The growth of the okra plants, or Abelmoschus esculentus, under different treatments of manure and weed compost was evaluated and studied. The study was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness of the organic composts on the growth of the okra plant and conclude which option is more effective. The study used different concentrations of manure composts and weeds composts of the Bermuda Grass or Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. particularly at concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 75%. The results of each concentration group is compared to the results of the control group. To evaluate the effectiveness of the study the researchers will measure the number of leaves, the number of branches, the size of the shoots, and the dry weight of the okra plants.
Key words: okra plant; manure compost; weed compost; growth of plant
1.1 Background of the Study
The Philippines is dominantly an agricultural country (Rodriguez, 2015). One of the major sources of livelihood and enterprise in horticulture that’s beginning to gain popularity is the growing of crops (Nueke, Ijeauru, & Igili, 2013). Nueke, Ijearu, and Igili (2013) state that the reason for this is the now greater appreciation of its food values.
The Okra vegetable, also known as ‘Ladies’ Fingers’ in various English-speaking countries, is a major crop in Asia, particularly in the Southeast (Nueke, Ijeauru, & Igili, 2013). According to the National Research Council (2008), due to its nature to grow in warm temperatures, it is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions around the world.
Its stem is used as fiber while its leaves are used as food and for cattle feeding (Nueke, Ijeauru, & Igili, 2013). It has numerous health benefits and it is known to help prevent diabetes, thanks to the fibers it contains. 50% of kidney disease cases are caused by diabetes but regular consumption of Okra can lead to reduced signs of kidney damage (Nueke, Ijeauru, Igili, 2013). Neuke, Ijearu, & Igili (2013) also discussed that the consumption of Okra is known to aid respiratory issues because it is enriched with Vitamin C, a nutrient effective in treating respiratory problems.
It can be concluded that okras are beneficial foods not just in terms of their culinary value but also for their health benefits. However, increase in the produce is sometimes not always met. In fact, production in these crops, particularly the Okra, has been at a low due to the lack of soil fertility. (Nueke, Ijeauru, & Igili, 2013).
The increase in the production of these crops rely on the type and amount of fertilizers to be used. Chemical fertilizers provide the essential nutrients for plants to grow on the soil (Rai, Ashiya, Rathore, 2014). However, chemical fertilizers have been a scarce commodity (Nueke, Ijeauru, Igili, 2013). Though they are available, they are beyond the reach of farmers due to their high costs (Nueke, Ijeauru, Igili, 2013). Nueke, Ijearu, and Igili (2013) exemplified that over 70% of vegetable farmers in Enugu State, South East Nigeria have no access to mineral fertilizer due to high cost and scarcity.
In some cases, the use of chemical fertilizers eliminates earthworms because the salt raises the acidity level of the soil (Rai, Ashiya, Rathore, 2014). There are also tendencies in which the use of chemical fertilizers leads to the damaging of the plant itself because of the high amounts of Nitrogen found in the fertilizer. This does not only affect the plants, it affects our environment as well (Rai, Ashiya, Rathore, 2014). The excess Nitrogen can lead to the release of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. This happens when the plant can no longer handle and soak up the chemical fertilizer.
Chemical fertilizers also have the ability to contaminate both the land and water, which can lead to the detriment of plant growth. As time goes by, soils with synthetic chemical fertilizers lose their soil quality as well as its water holding capacity. Resulting in a need to use more amounts of these harmful chemical fertilizers to cultivate the damaged soil and stimulate plant growth (Hunt, 2015).
Organic fertilizers elevate the growth quality and fertility of plants. Most organic fertilizers can be produced locally which is why it is much more accessible than chemical fertilizers.
Unlike chemical fertilizers, animal waste and overgrown weeds are in abundance to many farms and contain nutrients that may make them candidates to alternatives of chemical fertilizers. Animal manure, particularly those of pigs, goats, and cows, are noted to supply valuable organic matter such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium which improves soil filth, and increases water-holding capacity (University of Alaska Fairbanks [UAF], 2013). Animal manure is known for its slow release of nutrients over an extended period of time. Weeds, especially those with ling taproots, have accumulated valuable nutrients from the soil that they store in their roots and leaves (Stephenson, 2015). This present study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the alternatives and determine which is more effective.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Chemical fertilizers, despite being crucial to the growth of crops, are too expensive and inaccessible to farmers. This study aims to find an alternative through different tests of poultry manure and Bermuda grass weeds compost on the Okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus).
