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Essay: VANET Based Secure and Privacy Preserving Navigation

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Abstract:

VANET’s are a group of mobile devices like cars, trucks, buses and motor bikes each consisting of different vehicular properties, forming a network. This indicates that node movement is limited to factors like road, encompassing traffic and traffic regulations. Devices are expected to communicate by means of North American DSRC standard which employs the IEEE 802.11 p standard for wireless communication. In order to provide communication with participants out of radio range, messages have to be forwarded by other devices using internet based secure registration that allows a user to create a login with Road Side Unit’s. In due course of registration, candidates provide required information that allows them the benefit of secure connectivity starting from the very first packet that they send to the Road side units. A novel cryptographic function that enables users and Road Side Unit’s to apply the required security level of exchanged messages by adjusting the number of iterations of operations is proposed in this paper. A set of new encryption keys are derived that are used to encrypt the next packet from part of the data in the current packet.

Keywords: VANET, Security, RSU, Communication.

1. Introduction:

Inter-Vehicular Communications also called VANETS became extremely popular in recent years with the increasing advent of globalization and technology. A vehicular ad hoc network is a special form of Mobile adhoc network. MANET is a reasonably wireless ad hoc network(s) and self configuring network of mobile routers connected by wireless links that use vehicles as devices. The most distinction is that mobile routers building the network are vehicles like cars or trucks. Many different applications are rising with reference to vehicular communications. For instance, safety applications for safer driving, info services to intimate drivers regarding driving hazards and alternative business services within the vicinity of the vehicle. Governments, firms, and educational communities are functioning on enabling new applications for VANETs. The main goal of VANETs is to increase road safety by the use of wireless communications. To realize these goals vehicles acts as sensors and inform one another regarding abnormal and probably venturous conditions like accident, traffic jams and glazes. Vehicular networks closely resemble adhoc networks because of their apace dynamic topology, therefore, VANETs need secure routing protocols. Numerous Applications are distinctive to the vehicular setting. These applications embody safety applications that may build driver safer, mobile commerce, roadside services which will show intelligence; inform drivers regarding congestion, businesses, and services within the vicinity of the vehicle. VANETs, particularly compared to MANETs are characterized by many distinctive aspects. Devices move with high rate, leading to high rates of topology changes. In VANET frequent link breaks occur due to quick change in topology because of vehicular movement. The constraints and optimizations are remarkably totally different. From the network perspective, security and measurability are two significant challenges. An intimidating set of abuses and attacks become attainable. Hence, the protection of vehicular networks is indispensable. Government and business cooperation have funded massive IVC partnerships or projects like Advanced Driver help Systems and CARTALK 2000 in Europe, and FleetNet in Germany. VANETs cause several challenges on technology, protocols, and security that increase the requirement for analysis in this field. Transport ad-hoc networks also are exposed to many vulnerabilities and attacks. These vulnerabilities will cause little to severe issues within the network and additionally poses some potential security threats which might deteriorate their functioning. subsequent section offers a general summary of transport communications vulnerabilities. The sender deliberately generates interfering transmissions that stop communication at intervals, their reception vary. Fig. one illustrates that AN assaulter will comparatively simply partition the transport network because the network coverage space (e.g., on a highway) is well-defined, a minimum of regionally, electronic jamming may be a low effort exploit chance. The correctness and timely receipt of application knowledge is major vulnerability. The assaulter forges and transmits false hazard warnings that are concerned by all vehicles. Message fabrication, alteration, and replay may also be used towards impersonation. For instance, an assaulter will masquerade as an emergency vehicle to mislead different vehicles to weigh down and yield.  The inferences on driver’s personal knowledge may be created, and therefore violating his or her privacy. The vulnerability lies within the periodic and frequent transport network traffic: Safety and traffic management messages, dealings based mostly communications (e.g., machine-controlled payments). Authentication and therefore the inherent integrity property counter the in-transit traffic meddling and impersonation vulnerabilities.

Figure 1.

False Position Information:

In VANETs, one important issue is that once devices send false position information in their beacon messages, which may severely impact the performance of the network. A possible supply for such false position knowledge is malicious devices. Hence security in VANETs depends upon the doubtless tougher downside of sleuthing and correcting malicious knowledge. VANETs have special needs in terms of node quality and position-dependent applications , that are well met by geographic routing protocols. One important issue is that once devices send false position info in their beacon messages, this will severely impact the performance of the network. The intents of someone might vary from merely perturbing the correct operation of the system to intercepting traffic changed by standard users, followed by a potential modification and retransmission. This section outlines the results presented within which are caused by falsified position info. Figure 2 shows an example scenario wherever node A claims to be at two further (faked) positions Avi and Avr. supported a greedy forwarding strategy devices forever choose the node nearest to the destination because the next forwarding node. presumptuous that F needs to send a packet to node K, it’ll firstst send the packet to its solely direct neighbor G. G can then forward the packet to the node nearest to the destination from that it received beacons. This appears to be Avr, therefore the packet finally ends up at node A, which may currently forward, modify, or discard it at can. Within the wrong way, the packet from K can visit I, which can once more send it to the assumed best node Avi. thus faking solely two positions, A is able to intercept all traffic on the road

Figure 2.

