the most favourable strategy to finish a socio political. A consequence could be made between rational or strategic choice theory and other individual or group psychological theories of terrorism. Then, it is important to explain why people are willing to be a terrorist and what is goal of terrorist. And also rational choice theory, derived from economics, assumes this behavioural proclivity as a given and attempts to explain how changes in policy the rules of the game that is played between terrorists and others political actor.
The rational choice approach has been successfully applied to terrorist organization, but it should be noted to tow important points in the debate on the implementation of a rational action theory of terrorist organisations. First, as with any theoretical explanation for a phenomenon that may be a rising questions about the implementation of this particular theory that should be considered. In many cases not only the rationality of terrorist organisations, but also the value of applying rationality theories. It may be existing different people within an organization have different purposes and that rational behaviour can be rooted in either self-interest or socially conscious morality, which means that almost any behaviour may be explained as rational. Second, no theory should be translated as a catch all explanation for all behaviour. However, decisions may be made at any level of the organization and each of these decision-makers may be aware of different information, leading to different rational decisions. Additionally, not all decisions are made rationally, for instance when made by those who are reactive and or emotionally compromised, (Hepworth, D: 2013).
Individual involvement in the Islamic State (ISIS)
According to rational theory there are many reasons a person individually engages in terrorism or joins a terrorist organization. Gordon McCormick argue that some of these individual terrorists are simply taking part ‘expressionists’ and conduct violence for violence’s sake. Others as rationalists who are employ terrorism on behalf of an external goal. In the subsequent section, the three most common motivations for engaging in terrorism are political, economic and social, (Lindauer, L: 2013). But it may be different to Islamic State, at the beginning of foundation, the Islamic state (ISIS) announced, they have struggled to implement the Islamic Sharia in every where regardless political and economic self interesting. There is only one way of collecting their fighters (Al Mujahidin) that the way of satisfaction the God. This is the main principle of ISIS which is encouraging the Muslim community to share and join in the Islamic State. One of the members of former the Islamic leader (Mbin Shex) considers that, most of the member of Islamic State has participated in the political process without rational determination. This is because, most of them have unknown about the proposition ISIS. Some of them the vulnerable young man less than 19 years old, obviously they have not able to distinguish between political activity and religion duty, (xandan: 2014).
Rational negotiation with Islamic State (ISIS)
Does negotiation with ISIS have still the best rational option to resolve this problem? Does Military Campaign alone have the rational choice to tackle the defeat ISIS? The arguments for resolve this issue are classified in a wide variety of ways. Some arguments focus on the military action. Others consider that military action against the ISIS extremist organization is not going to tackle this problem fundamentally. There has not a rational way to deal with this kind of terrorism. Because terrorism has not accepted any idea and it assists to implement their dogmatic program which it is created by them. Obviously, those who argue that violence promote violence will reject this military action. But if this argument against war is to acquire more weight, then those who imply that there are viable alternatives need to spell out in greater detail what those alternatives are, (Woodward, P: 2014).
Most of politician and political expertise don’t believe that negotiation will be a strategic way to find the political solution in the matter of ISIS. It is also the United States and European Countries they don’t want to talk to ISIS. There are some reasons. First, Islamic State is not a legitimate. Second, ISIS is used a violence by according to international law. Third, Of course, ISIS is unlikely to come to the table while it continues to make significant gains. Fourth, how does negotiation with kind of extremist terrorism Islamic State meanwhile it is completely rejected Western civilization? There is no appropriate way to negotiation except the military strategy plane, (BBC Radio: 2015).
Anti military actions in the issue of ISIS think that escalating military actions against this violent extremist organization is not going to work. The bottom line is there is no immediate rational actions that will make ISIS disappear, even if military action will be successful for instance, the efforts to do so with Al Qaeda lots of members killed in Afghanistan, but the organization took root in a bunch of other countries. However, ISIS it is quietly different and it is so powerful. This is because, ISIS has good weapons, ISIS has good military leadership, and ISIS has support from Sunni tribal leaders as they very suffered terribly under Maliki’s sectarian Shi’a controlled government, (Bennis, P: 2014).
Terrorist organization does not recognize the rules of liberal democratic states and they do not answer to reason, governments have argued to terrorist organization. Most governments have faced with the realization that they are unlikely to succeed in annihilating the terrorist group of legal or military means, agree to negotiate with terrorists. There are many examples for instance, The British government directly started to negotiate with the Irish Republican Army (IRA) fighting British rule of Northern Ireland in the early 1990s but it wasn’t successful, the Colombian government is in talks with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) the Filipino government signed a historic peace deal with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front to end a conflict that ravaged the southern region of Mindanao and Bokharam in Nigeria. They are unlikely to succeed the negotiation with these terrorist organizations, (TOROS, T: 2014).
Islamic State likes others terrorist groups never have believed the negotiation with other political actors, this argument refers that it may be difficult to think the optional negotiation meanwhile Islamic state would rather kill everyone and destroy the table than sit at it for talks. However, scholars and experts who have taken a closer look at ISIS are already warning us the ISIS organization against every civilization as destruction of anything they deem impure. The movement time and again invited international actors to engage in a dialogue, but they were dismissed as terrorists and no one would talk to them. Such openings for talks can be seen as potentially fruitful opportunities misseds by both national and international actors who chose to use a broad stroke in painting any ally of non-state armed groups of terrorists thus dismissing them as inappropriate interlocutors. Of course, according of this paper dialogue does not work with Islamic state, (TOROS, T: 2014).
Conclusion
Rational Choice Theory and Game Theory can be quite useful in explaining and comprehending the Islamic State. However, the case of Islamic State is so controversial. There are different argumentations some contemplate that, Islamic State has established without they have any rational objectives. They are only implementing an internal and regional agenda. Others political expertises argue that Islamic State is a defector which is not possible to ignore it. The problem with applying the rational choice framework to this phenomenon the ISIS is that, rational choice is used to determine the existence or absence of rationality, which is difficult because terrorism absolutely is not a part of rational project rather than terrorism totally absence the conception of rationality. Rationality is applied in absolute terms and the actors are considered static figures always ending up choosing between the actions with the highest post action expected utility values. In reality, rational behaviour for one individual with set value systems may be irrational for other individual under the same circumstances due to their conflicting value systems.
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