1.3 Specific Objectives
The objectives of this study are to:
1. Determine the effects of the different concentrations of poultry manure and Bermuda grass weeds composts on the shoot height, number of leaves, and dry weight of the Okra plants.
2. Determine which among the compost fertilizers are more effective by comparing the measurements of shoot height, number of leaves, and dry weight of the Okra plants exposed to certain concentrations of the said fertilizers.
3. Conclude and determine whether the compost fertilizers can be used as alternatives.
1.4 Null Hypothesis
1) There is no significant difference between the shoot heights of the poultry manure composts group, weed composts group, and negative control groups.
2) There is no significant difference between the shoot heights of the poultry manure composts group (regardless of concentration) and weed composts group (regardless of concentration).
3) There is no significant difference between the number of leaves of the poultry manure composts group, weed composts group, and negative control groups.
4) There is no significant difference between the number of leaves of the poultry manure composts group (regardless of concentration) and weed composts group (regardless of concentration).
5) There is no significant difference between the dry weight of the poultry manure composts group, weed composts group, and negative control groups.
6) There is no significant difference between the dry weight of the poultry manure composts group (regardless of concentration) and weed composts group (regardless of concentration).
1.5 Significance of the Study
In order to ensure the healthy growth of crops, the soil they’re planted in must be in good condition. Soils naturally contain many nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, and potassium which are allow plants to grow (UAF, 2013). When soil nutrients are missing or in short supply, plants suffer from nutrient deficiency and stop growing. When the nutrient level is too low, the plant cannot function properly and produce the food necessary to feed the worlds’ population. Once crops are harvested for human consumption, the natural supply of nutrients in the soil must be ‘re-filled’. This is why farmers add nutrients to their soils. Nutrients can be added from a variety of sources, organic matter, chemical fertilizers, and even by some plants. This maintains the soil fertility, so the farmer can continue to grow nutritious crops and healthy crops (‘SOILS MATTER, GET THE SCOOP,’ 2015).
In this study, the researchers aim to find which fertilizer is more effective to use in growing crops. Farmers will be the benefactors of this study as they will be aware of which organic fertilizers can be used to grow crops.
1.6 Scope and Delimitations
The study covers only the effects of the poultry manure and weeds composts on the Okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus). The study will measure the number of leaves, the size of the shoots, and the dry weight of the okra plants. To evaluate the effectiveness of the alternatives, the researchers will only be comparing the shoot height, number of leaves, and dry weight of the plants to different concentrations of the composts of up to thirteen weeks to a control (untreated) group.
Additionally, this study will not be comparing the alternatives to chemical fertilizers but rather to untreated soils. The researchers will also not be looking into the effects of the alternatives to soil organisms, soil tilth, the fruits’ edibility and its nutritional components, however, they will be discussed and mentioned briefly throughout the study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Antioxidant. Harcourt (2010) defines antioxidant as a substance that slows down the oxidation of hydrocarbons, oils, fats, etc. and thus helps to check deterioration: antioxidants are added to many products, esp. foods and soaps.
Compost. Referred to the decayed organic material used as plant fertilizer.
In this study, compost will refer to all concentrations of the poultry manure and weeds composts used as fertilizer to the okra plants.
Deficiency. Harcourt (2010) defines deficiency as the quality or state of being deficient; absence of something essential; incompleteness.
Horticulture. Harcourt (2010) defines horticulture as the art or science of growing flowers, fruits, vegetables, and shrubs, esp. in gardens or orchards.
Manure. Refers to the animal feces and droppings used to fertilize land.
In this study, manure refers to the composted droppings of chicken.
Okra. Nueke, Ijeauru, & Igili (2013) defines Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) as a major crop in the Asia particularly in the Southeast.
In this study, Okra refers to the various plants the researchers will be exposing to different concentrations of the composts.
Scarce. Harcourt (2010) defines scarce as not common; rarely seen.
Tilth. Harcourt (2010) defines tilth as a tilling or being tilled; cultivation of land.
Weed. Refers to the growing unwanted wild plants that is in competition with cultivated plants.
In this study, weed refers to the composted weeds of the Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.).’
