THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
When we talk about mood, it is typically described as having positive and negative valence. Positive, as in the mood that may be described as the elated feelings that one has and the negative are may be those that make people sad, depressed, or anxious.
In 1992, Braverman, coined the term mood congruency in judgments to portray circumstances in which state of mind influences an individual\’s contemplations, attributions, and desires, which, thusly, impact the people’s choices. As indicated by their perspective, upbeat individuals are more probable than dismal individuals to expect decent climate for an outing, since decent climate is compatible with their pleasant mood according to Bolen, 2007. There are some speculations that say that positive mood can affect our minds in good or bad ways. A study also suggests that being in a positive state of mind widens or grows the broadness of attentional choice such that data that might be helpful to the current workload turns out to be more open for use.
The HR profession has developed as a key accomplice and is increasingly expected, past its unique \”individuals care\” part, to control others\’ sentiments, as a change and culture champion or supporting administrators who do not have the right stuff, vitality or time to perform emotion management.
Studies by Burns et al (1998) have determined that in an industrial setting, women tend to be more engaging in modesty such as de-emphasizing one’s characteristics after a performance, opinion conformity, and flattery/ compliments. For the last 100 years, job interviews have been an integral part of personnel selection practice. Campion et al (2014) suggest that interviews are choice instrument used to settle on hiring in spite of the fact that interview is regularly censured for being subjective and is inclined to inclinations and segregation. (Steiner, 2012) Cognitive factors have been identified as potential drivers for biases by Ryan & Ployhart (2012). A theoretical framework of interview bias that draws upon dual process theory is presented by Derous, Buljisrogge and Roulin that proposes that the root of predisposition lies in fast and frugal judgments made amid the underlying impression arrangement process, and along these lines influences the interviewer amid all phases of the interview process.
In the study of Katherine H. Rogers and Jeremy C. Biesanz from University of British Columbia, the researchers cited Cronbach. He noted that a perceiver, the person who is framing the impression, can achieve a sensible level of precision essentially by judging the objective, the person who is having the impression framed of them, as normal on the characteristic.
1.2 Background of the Study
McFarland, White, and Newth (2003) found that people encountering a positive mood state judged everyone around them to be more ecstatic and skilled contrasted with those in a negative mood, who tended to view others less positively. They induced that this mood congruency happens in light of the fact that people credit their pessimistic inclination to the targeted individual, as opposed to the real reason for their adverse state of mind. According to Clore and Schwarz (2007), while attributing another judgment, individuals have been found to utilize their positive or negative mood state as data, and misattribute it to the judgment target, bringing a mood-congruent judgments.
According to Chartland (2006), despite the fact that there are a few competing accounts for the effects of mood on processing, an utilitarian clarification for the wonder that mind-set impacts processing style is the sentiments as data record by Schwarz and partners (Schwarz, 1990; Schwarz &Bohner, 1996;Schwarz & Clore, 1996, as cited by Chartrand, Baaren, and Bargh, 2006). The reason of this thought is that a man\’s present full of feeling state advises him or her about the goodness or badness of the environment—is it protected or tricky? Consequently, this data has suggestions for the path in which individuals cooperate with their surroundings.
Chartrand, Baaren and Bargh (2006) states that the rationale behind the flagging capacity of state of mind is that individuals as a rule feel great when things are going alright and for the most part feel awful when they keep running into troubles. At the point when individuals are in a positive state of mind, their surroundings appears to represent no risk, and they will probably depend on heuristic and inventive. Conversely, a negative mind-set signals that nature is risky and that appropriate action should be made, resulting in an information processing style is generally explanatory, effortful, and wary.
The study of Chien-Cheng Chen, Hsien-Wen Chen, and Ying-Yin Lin has confirmed that positive and negative moods of the interviewer may affect the hiring decision in the applicant. However, past research about the mood of the interviewer during the interview may have important role in interview results are only limited. This study aims to determine the influence of Mood of Recruitment Specialists in Impression Formation.
1.2 Theoretical Framework:
Fig. 1: Impression Formation Model
Fig. 1 shows the relationship that the researchers formulate to describe the role of impression formation in the study. Recency effect is the probability and belief bias in which has the tendency to weigh recent events more than earlier events.
