Antibiotic resistance is a cause for growing concern because of its increasing prevalence, costs to the economy and disastrous impacts on human health . The transmittance of antibiotic resistance genes has enabled livestock to be a source of resistant infections in humans. In the United States alone, 15.6 million kilograms of antibiotic were sold for food producing livestock in 2015 . This accounts for 80% of all antibiotics sold in the United States , .
Livestock is a primary concern for antibiotic introduction to the environment because, depending on the antibiotic of interest, 30 – 100% can be excreted as waste – This excreted residual can persist in soil and water and select for antibiotic resistance . The presence of excreted residual of antibiotic resistance genes is of particular concern because of horizontal gene transfer. [ CITE] * Discuss the mechanisms of HGT
Composting is the process of biodegrading organic matter into a humus-like material rich for soil application. It has been identified by the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) as a method of reducing the  Three stages of compost communities have been identified  tetW and sul1were also discovered.
This study examines three different composting set ups from antibiotic fed cattle. Both dairy and beef manure was collected and composted following the static and turned FSMA guidelines –an anaerobic static – in bench scale composting tumblers . The second trial was a heat controlled, bench scale composting tumbler at the FSMA required thermophilic temperature of >55ºC. This trial focused only on static, dairy manure compost but still compared medicated and untreated manure. The final trial was a full-scale and focused only on static composting of dairy manure with and without antibiotics.
Macrolide, sulfonamide, lincosamide, tetracycline, cephalosporin class antibiotics are regularly used in the cattle industry have been classified as such as tylosin, chlorotetracycline, sulfamethazine, pirlimycin, cephapirin have been classified as which are all regularly used in the cattle industry have been shown to remain in soils for up to XX time. (CITE)
Talk about different types of antibiotics and how ours fit in the WHO standards
Antibiotic resistance is then environmentally selected for and can propagate through the system via horizontal gene transfer.
Why intl1, sul1, tetW – qpcr
Compost was analyzed for manure-derived isolates using MacConkey agar because it selectively factors gram negative enteric bacteria [CITE]. Ten isolate coliforms were then chosen from each of the finished composts and subjected to Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion to determine their resistance profiles.
The purpose of this study was to determine the affect manure composting had on the antibiotic resistance gene abundance and community of medicated beef and dairy cattle.
An important aspect of this work was to test the impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) guidelines for biological soil amendments.
Beef steers are typically treated fed antibiotics as a mix in their diet to prevent disease, treat disorders and ensure they
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