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ([FAO], 2015), agriculture and food production is based on healthy soils as they supply the essential nutrients that support food quality and quantity. Soil is vital to our ecosystem for it plays a role in the carbon cycle, it stores and filters water, it aids in the quick recovery from floods and droughts, and it is essential in the process of adapting to climate change (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], 2014). FAO (2014) also mentioned that healthy soils provide the foundation for food, feed, fuel, fiber, and even medical products necessary in the well-being of humans. It is composed of healthy bacteria, fungi, nematodes, arthropods, minerals, and earthworms, which is why without healthy soil there is a great risk of having a global problem as stated by Stephenson (2015). Unfortunately, we are losing 33 percent of all global soil resources according to FAO (2014). The great demand for soil has led to the reduction of its ability to perform all its essential functions (FAO, 2014). The availability of food is reliant on the quality of the soils it is planted in (FAO, 2015). Fertilizers are nutrient-supplying chemicals treated to the soil make it more fertile for plant growth and production (‘fertilizer’, 2013).
According to Flynn (n.d.), plants need 16 elements for normal growth. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, a few of the said 16 elements, are derived from the atmosphere and soil water (Silva & Uchida, 2000). The remaining 13 essential elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, boron, molybdenum, and chlorine, are supplied either from soil minerals and soil organic matter or provided by fertilizers (Silva & Uchida, 2000).
However, synthetic fertilizers kill a large percentage of a soil’s naturally-occurring microorganisms (Corriher, n.d). These bacteria would normally break down organic matter into plant nutrients, and help convert nitrogen from the air into a plant-usable form which can destroy the atmosphere (Corriher,n.d). Fertilizers such as DAP, Urea and CAN tend to lower the soil pH, which causes acidity and leaching of essential nutrients from the soil; any crop planted in such soil cannot do well (‘Organic fertilizers Have Many Benefits’, 2015).
The effectiveness and success of weeds and manure as fertilizers rely on their soil organic matter content. Soil organic matter is the product of decomposition that affects the chemical and physical properties of the soil (FAO, 2015). This literature review aims to discuss previous studies about animal manure and weeds and leaves as an organic fertilizer. This chapter also aims to summarize previous journals showcasing the results of previous experiments regarding animal manure and weeds and plants.
In various developing nations globally, animal manure has been a source of local fertilizer (Gulshan et. al., 2013). It not only provides nutrients for production, but it also supplies valuable organic matter (Gulshan et. al., 2013). University of Alaska Fairbanks (2013) stated that animal manure has three major elements which are nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium. Aside from these elements, animal manure also contains: boron, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, sulfur, and zinc (UAF, 2013). These were all mentioned to be the factors needed to have good soil fertility and plant growth as stated by Oregon State University in one of their works for National Forage & Grasslands Curriculum (n.d).
The stated elements, collectively called organic matter, improves soil tilth, increases the capacity for holding the water, lessens erosion, and improves soil aeration (UAF, 2013). When this organic matter is added to the soil, the micro populous acts upon the substance (Tisdale & Nelson, 1958). As cited in Gulshan et al (2013), activation of soil microbial biomass improves the soil fertility. For example, most vegetable crop returns small amounts of crop residue to soil (Gulshan et al., 2013). Gulshan et al (2013) stated that this is why the manure and the other organic amendments helps to maintain the soil organic matter levels. Applications of manure also sustains cropping system because it helps with having a better nutrient recycling.
UAF (2013) stated that there are six ways to determine the value or effectiveness of the animal manure. First being the class of the animal you are getting the manure from. The second one being the kind of food that the animal consumed or is consuming. Third is the kind of the bedding used. Fourth is the method of handling. Then the fifth being the rate and the method of application. And lastly, the kind of soil and crops on which the manure is used.
Despite the potential of manure as fertilizer, not all animal manure are effective fertilizers. Manure of some animals are not recommended to be used as human food fertilizers, such as cat and dog manure (UAF, 2013). UAF (2013) stated that the animals mentioned above can have diseases and parasites that can be transmitted to the plants or soil that they were used for. UAF (2013) also mentioned that people should also avoid using the manure of animals that consume hay, for the reason that hay may contain grass seeds and weeds, which can contaminate the soil or the fields.
Gulshan et al. (2013) stated that using manure and compost properly is essential for manufacture and environmental perspective. Nutrient deficiency and low yields can be achieved if manure rates are applied too lowly (Gulshan et al., 2013). Gulshan et al (2013) clarified on the other hand that too much application can lead to phosphorus runoff, leaching of nitrate, excessive (vegetative) growth of some crops, and accelerated eutrophication of lakes. The nutrients found in manures are slowly released and are stored longer in the soil, it ensures longer residual effects, improving the root development and the crop yields becomes higher (As cited in Gulshan et al., 2013).