As stated by Joe Shaheen, 2010, recency effect occurs when for an instance an applicant arrived on time and does well but said something negative later on will affect the interview results as it may affect the interviewer in some way.
Affection Infusion Model is when mood affects our judgments but not consistently. For the mood to have an effect on our judgment, it has to override the forces that would lead to the ‘standard’ judgment. Mood has no effect when we are making direct retrieval of a simple pre-formed conclusion and when the direction to satisfy a goal is strong. Mood has the best effect when a person is rushed, cramming, and making last-minute decisions. Mood can be felt without a person noticing it, and when is, the person will try to internalize by asking himself or herself, “How would I feel?” and would clearly immense and evaluate his or her feelings. However, mood does not have an effect in such circumstances of decision level, unless in a more detailed level such as when what we recall is biased by our mood.
To connect it to the study, the mood is an important factor that will be tried to measure to see if the result would have an effect to the impression formation to the target participants of the researchers. Affective Events Theory demonstrates that employees react emotionally to what happen to them at work and that this reaction influences their job performance and satisfaction. The theory begins through knowing that the emotions can affect and fluctuate the work environment. The work environment has factors affecting the job— the variation of tasks and degree of autonomy, job demands, and requirements for expressing emotional labor. These work events trigger positive or negative emotional reactions. But employees’ personalities and moods influence them to respond with greater or lesser intensity to the event. And their mood creates fluctuations to their general affect cycle. So a person’s emotional response to a given event that can change depending on mood. Affective Events Theory offers two important messages. First, emotions provide valuable perceptions into understanding employee behavior.
The model demonstrates how workplace hassles and improves the performance and satisfaction of the employee. Second, employees and managers shouldn’t ignore emotions, despite its minority, and their causes because they accumulate.
1.3 Conceptual Framework
The Conceptual Framework model for the Relationship of Moods and Impression Formation among Recruitment Specialists
The researchers start by administering the Abbreviated Profile of Mood States (POMS), a questionnaire that helps determine the current mood of the respondent. Afterwards, a questionnaire determining the rating of the respondent to the person he is interviewing is acquired in order to correlate the data gathered with each other, knowing how the mood prior to the interviewing of the employees would affect how he rates them afterwards. This determines the impression he built of the person and if his mood has something to do with it. The researchers want to bring to the awareness of the recruitment specialists that their mood prior might have something to do to the hiring rate afterwards by the impression they formed of the person based on their current mood.
1.4 Statement of the Problem
This current study seeks to determine if there is a correlation between the moods of the hiring specialists to their impression formation. To achieve this goal, the researchers have formulated the following specific questions:
1. What are the moods of the Recruitment Specialists prior to their interviews as determined by the Abbreviated Profile of Mood States questionnaire?
2. What are the impression formed by the Recruitment Specialists?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the Mood and Impression Formation of the Recruitment Specialists?
In line with the specified statements of the study, the researchers formulated the following hypothesis:
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the mood and impression formation of the recruitment specialists.
1.6 Scopes and Limitation
This study is about the industrial setting of the field of psychology. It targets specifically the subject of Human Resource that could help the future psychology students have more idea of the profession. Likewise, this study provides better understanding of the mood and impression formation of the Recruitment specialists that helps to improve the underlying value about the relationship of the said variables to correlate with the result of the hiring rate of the Recruitment Specialists.
The study includes the HR recruitment specialists in Manila, Philippines as well as the local applicants of the field. The target participants are within the age range of 25-40. The information gathering takes place at the local chains and buildings of the chosen type of company.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study will benefit the following:
• Students – This research will benefit students, as further research about the industrial setting will further enhance their understanding of the dynamics that lies in the parameters of hiring individuals.
• Teachers – This research will benefit the teacher to give additional information about Human Resource, its importance to his students.
• HR Managers – This research will benefit the HR Managers in order to help them have more contact with their mood and have awareness in mood management.
• Employees –This research will help the employees to have better understanding how mood can affect their work in an industrial setting.