2. Related Works:

In this paper (1), author introduces a brand new wireless location privacy attack, correlation attack within the context of wireless computer network system, and he has provided an answer called silent amount protocol, to defeat this attack. In this paper author identifies correlation attack as a threat that can’t be defeated mistreatment existing method anonym update solutions and planned the new construct of a silent period to combat correlation attacks. However there are still another unresolved problems before random address are often integrated into wireless communication protocols like 802.11. Silent amount protocol is the beginning for U.S. to comprehend wireless location privacy protection by random address. In another paper (2), its author analyzed a position-based routing approach that produces the use of direction systems of vehicles and compares this approach with non-position-based ad-hoc routing ways (Dynamic supply Routing and Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing). The primary careful micro-level analysis of pathologies for geographic face-based routing protocols, within the presence of location errors in static detector networks was done however the situation errors will severely degrade performance in Location based forwarding schemes, creating correct location data a necessity for many geographic routing protocols. In (3), author discusses misbehaving or faulty network devices, that have to be detected and prevented from disrupting network operation, a drag notably hard to deal with in the life-critical VN atmosphere. Existing networks rely primarily on node certificate revocation for attacker eviction, however the dearth of associate present infrastructure in VNs might intolerably delay the retrieval of the foremost recent and relevant revocation information; this can particularly be the case within the early readying stages of such a extremely volatile and large-scale system. To realize the revocation author designed two protocols tailored to the characteristics of the VN atmosphere. To eliminate the vulnerability window, attributable to the latency for the authority to spot faulty or misbehaving devices and distribute revocation info, we have a tendency to design a theme that may robustly and expeditiously succeed their isolation, likewise also contribute to their ultimate revocation however author has not mentioned on each of the individual elements of our framework. In paper (4), author primarily surveyed how each routing ends up in VANET. He introduced unicast protocol, multicast protocol, geocast protocol, mobicast protocol, and broadcast protocol. It’s discovered that carry-and-forward is that the new and key thought for planning all routing protocols in VANETs. This work surveys existing unicast, multicast, and broadcast protocols for VANETs and therefore the  work also surveys necessary multicast and geocast protocols for VANETs. A mobicast routing protocol in VANETs is additionally delineate and therefore the broadcast protocols in VANETs are introduced and foreseen the tendency of the look of routing protocols for VANETs that should be the low communication overhead, the low time price, and high adjustability for town, highway, and rural environments. In (5), author primarily address the matter of mitigating unauthorized following of vehicles supported their broadcast communications, to reinforce the user location privacy in VANET and propose a theme known as amoeba, that has location privacy by utilizing the cluster navigation of vehicles. In the paper author planned a theme, known as amoeba that has location privacy by mitigating the placement following of vehicles, and protects user privacy by providing vehicles with anonymous access to LBS applications and he mentioned regarding the strength and liability of the planned theme, against active attacks on vehicle safety however here author has not considered the  quality of vehicles that may incorporate intersection behavior attributable to traffic signs and therefore the effects of full streets, combined with map knowledge and with communication traffic models.

3. SYSTEM ANALYSIS:

Existing system:

There have been many proposals for privacy preservation in VANETs. If VANET users use the same ID whenever they send a packet, an attacker could listen to their packets and build a profile of their locations, which hacks their privacy. Hence, pseudonyms were proposed to deceive attackers. The techniques of mix zones, silent period, and ad hoc anonymity were proposed.

Disadvantages:

Privacy leakage by a malicious group leader may occur. A user may not find other users that are willing to enter into mix zone.

Proposed system:

In this project, we propose a novel approach for users to start their connections in the VANET in a secure way. We illustrate a new handover scheme that is particularly suitable for VANETs. We explain a new cryptographic approach that provides much higher security measures compared to existing ones and analyze the performance of our approach using mathematical and simulation means. We suggest two novel mechanisms for data confidentiality and users’ location privacy in VANETs.

Advantages:

Data security is enhanced in our proposed system. Load overhead in RSU is reduced by distribution using time slots and Performance is improved

3.1. Modules

1)   Creating the VANET environment:

We are going to build the vehicles that are inbuilt with the sensors. Setup the RSU’s for the particular coverage area of the vehicles. Build the TA (Trusted Authority) which will check the vehicle entering into the particular coverage area and provide authentication to the user.