Improving the environmental conditions and reducing the fertilizing crops cost are the reason why it is advocated to use organic materials (As cited in Gulshan et al,. 2013). The researchers advocate using animal manure because as Gulshan et al (2013) cited, the use of inorganic fertilizer has declined, and it is due to energy crisis that has affected most of the developing countries. Inorganic fertilizers have become insufficient, and even if they are available, their prices are beyond the affordability of the poor, especially the farmers (Nweke, Ijearu, & Igili, 2013). Nweke et al. (2013) stated that 70% of vegetable farmers of Enugu State, South East Nigeria have no access to chemical fertilizers due to their high cost and scarcity.
According to Brown (2011), weeds contain rich minerals and important nutrients that are essential for the survival of plants. These nutrients, which can be found in the roots and leaves, include: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, boron, copper, manganese, sulfur, iron, and silicon. Furthermore, Brown (2011) stated that before manufactured fertilizers were available on hand, gardeners made use of what they had at that time, thus making organic fertilizers out of weeds.
According to FAO (2014), an estimation of a third of all soils are degraded because of erosion, compaction, soil sealing, salinization, soil organic matter and nutrient depletion, acidification, pollution, and other processes that are due to the unsustainable land management malpractices. Unless new ways will be practiced, there will be a great decline in the available and consumable land by the year of 2050 (Silva, 2015). To avoid these instances, weeds can be used as fertilizers for it is the simplest and most convenient way of replenishing the lost nutrients into the soil and bringing them back to their healthy state (Stephenson, 2015).
Kowalski (2014) stated that dead materials that possess the ability of rotting can be recycled and turned into something useful. The decay and decomposition of plants that will take place after death will provide material for new life (Kowalski, 2014). According to Kowalski (2014), when a plant dies, the carbon and nutrients will remain in its fibers. These fibers can be found in their stems, roots, wood, bark, and leaves (Kowalski, 2014). They will only be broken down by the release of enzymes from microbes and large fungi (Kowalski, 2014). The enzymes will aid in snipping apart the chemical bonds that hold the fibers’ molecules together which will lead to the release of its nutrients including glucose (Kowalski, 2014). Kowalski (2014) states that this glucose is taken up as food and used by plants to grow other sugars and fuel all of their activities, ranging from breathing, to growth and reproduction. Decaying plants such as weeds make good fertilizer for they add carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and about two dozen other nutrients that are essential in the growth of living things during its process of decomposition (Kowalski, 2014). Nadelfhoffer (n.d) states that removing fallen or rotting leaves from a forest will lead to the production of less organic matter because there are no longer decomposing leaves present to supply the nutrients that are vital to plants. Furthermore, soils without decaying leaves have a harder time releasing nutrients back to plants (Nadelhoffer, n.d). According to Nadelhoffer (n.d), in no- till farming the growers just leave the decaying plants on their fields, instead of plowing them during the harvest of crops. In return, the soil is healthier and carbon-rich because as the plant decays most of its carbon comes back to the air as carbon dioxide but some of it, together with nitrogen and other nutrients stay in the soil and makes it more fertile in order to sustain plant growth (Nadelhoffer, n.d). By keeping the decaying leaves in the plants, farmers do not have to spend much time for fertilizing or plowing, this reduces soil erosion and runoff that leads to the loss of nutrients in the soil (Nadelhoffer, n.d). Flannery (n.d) states that decomposition of organic matter results to the production of organic acids that work together with iron and aluminum ions to reduce their potential toxicity in plants. There is also an increase in the available phosphorus for plants from the free iron and aluminum which tie up the phosphates (Flannery, n.d).
Composting is the process of decaying organic materials in order to make compost, an organic material that is used to enhance garden soil (Masabni, 2016). Masabni (2016) states that there are many benefits in making compost, which includes improving the soil’s characteristics such as its temperature, texture, water and nutrient holding capacity, as well as providing the essential nutrients needed by plants, and lastly it helps aerate the soil. The key to successful composting is by properly doing it (Masabni, 2016). Acccording to Flannery (n.d), the final product should be a dark, friable, partly decomposed substance resembling natural organic matter from the soil. Adding leaf compost to soil will make its cultivation process easier because the soil tilth is improved (Flannery, n.d). Overall, plant compost improves the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils (Flannery, n.d).