• Companies – Companies would benefit from this study in a way that they would know how to prime their hiring specialists beforehand in order to ensure a sound hiring procedure, minimizing bias.
• Future Researchers – Future researchers will benefit from the study seeing as this study would possibly provide further supplementary knowledge for them in their future endeavors regarding the topic proper.
1.8 Definition of terms
The following terms are operationally defined to give clarity to the notions presented in this study:
It is a natural instinctive state of mind that can affect one’s mood and actions towards other people.
• Impression Formation
It is the process by which Hiring Specialists form an overall impression of the applicant’s qualification.
It is the variable being measured from the Hiring Specialist before the interview process.
It is the way the Hiring Specialist thinks about or interpret the applicants.
Review of Related Literatures
This chapter shows the related studies, literatures and journals cited by the researchers to support their study.
Mood is an emotional state. It differs from person to person as well as its quality at a particular time. Shwarz (2010) says that individuals do not depend on their sentiments when they (effectively or inaccurately) ascribe them to another source, as well as undermining their enlightening worth for the current workload. What individuals close from a given feeling relies on upon the epistemic inquiry on which they bring to bear; hence, inferences from feelings are context sensitive and flexible. In addition to serving as a basis of judgment, feelings inform us about the nature of our current situation and our thought processes are tuned to meet situational requirements.
Lerner, Li, Valdesono, and Kasam (2014) suggest that many philosophers, including Plato, Descartes, Pascal and Kant, and early psychologists (Freud, 1925; James, 1884; Wundt, 1907) have been interested in the role of affect in human thinking and acting. Over the past 30 years, this interest has been extended to judgment and decision-making.
Vries, Holland, Corneile, Rondeel, and Witteman (2010) perceive that there has been research that has examined mood effects in ambiguous decision-making situations. At first sight, it may appear that the availability of a dominant, clearly best choice option would leave little room for mood impacts, and that people should normally tend to choose this dominant option, irrespective of their mood state. However, Vries et al (2010) ,expected that, in fact, mood states can have an effect even on dominated choices, because mood states may influence the extent to which people stick to logical rules, or switch to more explorative and experience-based decision strategies.
Vries et al (2010) hypothesized that mood states even affect dominated choices, builds on previous research that has shown that mood states influence the way people process information and act upon it .
Bless, Bohner, Schwarz, and Strack, (1990) and Fiedler, (1988) states that in a negative mood, people have a stronger tendency to elaborate on information and adopt a narrower focus than in a positive mood state; the participants were 108 students from the Radboud University Nijmegen. They participated in this study in exchange for money or course credits. Mood was manipulated using short film clips, a method which has also been employed successfully to manipulate mood states. The study provides original evidence that, compared to negative mood, positive mood negatively affects the use of rule-based decision strategies in a dominated choice task, where people are provided with information about all potential outcomes and their probabilities for each choice option and no trade-offs are involved.
The study of Ikegami (2012) have also attempted to examine specific effects that different mood induction procedures might have on cognitive processes, when such procedures have equivalent effects on mood states in intensity and valence. According to the network theory, positive ideas and concepts in memory are automatically activated, example is primed, when a positive mood state is induced, facilitating positive or favorable thinking about others. The network theory also predicts that mood effects on cognitive processes come to occur regardless of the nature of mood-inducing events. It has basically been assumed that mood experiences should result in similar effects only if they share the same affective valence.
Green and Sedikides (1999) have recently argued that the relation between affective states and attentional focus can be illuminated more clearly by the combination of the dimension of affect orientation, such as reflective-social, with the valence dimension, like positive-negative than by the single dimension. These studies seemingly suggest that not only the valence but also the meaning structure of a mood-altering experience will have a substantial effect on the capacity of the mood state to influence one’s cognitive processing.