2)   Route discovery:

If the source vehicle has no route to the destination vehicle, then source vehicle initiates the route discovery in an on-demand fashion

After generating RREQ, node looks up its own neighbor table to find if it has any closer neighbor vehicle toward the destination vehicle.

If a closer neighbor vehicle is available, the RREQ packet is forwarded to that vehicle.

If no closer neighbor vehicle is the RREQ packet is flooded to all neighbor vehicles.

A destination vehicle replies to a received RREQ packet with a route reply (RREP) packet in only the following three cases:

1) If the RREQ packet is the first to be received from this source vehicle

2) If the RREQ packet contains a higher source sequence number than the RREQ packet previously responded to by the destination vehicle

3) If the RREQ packet contains the same source sequence number as the RREQ packet previously responded to by the destination vehicle, but the new packet indicates that a better quality route is available.

3)   Registration process in the RSU:

All the users in the VANET should register their details in the RSU. After registration the RSU will provide one initial packet key to the user. Using this initial packet key, the user will get information about the other nearby vehicles from the TA.

4)   Vehicular communication using RSU:

In this module, we are implementing a routing protocol to transfer messages between the vehicles through RSU. This communication should be service oriented so that the RSU is not exploited from obtaining the various types of data.

3.2. ALGORITHM:

For participating in a session

Step1: Initially User will send HELLO message to RSU

Step2: RSU prepares user interests and assigns a pseudonym to user

Step3: User identifies that pseudonym and forwards secret key to RSU

Step4: RSU authenticates user by using secret key

Step5: TA will assign packet key to user and user will give ACK

Step6: User will send data request using that packet key and will get data

For switching connection between Road Side Unit’s

Step1: user will send handover request to current RSU

Step2: current RSU will send user next pseudonym and next packet key to new RSU

Step3: Current RSU will send handover confirm packet to user

Step4: User will send HELLO message to new RSU

Step5: new RSU assigns a new pseudonym to user and forwards id

Step6: user will give ACK

Step7: user pending data will access

Step8: new RSU will send data to the user

Results:

Nam out put

Ns has a companion network animator called nam   hence, has been called the ns nam project. NAM interprets a trace file containing time–indexed network events to animate network traffic in several different ways. Typically this trace is generated from an simulation, but it can also be generated by processing data taken from a live network to produce a nam trace.

 

Xgraph

One part of the ns-allinone package is ‘xgraph’, a plotting program which can be used to create graphic representations of simulation results. The xgraph program draws a graph on an X display given data read from either data files or from standard input if no files are specified. In this xgraph we are taking x-axis as number of requirements vs y-axis as delay in micro seconds. Compare to existing system we are having more delay in the proposed system the only reason is we are giving more number of requirements so delay little more compare to existing system.

4. Conclusion:

In this paper, we showed how to ensure security and privacy in service-oriented VANETs with our proposed privacy-preserving data acquisition and forwarding scheme by introducing a novel hybrid cryptographic algorithm for key generation and powerful encryption.

The evaluation of our proposed scheme confirmed its effectiveness in security compared to a existing scheme. In our process we shown how effectively and quickly we can make handover from one RSU to another RSU without delay.

References:

1) “Enhancing Wireless Location Privacy Using Silent Period”, Leping Huang, Kanta Matsuura, Hiroshi Yamane and Kaoru Sezaki.

2) “A Routing Strategy for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks in City Environments” Christian Lochert, Hannes Hartenstein, Jing Tian, HolgerFüßler Dagmar and Hermann Martin Mauve.

3) “Eviction of Misbehaving and Faulty Devices in Vehicular Networks”, Maxim Raya, PanagiotisPapadimitratos, ImadAad, Daniel Jungels, and Jean-Pierre Hubaux.

4) “Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey and Future Perspectives” Yun-wei Lin, Yuh-Shyan Chen and Sing-Ling Lee.

5) “AMOEBA: Robust Location Privacy Scheme for VANET” Krishna Sampigethaya, Mingyan Li, Leping Huang, and RadhaPoovendran.

6) “Survey of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks” Kevin C. Lee, Uichin Lee and Mario Gerla.

7) “ABSRP – A Service Discovery Approach for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks”, BrijeshKadri Mohandas, AmiyaNayak, KshirasagarNaik and NishithGoel.

8) “Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing”, Charles E. Perkins, Elizabeth M. Royer.

9) “ABAKA: An Anonymous Batch Authenticated and Key Agreement Scheme for Value-Added Services in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”, Jiun-Long Huang, Lo-Yao Yeh, and Hung-Yu Chien.

10) “Connectivity-Aware Routing (CAR) in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”, Kevin C. Lee, Uichin Lee and Mario Gerla.

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