2.4 Comparisons of Experiment Results of Previous Studies of Manure and Weeds as Fertilizers
Manure and weeds both contain nutrients that are viable for plant growth and are both used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers (Brown, 2011; UAF, 2013). Weeds have mined minerals and nutrients from the soil that are stored in their roots and leaves (Brown, 2011), and manure contains organic matter and essential micronutrients (UAF, 2013).
In the journal ‘Effect of Different Sources of Animal Manure on the Growth and Yield of Okra’ authored by the Nweke, Ijearu, and Igili in 2013, it was concluded from the results that crop yields were improved and the okra responded well to the treatments. A similar study conducted by Gulshan, Saeed, Javid, Meryem, Atta, and Amin-ud-Din (2013) titled ‘effects of animal manure on the growth and development of okra’ shows a similar result: the yield components of Okra were bettered due to the application of Okra.
In the 2013 study conducted by Nweke, Ijearu, and Igili, it was recorded that there was a larger number of flowers yielded in the okra plant treated with poultry manure compared to other groups (including the control). Nweke, Ijearu, and Igili (2013) also reported that poultry manure has the highest concentration of nutrients and was able to release these nutrients to the okra plant at a much faster rate than other sources of manure.
However, the results of their experiments show that there was no significant amount of increase with the number of leaves, branches, and plant height of the treated groups with the control groups. Even the manure treatment with the highest parameter [poultry manure] shows no statistically large different in the height, and leaf and branch numbers (Nweke, Ijearu, & Igili, 2013).
Despite the near none statistical difference in the results, the use of animal manure in crop production will yield improved organic matter status, the availability of nutrients in the soil, and ensures the stability of the soil structure (Nweke, Ijearu, & Igili, 2013).
Weeds can be used to fertilize the soil through composting. Composting is the process of decaying organic materials in order to make compost which can be used to enhance the soil. Kowalski (2014) stated that the decay of plants will provide material for new life and thus, weeds compost, due to the amount of nutrients present in its system, can add more nutrients to the soil.
These propositions were supported by Kowalski (2014) who stated plant decomposition could provide for new life. Stephenson (2015) adds in that using weeds as compost is a convenient way of replenishing lost nutrients to the soil.
Despite the evidences proving both of the subjects as alternatives to chemical fertilizers, no definite point of comparisons can be drawn between manure and weeds as fertilizers due to the lack of data available regarding the latter.
Weeds and animal manure are both used as fertilizers at present (UAF, 2013; Brown, 2011).
Animal manure, particularly of poultry’s, has been proven to be effective alternatives to chemical fertilizers through numerous researches, however, documented effects and studies of weeds as a fertilizer are yet to be determined.
Due to the lack of study in particular area, a comparison between the manure and weeds is difficult to draw out. There is a lacking of experiments conducted to have points of comparison between the two subjects, and thus, this study should be conducted to determine which is a better alternative.
This chapter presents the materials and instruments that the researchers will be using throughout the experiment, the place/setting where the researchers will be conducting the experiment and collecting the samples, and the procedure the researchers will be using to conduct the experiment. The main purpose of this study is see the effectiveness of animal manure and weed plants as a fertilizer in the plant growth of okra.
3.2 Research Methodology/Design
The present study is experimental and will be using poultry manure composts and weed composts as fertilizers on the okra plant. A negative control group will be used by the researchers. Composting will be used on the weed and manure to make them as fertilizers which will then be treated to the okra plants. The experiment will be using five replicates for each group.
The following materials/instruments will be used in conducting this research:
Preparation for the Dead Weed compost
‘ Decayed Bermuda Grass will be used as a sample/subject of the study
‘ Garbage bags will be used as a container of dead weeds to keep them dry
‘ Heat or Sun will be used to keep the composting process going
‘ Gloves will be used to keep the hands clean when planting
‘ Measuring Cup will be used to measure
‘ 3-gallon pot will be used for the okra plants
‘ About 100 g of loam soil will be used for each replicate group
Preparation for the Poultry Manure Compost
‘ Animal Manure will be used as a sample/subject of the study
‘ Oxygen will be used to stimulate aerobic microorganisms that feed on the organic components
‘ Scale will be used for measuring
‘ Gloves will be used to squeeze the manure
‘ Water will be used if the manure is too dry
‘ 3-gallon pot will be used for the okra plants
‘ About 100 g of Loam Soil will be used for each replicate group
In this experimental study, the researchers will be using poultry manure composts and weed composts as fertilizers to test the effectiveness of it on the growth of the Okra plant.