In the study of Ikegami (2012) two experiments were conducted in the present study. Experiment 1 examined whether a temporary change in one’s self-esteem accompanying a mood induction might be involved in positive mood effects on person impression. Experiment 2 tested whether a self-referent procedure versus another-referent mood induction procedure should be equally capable of activating friendliness-related trait concepts in memory. The network theory of affect predicts that when a positive mood is experienced, positive trait constructs are made more accessible and are more likely to be used in the current cognitive processing, thereby producing mood congruent effects. This prediction was confirmed in the self-referent mood induction condition. Further discussions are needed on whether enhanced self-esteem will lead to higher friendliness ratings without the activation of relevant traits caused by one’s mood per se. Recently, it has widely been known that the degree and quality of mood priming effects can vary depending on various kinds of contextual and individual factors, such as the nature of the dependent variable, the type of processing strategy, and the subjects’ motivation to control their mood-based responses.
Schwartz and Clore (1983) states that it has been said that a person’s mood state signals his or her the valence of the current environment with accordance to the feelings-as-information. To back up this statement, a study conducted by Chartland, Baaren, and Bargh (2006) states whether that that non-conscious evaluation of environment stimuli as good or bad through the automatic evaluation which is said to be the one mechanism by which the affect is influenced by the affect. There were four experiments conducted to justify the study: The first is a set of sixty-three male and female students who were primed with positive and negative words to know the prime valence. The first experiment conducted proved that continued and screened exposure to positive or negative stimuli can alter the mood that the people are experiencing. The second to fourth experiment has tested the preference of the participants with regards to the positive and negative primes. The summary of the study concludes that prolonged exposure to positive and negative stimuli has an effect on the affective state and processing style of an individual. Therefore, when facing a predominantly negative stimulus, it reflects the mood signaling that one’s environment needs to be taken care of.
Schwarz et al (1983) also affirms that when faced with positive stimulus, a person tends to release positive valence signals that lead to an optimistic environment. Again, the study of Schwarz and Clore (1983) affirms that the environment plays a part in the valence of the mood state of a person with accordance to the feelings-as-information. Studies by Chartrand, Baaren, and Bargh (2006) posits that automatic evaluation is a mechanism by which the environment influences affects wherein people automatically evaluates the objects they encounter on a positive-negative dimension both within and outside of their conscious awareness (Bargh, Chaiken, Raymond, & Hymes, 1996; Zajonc, 1980) and either an approach or an avoidance tendency toward each entity may automatically evoke through these evaluations.
A research study by Bolen et al (2007) examined the effect of mood on decision-making with the use of novel induction procedure. Along with it, the personal history of the person is studied whether it is included to cause moderation on the said effects. The mood induction procedure involved having the participants to listen to a fictional 911 call of either a domestic violence disturbance or a bar fight then they had completed four decision-making tasks, and their performance was compared to a no-induction control group.
In Chien-Cheng Chen, Hsien-Wen Chen, and Ying-Yin Lin’s study (2013), they examine the effects of interviewer moods on hiring recommendation found that the interviewer’s positive moods were related to the interviewer’s hiring recommendations and the interviewer’s negative moods were not related to the interviewer’s hiring recommendations.
Qui Yeung 2008. The affect that people happen to be experiencing at the time they evaluate a stimulus can provide information about their liking for the stimulus and, therefore, can influence their evaluation of it. However, there are times when individuals cannot distinguish the sources of affect that they experience at the moment. As a result, if the individual happen to be in a bad mood or good mood the moment they evaluate a target, they may (mis)attribute this feeling to the target and may be the basis of their evaluation. This study demonstrates a systematic influence of mood on choice, which contrasts with the general assumption that mood is unlikely to influence choice. Results showed that mood influenced choice of the first presented option while the influence of mood on comparison depends on which alternative in a choice set is the one being evaluated first. The findings in this study are in contrast to the viewpoint that existing theoretical frameworks on subjective experience effects such as mood and metacognitive experience, have limited applicability in the choice domain. This study can be parallel to our study due to the fact that choosing an option in this study is like forming an impression towards the applicant that the mood of the interviewer may affect its impression.
Central to several influential models of person perception is the notion that the stereotypes associated with social categories are automatically activated in the mere presence of a triggering stimulus. The origins of this notion can be traced to Allport’s (1954) seminal writings on the nature of prejudice. The message that Allport forwarded was straightforward and powerful: To simplify the demands of daily interaction, mere exposure of a stimulus target is sufficient to stimulate categorical thinking and promote the emergence of its associated judgmental, memorial, and behavioral products (i.e., stereotyped reactions). According to this account, then, categorical thinking is an unavoidable aspect of the person perception process.
