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Essay: Octavian Caesar: The First Roman Emperor and His Impact on Western Civilization

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  • Published: 1 February 2018*
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  • Words: 979 (approx)
  • Number of pages: 4 (approx)

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In ancient history, several leaders have come back to the forefront to avoid the destruction of the Roman empire. There are several memorable leaders from ancient Rome; however, one leader stands out from all the remainder. Octavian Caesar was born on September 23, 63 BC in Velletri, Italy. He was the first Roman emperor and re-named Augustus Caesar. He was a significant historical figure and had a massive impact on the western world between the starting point of civilization until the end of the middle ages. Octavian was a very successful emperor as he developed a sincere government, during his time of being the emperor. He rebuilt many of Rome’s structures which include the Roman temples and roads. Although Augustus Caesar did not gain his position quickly, he had his mind set on guiding Rome to its peak. His contributions to Roman history helped build Rome into the dominant empire we still study today.  

As an adolescent, Octavian was showing his leadership skills long before having thoughts of becoming the emperor of Rome. Octavian’s accomplishments as a military leader show a small part of his political skills. After the murder of Octavian’s great uncle, Julius Caesar, in forty-four BC; Octavian teamed up with Mark Antony and Lepidus to form the Second Triumvirate. The Roman Assembly granted the Second Triumvirate full power for five years. With the help of the Roman Assembly, the three men fought anyone who dared to oppose them.

In 42 BC, Octavian and his two companions put a temporary stop to the Civil War of the Roman Empire. They defeated the republicans which were led by Brutus and Cassius. As a reward for this, they divided the empire between themselves. Antony was given the East, Lepidus received management of Gaul and Kingdom of Spain, and Octavian received Italy. Though this wasn't just a good gift for young Octavian. He had the tough task of settling the veterans of the Italian Republic. He has to redistribute all the land and forcibly expel any of the previous landowners. As time passed, Octavian eventually led Lepidus into retirement and won management of all the western provinces.

By 32 BC, all of Italy and the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian. After this oath, Octavian switched his mindset to moving against Antony for the total control of the Roman empire. The Battle of Actium in 31 BC was arguably one of the crucial battles within the history of the Empire. Upon the previous defeated by Octavian, Antony fled to Egypt together with his lover Cleopatra. In the subsequent year in Egypt, Octavian and his army once more defeat Antony. Consequently, Antony and Cleopatra both chose to end their own lives. Following victory at the Battle of Actium, Octavian was finally the sole ruler of Rome and every one of its provinces.

Upon the passing of Antony, Octavian pronounced the reclamation of the Republic of Rome. However, he did not expect to venture down as ruler. In 27 BC, with a great deal of propaganda than truthfulness, Octavian put the republic at the hands of the Senate and furthermore the Roman people. The Senate with experience knew that he could not rule Rome successfully. The Senate named Octavian the official commander of the army and control of crucial outskirts areas. Other than these enormous forces, he also had control over the necessary privileges of a tribune. Octavian's position was as of now legitimized by the Senate's request for him to take charge and lead Rome. He was given the military order, called Imperium for a decade. The official name of Octavian progressed toward becoming Imperator Caesar Augustus. From that point he would be called Augustus.

Augustus got the tribunician control everlastingly and accepted the role of the ruler of the  Roman people. He also got the right to mediate in those territories controlled by the Senate. The foundation of Augustus’ control originated from being Imperium of the military. The main part of the army wasn't kept in Italy, where rebellious commanders would potentially interest with the Senate and ascend in a rebellion. Augustus made sure that all of his troops and military officers were of Roman descent and that he ran his army with Roman traditions. He thought that this would make the people filled with pride and love for the Roman Empire.

To bring back the ethical standards of the past, he established a code of laws and social programs. The rules remodeled the family, that gave the total power of the family to the oldest male. These laws mentioned such things as encouraging wedding and having children with punishment to those who are not married by the age of thirty. Married men were fined for not having children and tax breaks were given to people with three or more children. Augustus’  laws additionally gave the male head of house the decision to who their kids would marry, where they would end up spending their lives, and what profession they might pursue.

Some portion of Augustus' prosperity originated from his capacity of being able to communicate with the people of Rome. With that strength of being able to interact with his people, it made Augustus a great politician. His young and lively demeanor made it straightforward for the people of Rome to talk with Augustus. Despite being a tremendous leader, he dressed like any other man in Rome. He wouldn't wear the ridiculous outfits of the upper class. The popularity of Augustus was so widely known that people were offering him to be the ruler until his death. Even after he passed away, people demanded that they celebrate him as a divine being.

History remembers the greatness of Augustus. He led Rome into becoming a wealthy and peaceful country for hundred years. The history of Rome would be forever changed if Augustus hadn't existed.

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