In order for the researchers to get the results, the researchers will be using weed and animal manure compost. Okra that will be receiving the treatments will be the experimental subject of the study. On the other hand, Okra that will not be receiving the treatments will be the control group.
The researchers will be using five different plant containers for each treatment with one control group for each treatment.
Animal Manure Compost will be having three treatment groups: 25% manure compost (75% soil), and 50% manure compost (50% soil) , and one control group with 0% manure compost. This set-up is adapted to determine at which rate is the manure most effective for the growth of the okra, and the control group is set as the basis of comparison for all the treatments. The treatments will be added before the plants are transplanted.
Weeds compost will adapt the same set-up as the manure compost and will be having three treatment groups: 25% weed compost (75% soil), and 50% weed compost (50% soil), and one control group with 0% weed compost.
To determine the results of the experiments, the researchers will be adapting the method of measuring of Nweke, Ijearu, & Igili (2013) by counting the number of leaves, and shoot height of the plants. The measurements will then be compared to the control group.
The researchers will also be measuring the dry weight of the okra plants as a measurement as using dry weight as a measure of plant growth tends to be reliable (Mulanax, 2005).
The fertilizer that the researchers will be using is dead weeds and animal manure. The researchers will be collecting the dead weeds at Mabiga, Mabalacat, Pampanga, Philippines. The researchers will also be collecting poultry manure from a farm in Mexico, Pampanga, Philippines. The researchers will be conducting the experiment at Mabiga, Mabalacat, Pampanga, Philippines.
The dry weighing will be conducted in the Chemistry Laboratory of the Angeles University Foundation, Angeles City, Pampanga.
The researchers will be composting the dead weeds and animal manure then will be using okra seeds to determine the effectiveness of the organic fertilizer to the growth of the Okra.
Collection of Plant
The okra plants will be bought at three weeks old from Magalang, Pampanga.
Collection of Animal Manure
Animal manure will be collected from a farm in Mexico, Pampanga.
Collection of Weeds
Bermuda Grass weeds will be collected in Mabalacat City, Pampanga and will be sent to the University of the Philippines-Diliman for authentication.
Weed Plant Compost
For the preparation of weed plant compost, about 1 kilogram of weeds will be used. The weeds will be washed by tap water before being placed in a bin with water and moisture. A lid is placed on the bin and to be left under the heat for a week and a half. By the end of the fermentation process, the compost will be taken out of the bin to be placed in a sac for treatment.
Three groups of treatments with different concentrations will be prepared: 25% compost (75% soil) and 50% compost (50% soil). A control group with 100% soil will be prepared as the basis of comparison. The compost will be placed in the plant container before transplanting.
Animal Manure Compost
For the preparation of animal manure compost, about 1.0 kilogram of animal manure will be used. The manure will be softened before being placed in a bin with water and moisture. A lid is placed on the bin and to be left under the heat for a week and a half. By the end of the fermentation process, the compost will be taken out of the bin to be placed in a sac for treatment.
Three groups of treatments with different concentrations will be prepared: 25% compost (75% soil) and 50% compost (50% soil). A control group with 100% soil will be prepared as the basis of comparison. The compost will be placed in the plant container before planting.
Measurement of Height
The researchers will be measuring the plant shoot height from the base of the shoot to the highest point of the stem.
Measurement of Number of Leaves
The researchers will be counting all grown and growing (including sprouting leaves).
The plants will be uprooted then placed on a black plastic bag to be exposed to sunlight for the next 48 hours.
After the plants have been dried, they will be sealed inside a plastic bag for protection and easy transportation.
The plants will be weighted using the top loading balance.
The soil used will be loam soil.
Chapter IV shows the results of the measurements over the ten time periods. The chapter tackles the results of the ANOVA data analysis and independent T-test analysis as well as the averages of the measurements for each of the control and experimental groups. The two-way ANOVA results, one-way ANOVA results, and independent T-test results can be found in Appendix A.