Han et al (2007) has found that people in good moods would make the people with optimistic judgment change into pessimistic due to bad moods.
Mahzarin R. Banaji and Jaihyun Park (2000) tested the influence of mood in sensitivity and bias in stereotyping and found that there was no significant difference in probability estimations between the neutral mood condition and the negative mood condition.
The study of Joseph P. Forgas and Gordon H. Bower (1987) confirms their hypothesis that temporary mood state indeed influence the quality of impression-formation judgement however it was more in positive moods than negative moods.
On Impression Formation
A study by Derous, Rouin, Buijsrogge, and Duyck 2015 proposed a framework for interview bias based on the dual-process theory. The researchers chose to highlight the interviewer’s perspective by investigating the way the interviewers process candidate (stigma) information than considering the both side of applicant and recruiter. The interviewer creates the initial impressions about the interviewee based on the information obtained previously or during the first seconds after meeting the applicant during the pre-interview stage. During the formation of impressions, interviewers are basing on the presentation of the visual, verbal, and behaviors of the applicant (DeGroot & Motowidlo, 1999; Motowidlo & Burnett, 1995; Stewart et al., 2008, as cited by Eva Derous, Alexander Buijsrogge, Nicolas Roulin, 2015). Researchers propose that “interviewers may consciously control their behavior towards stigmatized applicants in order to make an unbiased impression on the applicant, resulting in a more positive perception by the stigmatized applicant.” As stated in by Dipboye & Johnson, 2013. And when the evaluations of the stigmatized applicants are finalized, the interviewers will make another initial impression, disregarding their first impressions of the information made by the interviewer and the applicant during the interview stage.
Derous et al (2015), from a theoretical perspective, emphasized how stigma might affect interview judgments and decision making and compromise interview validity. In line to the study, it is related in a way that it shows the different reason of the interviewer’s evaluation result and how interviewer builds an impression to the applicant.
In a result of study of Joseph P. Forgas (2011), the effects of positive mood on the evaluation of a target person increased the constructive tendency to rely on early information in impressions while the negative mood reduced its tendency. As cited by Forgas, other studies of Bodenhausen et al., 2011 have shown that positive affect increases stereotyping in judgments while negative affective states such as sadness, are connected with the suppression or removal of streotypic biases. In terms of fairness, there might be an increasing concern for others and increase for fairness due to negative affect as stated in the studies of Tan & Forgas (2010).
On Decision Making
Ye Li, Piercarlo Valdesolo, and Karim Kassam 2014 said that integral emotions can be degraded the decision making of an individual despite arising from the judgment or decision at hand. Ye Li, Piercarlo Valdesolo, and Karim Kassam cited Loewenstein in their study; he said that even in the presence of cognitive information, integral emotions can be remarkably influential that would suggest alternative courses of action.
Ye Li et al (2014) have found that the decision the individuals make were affected by their incidental emotions, an emotion that the individual extensively carry over from one situation to the next even though from a normative perspective, the decision must be unrelated to that emotion; and that process is what Bodenhausen, Loewenstein & Lerner (1993) called the “carryover of incidental emotion”.
Isen (2008) suggest that the individual’s cognitive flexibility may increase and the individual may consider multiple perspectives or goals and shift attention among them, as needed when there has mild improvements in positive feelings.
A study of Carpenter, Peters, Vastfjall, and Isen (2012) found that positive-feeling participants say positive word more than did neutral-feeling participants. It is consistent with the substantial body of empirical evidence that the ability of people to think with carefulness, flexibility, and efficiency about numerous factors in a situation, integrating the needed information are improve because of mild positive feelings.
Sun and Wu (2008), proposed that more people in a negative emotional state would register rather than wait under the condition of uncertainty, compared with people in a positive emotional state. Moreover, individuals were more inclined to take immediate action to register in a negative emotional state compared with people in a positive emotional state.
