The chemical structure of how the food will pass down the digestive system will vary on the different enzymes that are used within this process. Enzymes such as the amylase, protease and lipase are the main enzymes which are used within the digestive system. These main enzymes will reacted in certain ways which can breakdown starch, proteins and lipids into essential components which are needed for the body. This is the reaction for the enzymes:
Amylase Starch -> Sugars
Protease Proteins -> Amino Acids
Lipase Lipids -> Fatty Acids + Glycerol
This is the process of the breakdowns of the essential components needed within the digestive system. Within each of these main enzymes they are used within different areas of the body which will break down certain foods that enter the body. Amylase is found within the salivary glands, pancreas and the small intestine. The protease is found within the stomach, pancreas and the small intestine and the lipase is found in the pancreas and the small intestine. Also Pancreas and the small intestine contains all three of the main enzymes as they do the most work to provide the body within the essential components that it needs. When the food enters the mouth these enzymes will start working on the food and breaking it down within small steps. By the time the food has reached the small intestine it will be churned into a small jelly like substance which will then travel to all the essential components from it to the areas in the body which need them.
The molecules being broken down from each of the enzymes are as followed:
Amylase (breakdown from starch -> sugars):
Lipase (breakdown from lipids -> fatty acids + glycerol):
Protease (breakdown from proteins -> amino acids):
The digestive system handles with many different nutrients which pass through the body. The nutrients such as fats and proteins are vital for everyday life in the body. As the nutrients pass through the bodies digestive system they undergo a process where the nutrients will be eventually passed into the blood of the body. Enzymes such as amylase, protease and lipase are the main enzymes within the digestive system that break down all the main nutrients within the foods which will then be passed into the blood stream and proceed to all the muscles and tissues that need the nutrients. Due to the bile from the liver and all three of the main enzymes, the food is broken down into a liquidized form for when it reaches the small intestine. Nutrients such as fats and proteins will be passed onto the muscles within the body. The way this will form into the blood, the liquid will be a thin like substance and will pass through the intestinal wall as it absorbs all the main nutrients needed.
The main nutrients which are in the body will be stored in certain organs for use when the body needs to use them. Carbohydrates within the body are mainly the starch which is given off from bread is broken down within the blood to produce glucose for the body to use when it is needed. The glucose will be stored within the liver and used only when the body needs energy. Protein is also a main nutrient which you need in order to build and repair different body tissues. The protein will be broken down into amino acids which will then be absorbed into the small intestine and passed around the body within the blood. Some of the nutrients will be passed onto certain cells in order to make ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
ATP is used in the everyday routine. ATP is used for energy levels within the body and is used when the body needs energy. The ATP can work well with the glucose when it is taken in from certain foods. ATP is needed by a cell more than glucose and is used majority of the day for all the cells and organs within the body. The glucose is used to create the ATP and some is stored extra in the liver for other uses. As ATP will deliver all the energy needed to the cells the glucose is used in some of the main organs. The breakdown of the glucose within the organs is produced in certain steps and is known as Respiration.
The respiratory system allows oxygen to enter the blood by passing through the main organs within the body. The main parts of the respiratory system are the airways, lungs, blood vessels which are linked to the lungs and the muscles which enable the body to breath. The air that we breathe will send the oxygen to the heart through the pulmonary vein. Once this has happened, the oxygen with pass around the heart so that enables the blood to be pumped around the body. This is worked by the oxygen gets passed onto the right side of the heart which will then send the oxygen to the lungs. The lungs will then send the oxygen back to the left side of the heart. When this gets to the left side of the heart it will be oxygenate more and will then be passed onto the cells from the left side of the heart. This will be a process which happens all throughout a lifetime as it is the double circulatory system. Once the cells have the oxygen they need the body can help with the production of all the nutrients that are needed. The change of the gases within this system plays a vital part within the human body. In the heart the blood gets from the right side of the heart and sends it to the lungs for it to be purified. Once it has been purified it will then be sent to the right side of the heart for the process to continue to the cells all around the body. As we breathe in the oxygen this process will start, and will always happen when you breathe. The carbon dioxide which is in the body is removed from all the cells within the body with the form of diffusion. This also travels to the heart with oxygen but will be passed out of the body when we exhale. If we were not to breathe out the carbon dioxide it would damage the cells within our body as there would be too much carbon dioxide in the blood.
The blood pumps around the body with the use of the heart, arteries. Veins, capillaries, blood vessels and lungs. The blood will work on sending the highly oxygenated blood to all the organs which is needed in everyday life. As the high oxygenated blood is pumped to the organs and cells around the body, but the deoxygenated blood is passed to the lungs ready for the human to breathe it out. The three main types of blood vessels are the arteries, veins and capillaries. The arteries are there to carry the highly oxygenated blood away from the heart to the main organs and cells in the body. The veins play the opposite role to the arteries as they carry the poor oxygenated blood back to heart and the capillaries are small, thin blood vessels which are all around the body. The capillaries allow all the nutrients, oxygen and carbon dioxides to travel to and away from the tissues and organs in the body. The heart is the main organ within this operation as it is the start and end of the double circulatory system. This is the system where the blood enters one side of the heart and passes through to the lungs, then goes back from the lungs to the opposite side of the heart which is then left the body as the carbon dioxide. The system will work to keep the body alive and working as oxygen is needed to all of the tissues and organs around the body.
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