Table 1.1 shows that among the seven groups, the manure 25% group had the highest average of plant shoot heights with 22.08 cm, while the manure 50% group yielding the lowest average of plant shoot heights with 8.784 cm. The manure 25% group is on average taller than the control group by 5.568 cm.
Table 1.1 Average Shoot Height of the Control and All Experiment Groups (in centimeters or cm)
Control Manure25 Manure50 Weed25 Weed50
Average 16.512 22.08 8.784 20.486 20.274
P-value (two-way ANOVA) = 0.9456
Table 1.2 (refer to Appendix A) shows the shoot heights of the Okra plants over ten time periods. The P-value (two-way ANOVA) of 0.9456 is greater than the alpha level of 0.05 (refer to Appendix A for ANOVA results). There is no significant difference among the shoot heights of the five replicates of the control group, weed 25% group, weed 50% group, manure 25% group, and manure 50% group over the 10 periods.
Therefore, at 5% level of significance, there is sufficient evidence to support the claim that there is no significant difference between the effects of the manure composts and weed composts on the growth of Okra compared to the negative control group.
Table 1.3 shows the side-by-side final measurements of the manure and weed composts groups (regardless of concentration). An independent t-test was conducted and the P-value is equal to 0.1918 and is greater than the alpha level of 0.05. There was no significant difference found between the scores of the manure and weed composts in regards to shoot height. Table 1.3 also shows that the weeds group is taller by an average of 6.55 cm than the manure group.
Table 1.3 Shoot Heights of Manure and Weed groups
Manure 27 30 29 21.5 40 0 0 0 23 23 19.35
Weeds 32 33 24 16 31 25 25 20 27 26 25.9
P-value (T-test) = 0.1918
Table 2.1 shows the average number of leaves of the plants in the control, manure composts, and weed composts groups. It is worth nothing that the weed 50% group has the highest average number of leaves with 4.34 leaves per trial while the manure 50% group yields the lowest average with 1.66 leaves per trial. The reason for the manure 50% group’s zero average is because 3 of the plants did not lived past 6 weeks.
The weed 50% group has, on average, more leaves than the control group by 1.74 leaves.
Table 2.1 Average Number of Leaves of the Control and All Experiment Groups
Control Manure25 Manure50 Weed25 Weed50
Average 2.6 3.38 1.66 4.06 4.34
P-value (two-way ANOVA) = 0.7236
Table 2.2 (refer to Appendix A) shows the number of leaves of the Okra plants over ten time periods. The P-value (two-way ANOVA) of 0.7236 is higher than the alpha level of 0.05 (refer to Appendix A for ANOVA results). There is no significant difference among the number of leaves of the five replicates of the control group, weed 25% group, weed 50% group, manure 25% group, and manure 50% group.
Therefore, at 5% level of significance, there is sufficient data to support the claim that there is no significant difference between the effects of manure composts, and weed composts to the untreated groups on the growth of Okra.
Table 2.3 shows the side-by-side final number of leaves of the manure and weed composts group (regardless of concentration). An independent T-test was conducted and the P-value is equal to 0.0363 and is less than the alpha value of 0.05. There is a significant difference found between the scores of the manure and weed composts. The weed groups, on average, has more leaves than the manure group by 3.8 leaves.
Table 2.3 Final number of leaves count of manure and weed composts groups
MANURE 6 5 4 4 5 0 0 0 6 4 3.4
WEED 11 0 4 9 10 15 3 6 11 3 7.2
P-value (T-test) = 0.0363
Table 3.1 (refer to Appendix A) shows the dry weights of the five trials of each of the groups. The P-value (one-way ANOVA) of 0.4172 is greater than the alpha level of 0.05 (refer to Appendix A for ANOVA results). There is no significant difference among the dry weight of the five replicates of the control group, weed 25% group, weed 50% group, manure 25% group, and manure 50% group.
Therefore, at 5% level of significance, there is sufficient data to support the claim that there is no significant difference between the effects of manure composts, and weed composts to the untreated groups on the growth of Okra in terms of its dry weight.
Table 3.2 shows that the manure 25% group has the highest average of dry weight among the groups with an average dry weight of 5.22 grams. The manure 25% group, on average, is heavier by 3.65 grams than the control group.
Table 3.2 Average Number of Dry Weight of the Control and All Experiment Groups (in grams or g)
Control Manure25 Manure50 Weed25 Weed50
Average 1.57 5.22 2.242 4.778 4.842
P-value (one-way ANOVA) = 0.4127
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