Bolen (2007) states that mood induction manipulation and previous experience with domestic violence is expected to result in riskier decision-making. Influence of personal experience was tested and compared their performance with and without a history of domestic violence. Ironically, the result of the study revealed that domestic violence victims seemed exacerbate their cautious behavior than the non-victims. Correlations between the various decision-making tasks were generally low supporting the idea that decision-making is a complicated construct.
With accordance to Robbins, Judge, Millet and Jones (2009), in work, the perceptions could be affected by the positive affect and negative affect. In genders, women tend to be more aware of their feelings than men: they are emotionally based and is wary of the feelings of others. In contrasting the genders, it is concluded that women tend to show more emotional expression than men since they experience emotions in an intense manner and they show both the positive and negative emotions frequently.
Medina (2011) said that surrounding environment also affects perception. For example, a person who is enjoying a meal with tribal people in the hinterlands may be well acknowledged even if he uses his bare hands. He will be perceived differently when repeated the same in privileged class city.
Medina (2011) also affirms that the situational factors that affect perception are: time, work, setting, and social setting. Perception also varies depending on the time the perception is made as people’s moods vary from time to time. Workplaces differ from one another. As such, perception also differs from workplace to workplace. For instance, the playing of soft music may be perceived favorably in a certain workplace but differently regarded in another workplace. The social setting is also a factor in perception. For instance, a perception will perceive a Caucasian girl as very pretty when both of them are situated in a remote place in the Philippines. However, when both are situated in a movie studio in Hollywood, U.S.A., the girl will be perceived differently.
In human resource selection, Gatewood, Hubert, and Barrick (2011) state that judgement plays a role in many of our most frequently used predictors (for example, the interview). It involves on how the interviewer interprets the response to that question or how an applicant responds to a question.
Gatewood et al (2011) defined that there are some concerns about the method of measurement bias in the interview. The physical attractiveness and professional demeanor, use of impression management behavior, and verbal and nonverbal behavior of the candidate were the factors that significantly affect the interviewer’s rating candidate suitability according to the recent meta-analysis. There are many factors that can affect the accuracy of one’s judgement and in cognitive psychology; a vast research literature has developed that a number of biases or heuristics can be one of those factors. Recruitment is a process separate but functions parallel to the selection process.
The researchers of different studies expected that mood states can have an effect even on dominated choices, because mood states may influence the extent to which people stick to logical rules, or switch to more explorative and experience-based decision strategies (Ashby, Isen, &Turken, 1999; De Vries et al., 2008). This finding seems to prove very substantial in on current study, which is trying to prove if mood would have an effect on a hiring specialist’s impression formation.
Some studies have also attempted to examine specific effects that different mood induction procedures might have on cognitive processes, when such procedures have equivalent effects on mood states in intensity and valence (Ikegami, 1993; Rholes, Riskind, & Lane, 1987). According to the network theory, positive ideas and concepts in memory are automatically activated (i.e., primed) when a positive mood state is induced, facilitating positive or favorable thinking about others. The network theory also predicts that mood effects on cognitive processes come to occur regardless of the nature of mood-inducing events.
(edit) Past research has found that positive and negative moods could influence the interviewer’s evaluations of applicants. They have also confirmed that individuals are more prone to help others when they are in high levels of positive moods than individuals in low levels of positive moods (e.g. George, 1991; Tsai, Chen, & Liu, 2007), while individuals tend to be less inclined to help others when they are in high levels of negative moods than individuals in low levels of negative moods (Hui, Law, & Chen, 1999). In other words, individuals with high levels of positive mood are more likely to ask the applicant relatively easy questions than individuals with low levels of positive mood. While individuals with high levels of negative moods are prone to ask some moderately difficult questions than individuals with low levels of negative moods. Both conditions may influence the performance of the applicant and the hiring rate of the interviewer.
Other related studies suggest that the individual’s cognitive flexibility may increase and the individual may consider multiple perspectives or goals and shift attention among them, as needed when there has a mild improvements in positive feelings (Bodenhausen, Mussweiler, Gabriel, & Moreno, 2001; Isen, 1993, 2008).
This chapter presents the various methods and procedures in the analysis and treatment of data that will be utilized for understanding the data as well as the study. This chapter presents the research design, description of participants, sampling techniques, and instrument used gathering of data and the statistical tool used.
The design that will be utilized is the Descriptive-Correlation research design. The descriptive studies are usually the best methods for collecting information that will demonstrate relationships and describe the world as it exists. The researchers will apply the mood and impression formation as the variable being measured in the study. These types of studies are often done before an experiment to know what specific things to manipulate and include in an experiment. However, there will be no experiment that will be conducted by the researchers. A survey will be used to gather data that will be analyzed. The researchers used cross-sectional study, which is sometimes carried out to investigate associations between risk factors and the outcome of interest. To gather the information needed, a survey is used through sets of questions. The researchers used correlation coefficient to test the relationship between the variables used in the study. It measures the relationship between two or more variables and gives prediction how one variable can affect another. In the study, it will be used to identify what the correlation of the mood as a variable with the impression formation of the Recruitment Specialists.
3.2 Respondents of the Study
The study will use purposive sampling technique. The target respondents of this study are 40 Recruitment Specialists aging from 25-40 years old, working in Manila, Philippines.
3.3 Sampling Procedure
Purposive sampling represents a group of different non-probability sampling techniques. Also known as judgmental, selective or subjective sampling, purposive sampling relies on the judgment of the researcher when it comes to selecting the units (e.g., people, cases/organizations, events, pieces of data) that are to be studied. Usually, the sample being investigated is quite small, especially when compared with probability sampling techniques.
It is used in the study to bracket only the recruitment specialists who are residing in different organizations chosen by the researchers with the limit of ages 25-40.
3.4 Research Instrument
The researchers will use two research instruments in order to gather the information that will be needed in this study. The Abbreviated Profile Of Mood State or POMS is a standard validated psychological test formulated by Robert Grove to measure the current mood of an individual. The questionnaire contains 40 words/statements that describe feelings people currently have. The POMS-A was developed in three stages. Stage 1 established content validity, whereby a panel of experts assessed an initial item pool for comprehensibility by adolescents and a sample of adolescents identified those items that best described each mood dimension. In Stage 2, a 24-item, six-factor structure was tested using confirmatory factor analysis on adolescents in a classroom setting and adolescent athletes before competition. The hypothesized model was supported in both groups independently and simultaneously. In Stage 3, relationships between POMS-A scores and previously validated measures, that were consistent with theoretical predictions, supported criterion validity. The test requires the respondents to indicate for each word or statement how they have been feeling in the past week including the Interview Assessment Form. It will be useful in not only documenting the rationale behind the recruitment specialist’s hiring decisions, but also in looking past the recruitment specialist’s immediate impressions during the interview process. The researchers will seek the permission of the author of the Abbreviated Profile of Mood States through e-mail to ensure the proper reservation of rights is well practiced.
3.5 Data Gathering
The researchers provided an Informed Consent Letter for the respondents to know the nature of the study. It included their rights in line with their partaking in the research as well as the information regarding the hazards of the proceedings. The Abbreviated Profile of Mood State or POMS is a standardized validated psychological test revised by Grove and is used to measure the mood of the respondent. After being administered to the recruitment specialist, the score of the respondent from the questionnaire would then be taken into account as well as the result from the Interview Evaluation Form wherein the respondents would rate the applicant that would determine the compatibility of the person to their job. These two scores are then correlated using Pearson-r to determine if there is a correlation between the two constructs.
3.6 Data Analysis/ Statistical Treatment
Treatment of Data
After gathering, arranging and tabulating the information and data needed for the study of the researchers, tables were used for the presentation of data and statistical tools were used for analysis and interpretation of gathered data.
SPSS or Statistical Package for the Social Sciences- will be used for inputing the testing and analyzing of the data as well as its result that will be gathered.
The following were used to gather the relationship of the variable in the study:
1. Percentage is used to determine the ratio and frequency of the participants to the total number of percent.
N= total number of participants
2. Weighted Mean is used to determine the level of relationship of the variables that are tested.
N= total number of respondents
∑x= total scores
3. Pearson- r is used to measure the relationship between the mood and impression formation of the hiring specialists.
N= total number of respondents
x= represents the scores in mood
y= represents the scores in impression formation
r= Pearson r
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